6,515 results for Scholarly text

  • The Microeconomics of Television Markets

    Hurren, Konrad (2014)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

    I consider the literature surrounding the television market. Two important issues in the literature are: the market's two-sided nature, and bundling of channels. I discuss how an asymmetric pricing structure arises in television markets. The literature on bundling in the television market is reviewed, with some authors finding that bundling is a first best solution. Other authors show that a la carte pricing is socially optimal. Interestingly, there is consensus that mixed bundling is unambiguously worse than pure bundling and a la carte. Public service broadcasting is described in four English speaking countries to provide context. Failures in the television market are identified and some policy responses are discussed. I include literature analysing a price cap on basic cable packages and a domestic content requirement.

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  • New Zealand learning environments: The role of design and the design process

    Alsaif, Fatimah Mohammed (2014)

    Doctoral thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Learning environments are important spaces because these are where primary school children spend many hours. These environments can vary from single cell classrooms to modern open plan learning studios. As the design of these learning environments can affect the learning outcomes of students, their design and the design process behind them are important fields of investigation. Involving the users of learning environments in the design process is an important factor to be considered. Studies overseas stress the importance of involving teachers and students in the design process of learning environments. However, studies about learning environments in New Zealand show less consideration for the internal layout of classrooms and the involvement of users in their design process. Thus, this thesis studies and compares the design process behind learning environments in New Zealand with those overseas and the effect of this involvement on the design of primary school internal learning spaces, specifically classrooms. The aim of this thesis is create an understanding of the design process behind primary school classroom learning environments in New Zealand. To achieve the aim, this thesis undertakes five phases of study. The first phase is surveying primary school teachers and architects who design educational spaces, about the design and design process of learning environments in New Zealand. The survey results show that both teachers and architects support participatory design in schools and wish for more student user involvement. The second phase is a trial using social media to encourage more teacher and student participation in designing learning environments. Wordpress and Facebook groups were used for this experiment and teachers and students of primary schools in New Zealand were invited to participate. The trial result appears to indicate that social media does not work in encouraging students and teachers in thinking about the design of learning environments in general without having a specific project as a focus. The third phase is a workshop gathering five teachers and one architect to discuss the detail of the design process behind learning environments in New Zealand. The workshop result suggests that again participants support participatory design but suggest the need for guidance on how to do this, possibly from the Ministry of Education. The fourth phase is a case study of the early stages of a re‐build project for Thorndon Primary School in Wellington city. The case study included interviews, focus groups, observations, and collecting documentation. The main conclusion from the case study is that all parties to the project were in support of participatory design but would have benefitted from guidance as the whole design process and user involvement in it is unclear. The last phase is also case studies but here the focus is on the design process for rearranging the internal layout of two classrooms in two primary schools in Wellington city. The case studies covered observing the involvement of students in the design process, some classroom and brainstorming sessions, and interviews with teachers. The main result of this phase is the observation that students enjoy working on the design of their own environments and that they are able and ready to work as part of such a design process. The key conclusions of this thesis are that all parties involved in this research supported user participation in the design process, but in all the cases investigated there is almost no proper participatory design; students enjoy designing their learning environments and that enjoyment makes them belong and connect to these more; and proper preliminary guidelines for participatory design in learning environments could improve and encourage user involvement in designing learning environments in New Zealand.

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  • Impact of changes in cartography and mapping on the selection of cartographic materials in New Zealand map libraries

    Bagnall, Mark James MacLaren (2002)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Changes to cartography and mapping in New Zealand have had impacts on map library identification, evaluation and selection of maps and other tools that convey spatial data. In semi-structured interviews, five map librarians gave their views on how changes to cartography and mapping affects the selection of cartographic materials. Data gathered from managers/technicians of geographic information systems laboratories were also used in the research. The results indicate that New Zealand's specialist map libraries are developing their collections and services to include electronic cartographic resources. This collection development tends not to be the result of forward looking collection policies that outline a vision and strategies for integrating hardcopy and electronic cartographic materials into collections and services. The results also indicate that map librarians are adapting their selection practices to cater for the special requirements of new cartographic information resources and to overcome some of the difficulties related to the reshaping of the mapping industry in New Zealand.

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  • Regulation of prediction markets under the Financial Markets Conduct Act 2013

    Farmer, Kelsey (2014)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

    The Financial Markets Conduct Act 2013 (FMC Act) represents the most substantial overhaul of New Zealand’s securities law in recent history. The regulation of derivatives in particular featured high on the agenda as an area in need of reform and, as a result, the FMC Act is much clearer than the Securities Markets Act 1988 with respect to typical derivative agreements. The focus of this paper, however, is on the atypical: the use of derivatives in prediction markets. With a study of New Zealand-based prediction market iPredict, this paper examines whether iPredict will be regulated under the FMC Act and, if so, how it will be regulated. The conclusion reached is that iPredict can operate under the FMC Act only if the Financial Markets Authority (FMA) declares that its contracts are derivatives and grants substantial exemptions from regulatory compliance. This paper then makes recommendations for a more coherent approach to the regulation of prediction markets under the FMC Act.

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  • “Migration with Dignity”: Towards a New Zealand Response to Climate Change Displacement in the Pacific

    Farquhar, Harriet (2014)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

    The impacts of climate change threaten to cause the displacement of millions of people worldwide by the middle of this century. In spite of this looming crisis, international law provides insufficient protection to those who will be forced to migrate. In most cases, those who are displaced will fall outside of current protection frameworks. This paper examines why this protection deficit should be of particular concern to New Zealand, and it argues that there are significant incentives for New Zealand to develop a response to the issue of climate change displacement in the Pacific. The paper concludes that in order to ensure Pacific peoples are able to migrate with dignity, pre-emptive, voluntary migration schemes should be put in place to facilitate migration flows. These should build upon the current immigration framework, and include the extension of current permanent and temporary migration schemes, as well as the introduction of labour-training migration schemes.

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  • The Role of Health Profession Regulation in Health Services Improvement

    Allison, M. Jane (2015)

    Doctoral thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    This research investigates the role of health practitioner regulation in health service improvement. Over the last 25 years, service improvement has included management reforms, quality and redesign programmes, multidisciplinary teamwork, the integration of clinical information systems, and new roles for health professionals. Yet despite sustained effort, improvements tend to be localised rather than organisation or system-wide. Remedies have included attention to leadership, change management and service culture. Through the same period, there have been changes to expand and strengthen health practitioner regulation, but scant attention to whether this regulation could contribute to difficulties with health service improvement. A critical realist methodology was used to build an explanation of how regulatory policies could condition health professionals and health service organisations in ways that limit the progress of service improvement. A multilevel approach was used to discover the mechanisms that could operate among policy-makers and the health workforce, generating effects in health service organisations. The study concluded that this explanation contributes new insights to explain persistent difficulties in health service improvement. The research began with the 19th century to understand the social conditions in the construction of the health workforce and health service organisations. Next, it identified the network of modern regulatory stakeholders in healthcare, along with the potential for their policies to operate in conflict or concert depending on the circumstances. Deficiencies were identified in the traditional accounts of health practitioner regulation, which assumes a single profession and sole practice. ‘Regulatory privilege’ was developed as an alternative theory that describes the operation of nine historically constructed regulatory levers among the multiple health professions employed in health service organisations. This theory linked the regulatory and practice levels, to observe the interactions between health practitioner regulation and policies for health service improvement. Drawing on the recent history of health reforms, eight elements were identified that characterise directions for service improvement in healthcare. Investigation of interactions between these nine levers and eight elements identified sources for policy interactions through six sector levels. Interactive effects were identified in: policy design influenced by health practitioner regulation; the leadership and management capability in health service organisations, the design options for delivery of services, the means available to coordinate services, the role opportunities and practice arrangements for health professionals, and the experience of service fragmentation by consumers. This multilevel explanation shows how health practitioner regulation could contribute to difficulties with service improvement, even when health services have adopted best practice in their implementations. It shows how poor alignment between the regulatory and practice levels makes it unlikely that health service organisations could address certain difficulties in the ways suggested by some scholars. Given the sustained directions for health service improvement, these findings could contribute to policy thinking around how to better align the regulatory and practice levels to realise organisation or systemwide improvements in the delivery of healthcare.

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  • Symptoms of neglect: Trust claims under the Limitation Act 2010

    Comrie-Thomson, Paul (2014)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

    New Zealand's limitation legislation was overhauled with the enacting of the Limitation Act 2010. Despite this comprehensive reform, the way in which trust claims are best to be addressed appears to have been largely overlooked in the reform process. Consequently, the multitude of historic issues that have plagued statutory provisions dealing with trust claims endure in the 2010 Act, with the few changes to the structure of drafting compounding these problems. This paper explores the policy considerations at work, and, by way of example, undertakes a thorough analysis of the exception for fraudulent breaches of trust in light of these policy considerations to illustrate some of the new problems that are bound to arise in practice. Given the numerous and significant difficulties, and the substantial implications for parties seeking to rely on these provisions, this paper argues that a broad reconsideration of the way in which trust claims are dealt with in the 2010 Act is urgently needed.

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  • Hung out to dry? Questioning the legality of Southland baby-farmer Minnie Dean's 1895 murder trial and execution

    Davis, Sophie (2014)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

    In 1895 Minnie Dean became the only New Zealand woman to receive the death penalty. In the Invercargill Supreme Court she was found guilty of the murder of Dorothy Edith Carter, a child Minnie had recently adopted, who was found buried in her garden alongside two other infants. Branded a vindictive baby-farmer, Minnie Dean was widely condemned by the New Zealand press and public during the four months between her arrest and execution. This paper will assess whether, amongst the mania, Minnie was afforded a fair criminal trial and sentencing. It will be argued that while Minnie’s fate was largely predetermined from the moment of her arrest, against 1895 legal standards, correct criminal procedure was generally followed. Despite this, when comparing her trial and sentencing with contemporaneous murder trials, it is evident that Minnie Dean received no procedural clemency.

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  • Exploring Mechanisms of Change in the Rehabilitation of High-Risk Offenders

    Yesberg, Julia A. (2015)

    Doctoral thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    The success or failure of many different types of treatment is often measured by one type of outcome. For example, treatment for substance abuse might be judged to have failed if a patient “goes on a bender” some time after completing the programme. The same is true for offender rehabilitation. Treatment success or failure is usually determined by whether or not an offender is reconvicted of a new offence in a specified follow-up period. We know from the literature that offender rehabilitation can have modest but significant effects on reducing recidivism. Yet we know little about what brings about these reductions (i.e., how the treatment worked). This thesis explores possible mechanisms of change in offender rehabilitation. I propose that although a reduction in recidivism is an important long-term outcome of treatment, there are a number of additional outcomes that have the potential to explain not only if but how treatment works and why it is unsuccessful in leading to a reduction in reoffending for some offenders. Study 1 is a typical outcome evaluation of New Zealand’s rehabilitation programmes for high-risk male offenders: the High Risk Special Treatment Units (HRSTUs). I compared the recidivism rates of a sample of HRSTU completers with a comparison sample of high-risk offenders who had not completed the programme (a between-subjects design). I found that relative to the comparison group, treatment completers had significantly lower rates of four different indices of recidivism, varying in severity. The remainder of the thesis explored possible mechanisms of change within the HRSTU sample (a within-subjects design). Study 2 examined immediate outcomes of treatment, which I defined as within-treatment change on dynamic risk factors. I found that offenders made significant change on the Violence Risk Scale during treatment, but there was no significant relationship between treatment change and recidivism. Studies 3 and 4 examined intermediate outcomes of treatment, which I defined as barriers (risk factors) and facilitators (protective factors) that influence the process of offender re-entry. Study 3 validated an instrument designed to measure these factors: the Dynamic Risk Assessment for Offender Re-entry (DRAOR). I found that the tool had good convergent validity and reliably predicted recidivism above a static risk estimate. Study 4 used the newly validated DRAOR to test an explanation for the lack of a direct relationship between treatment change and recidivism. I tested whether treatment change had an indirect relationship with recidivism through its influence on the re-entry process. I found that treatment change was related to a number of re-entry outcomes; however, only two models could be tested for mediation because the re-entry outcomes themselves lacked predictive ability. Nevertheless, findings from Study 4 suggest the re-entry process is an area worthy of further investigation. Taken together, the findings from this thesis highlight the importance of considering alternative treatment outcomes in addition to whether or not a programme leads to a reduction in long-term recidivism outcomes. Answering the question of how treatment works requires an exploration into possible mechanisms of change. This thesis was only a preliminary investigation into such mechanisms; however, the findings have both practical and theoretical implications for the way we conceptualise how treatment programmes work. Developing a greater understanding of mechanisms of change in offender rehabilitation has the potential to lead to the design and delivery of more effective programmes.

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  • Electronic and magnetic properties of two dimensional crystals

    Hatami, Hani (2015)

    Doctoral thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    In the last few years, two dimensional crystals have become available for experimental studies. Good examples of such systems are monolayers and bilayers of graphene and monolayers of transition metal dichalcogenides such as MoS₂ and WSe₂. The availability of two dimensional crystals has encouraged physicists to study the electronic and magnetic properties of such systems. This thesis adds to the theoretical knowledge about electronic and magnetic properties of two dimensional crystals with the focus on graphene and MoS₂. As a general theme in this thesis, we calculate how in general these systems interact with electric and magnetic fields and what their response is to such stimuli. In particular, we have studied the response of monolayer graphene to an in-plane electric field. We have also looked at spin-orbit coupling effects that arise from applying perpendicular or in-plane external electric fields, especially their consequences for transport properties of bilayer graphene. We investigated the electronic properties of charge carriers confined in a mesoscopic ring structure using a gate voltage in bilayer graphene. We also showed how spin-orbit coupling can affect the electrical properties of such rings. We found how spin-orbit coupling can affect the transport properties in bilayer graphene. We also investigated the RKKY or indirect exchange coupling between magnetic moments in monolayer MoS₂ through calculating wave vector dependent spin susceptibility. We examined the electronic properties of electrons and holes confined electrostatically into a bilayer graphene ring. We presented an analytical solution for finding energy levels in the ring. We showed that the magnetic field dependence of the lowest energy level with fixed angular momentum in bilayer graphene rings, in contrast to usual semiconductor quantum rings, is not parabolic but displays an asymmetric “Mexican hat“. We found that introducing spin-orbit coupling in the ring can flatten this Mexican hat. We studied the effect of an orbital Rashba type effect, induced by an in-plane electric field in monolayer graphene. Using perturbation theory, we showed that this term can affect the energy levels in a crossed electric and magnetic field such that the electron and hole levels repel each other. We calculated the AC transport of monolayer graphene in the linear-response regime and showed that taking the orbital Rashba term into account casts doubt on the universality of the minimum conductivity of monolayer graphene. We studied the effect of spin-orbit coupling in transport properties of bilayer graphene systems by calculating tunnelling through npn and np junctions. We showed that at sufficiently large spin-orbit strength, normal transmission through a barrier which is forbidden in bilayer graphene becomes finite. We predict that in a weak Rashba spin-orbit regime, outgoing electrons show signals which are spin polarized. We also showed that considering spin-orbit coupling only in the barrier of an npn junction can invert the spin of the incoming electrons. Finally, we obtained analytical expressions for the wave vector-dependent static spin susceptibility of monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides, considering both the electron-doped and hole-doped cases. These results are then applied to the calculations of physical observables of monolayer MoS₂. We claculated that the hole-mediated RKKY exchange interaction for in-plane impurity-spin components decays with a different power law from what is expected for a two-dimensional Fermi liquid. In contrast, we calculated that the out-of-plane spin response shows the conventional long-range behaviour.

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  • Pursuing Self-determined Responses to Climate Change in the Cook Islands: Exploring the Interface between Government Organisational Directive and Local Community Engagement with Climate Change Adaptation

    Lusk, Anabel (2015)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Small island communities are considered to be amongst the most ‘at-risk’ populations in the world to the impacts of climate change. Global, regional and national entities have framed the plight of Pacific communities through climate change discourses. This study contributes to an emerging line of inquiry that investigates how applying the concepts of ‘vulnerability’ and ‘resilience’ to frame communities might contribute to community empowerment, or marginalisation. Focused on the institutional setting of the ‘Strengthening the Resilience of our Islands and our Communities to Climate Change Programme’ (SRIC Programme), this thesis explores the engagement between government organisations of the Cook Islands and communities of Aitutaki to form adaptation responses to climate change. Qualitative methodologies coupled with Pasifika methodologies provide a culturally responsive approach to the research. This approach accommodated local narratives and indigenous knowledges throughout the study. The findings from semi-structured interviews suggest that Cook Islands government organisations increasingly frame Aitutaki communities through the concept of ‘resilience’. Interviews with community representatives suggest that Aitutaki communities use indigenous knowledges to make sense of changes in their local environment, without always understanding the science-based notions of climate change. Engagement approaches such as ‘knowledge sharing’, could offer a pathway to increasing community autonomy and confidence in climate change discussions, whilst also contributing to enhancing socio-ecological resilience. To maintain a ‘critical’ political ecology approach, governmentality theory was used to explain how power relations might be embedded in resilience discourse. Insight is offered into how the government-community relationship could enable ‘technologies of government’ as the SRIC Programme progresses. It is suggested that the social conditions of Aitutaki communities could pose sites of resistance to governmentality. Recently implemented, the SRIC Programme demonstrates potential for supporting self-determined responses to climate change and enhancing socio-ecological resilience in Aitutaki.

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  • The Effect of Remote Ischaemic Preconditioning on the Immune Response

    Williams-Spence, Jennifer Mae (2015)

    Doctoral thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Remote ischaemic preconditioning (RIPC) describes the phenomenon where brief intermittent periods of limb ischaemia are used to protect the heart and other organs from subsequent prolonged ischaemic insults. RIPC has been identified as a promising intervention for use during cardiac surgery and has consistently shown a beneficial effect in animal models; however, the results of early clinical trials have not been as successful. The exact mechanisms involved in mediating RIPC have not yet been characterised and a better understanding of the pathways through which RIPC exerts its protective effects will be essential in order to progress the translation of this intervention into the clinical setting. There is increasing evidence that RIPC modifies the inflammatory response, therefore the central aim of the research presented in this thesis was to investigate how RIPC affects the human immune system. We performed a double-blind randomised controlled trial of RIPC in 96 high-risk cardiac surgery patients and found no evidence that the intervention reduced myocardial injury or altered peri-operative expression levels of the key inflammatory cytokines, interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, and IL-10, during simple or more complex procedures. There was a trend towards higher levels of IL-6 and IL-8 in the preconditioned patients; however, confounding variables in the trial design and the heterogeneous patient population limited our ability to interpret the results. We next conducted a paired-analysis trial with 10 healthy male volunteers to assess the direct effect of preconditioning on the early immune response, away from any form of ischaemic injury or comorbidities. We found that RIPC directly and significantly decreased serum levels of the chemokines MIP-1α and MIP-1β, but did not increase the serum concentrations of a range of key cytokines or alter the cytokine producing potential of peripheral blood leukocytes. These findings strongly suggest that a cytokine is not likely to be the humoral mediator associated with transmitting the RIPC protective signal. RIPC did not alter the immunophenotype or extravasation of peripheral leukocyte populations, or the proliferative and cytokine responses of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) to pharmacological, physiological, and antigen-specific stimuli. However, preconditioning did appear to reduce the ability of monocytes and neutrophils to respond to activation signals, as indicated by lower levels of CD11b expression in stimulated cultures, and a significant increase in the basal production of IL-22 was also detected in PBMC cultured for 6 days following preconditioning. These alterations may reduce neutrophil and monocyte tissue infiltration and limit the inflammatory response during the early window of RIPC-induced protection and enhance tissue and wound repair several days later. A multivariate analysis confirmed that there was a significant difference in the response between the control and RIPC treatments and the main contributing factors were identified as changes in neutrophil and T cell activation, serum levels of MIP-1α and β, and production of IL-10 and IL-22 from PBMC cultured for 6 days. Overall, our results suggest that RIPC has a subtle but direct effect on the systemic innate immune response during the early window of protection in healthy volunteers, whereas the effects on the adaptive immune system seem to be considerably delayed. The changes detected following RIPC are likely to contribute to protection against ischaemia-reperfusion injury but not solely account for the extent of the beneficial effects of RIPC detected in animals. Our findings reinforce the safety profile of this intervention and have defined a number of immune parameters that are altered by preconditioning for focusing future research.

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  • Fostering new spaces: Celebrating and growing a diverse economy in Cape Town, South Africa

    Hosking, Emma Noëlle (2015)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    This thesis explores and celebrates diverse understandings and experiences of the economy through the narratives of four people working in Cape Town, South Africa. The diversity and multiplicity of the economy has been made invisible by a capitalocentric economic discourse which casts alternative ways of being as uncredible and weak. Thus, from a post-development/community economy perspective, I seek to foster a space in which non-conventional economic and political practices are seen as relevant and valid sites for action, where hope for a better future can be enabled. Living in the segregated city of Cape Town, I began to question the polemic framing of the country‟s “two economies”, a framing which disregards the actions of ordinary people who are improving the well-being of their communities directly, in favour of neoliberal pro-growth strategies. Therefore, I interrogate the binaries used to describe the economy and scale of action so as reimagine other possible trajectories for transformation. In so doing, I trace some of the relational connections that the participants articulated and employed on a daily basis so as to foster a sense of place beyond dualistic notions of scale and politics. I also contend that if we are to appreciate the community economy as a significant and persistent site of struggle, there is a need to understand politics as happening beyond the horizon of direct mobilisation. Through these reframings I work to reinsert the experiences and perspectives of spatially and economically marginalised people and places into implications in broader issues. I approach this research from a post-structural, feminist stance, not only to deconstruct the supposed dominance of the capitalist economy, but also to contribute to a project of growing a diverse economic discourse and enabling people to occupy this terrain and reclaim their agency. Hence, using ethnographic and visual collaborative methodologies I aim to promote and value the agency and autonomy of ordinary people who are performing, dreaming, enacting, connecting and enabling a broad horizon of opportunities in hybrid, multi-scalar ways. Therefore, alongside its conceptual contribution of enabling other economic possibilities, I hope that this thesis adds to a conversation about the need for methodologies to be realised as part of a broader movement towards transformation and change.

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  • The employment information needs of people with intellectual disabilities

    Henry, Andrew (2012)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Three dimensions of Nick Moore’s (2002) model of social information needs: agents, mechanisms and form, were used to analyse the employment information needs of people with intellectual disabilities in New Zealand. Through semi-structured interviews with people with intellectual disabilities, care givers, disability professionals and supported employment providers it was found that people with intellectual disabilities have great difficulty looking for employment information and that information alone is not enough to encourage people with intellectual disabilities into pursuing employment opportunities. Previous experiences and expectations played a strong role in discouraging information seeking. Many participants were nervous about beginning to look for employment information as they had very little previous experience in doing so, and held reservations about their chances of being successful. Printed information is not very relevant and tailored or personalised information is the most effective, preferably delivered verbally, in person. Trust and authority were important aspects of information for all of the participants. Structural barriers around minimum wage exemptions and employment subsidies were mentioned as significant by the employers and supported employment agencies. A lack of promotion, due to resource constraints of these services was also sighted as a major barrier and employers believed there was a lack of awareness of the extent of the support available in workplaces. The confidence derived from achieving educational and vocational qualifications is often denied to people with intellectual disabilities through educational structures and the ways in which knowledge is tested and demonstrated. This study has shown this to be a major factor influencing the employment information seeking process of people with intellectual disabilities.

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  • Kopi, Cooperatives, and Compliance: A Case Study of Fair Trade in Aceh, Indonesia

    Walker, Heather (2015)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    A development initiative at its core, fair trade endeavors to provide better trading conditions for disadvantaged producers in the world market system, such as smallholder coffee farmers, who face a volatile market and prices that have yet to recover from a deep price crisis in the early 2000s. With the onset of labeling and certification, fair trade entered the mainstream by the late 1990s, and has continued to demonstrate strong growth in sales. Moreover, new producer organizations are becoming certified in an expanding number of countries, and fair trade coffee is expanding beyond its traditionally dominant productive center in Latin America. To explore how fair trade is established, and interacts with, new producer contexts, a case study was performed with five fair trade certified coffee cooperatives in Aceh, Indonesia, all of whom have gained certification within the last 10 years, was performed. This thesis sought to understand the particularities behind how fair trade reached Aceh, what factors influenced its implementation, and how coffee producers experience their participation in the fair trade movement. Further, particular attention was paid to the practice and formation of the cooperatives’ structures and policies; fair trade requires that coffee farmers are organized into democratically owned and governed cooperatives, an institution relatively unpracticed in Indonesia.

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  • Imprimōtype: A new experience of analogue photography through tactility, tangibility and sacrifice

    Kong, Sarah Rhonda (2015)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    This thesis began as a critical response to digital photography. It takes an in depth look at the transition of photography from analogue to digital, and the impact of this transition on the culture of photography. This design-led research features a series of experiments that cross and merge the boundaries between digital and analogue photographic processes to offer an alternate experience of photography by tangibly re-evaluating the relationship between the camera and the photograph. Finally, this thesis leads to the creation of the ‘Imprimōtype,’ (Literally ‘print type’) a sacrificial camera that provides an alternate experience of photography rich in physical tangibility, tactility, anticipation, reward and emotional connection to the resulting photograph that comes only with temporal investment and connection in the photographic process.

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  • Influences of fisher attitudes and behaviour on regulation non-compliance: A case study from the Marlborough Sounds, New Zealand recreational blue cod fishery

    Thomas, Alyssa S. (2015)

    Doctoral thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Although it has been noted that fisheries is 90% managing people, most management regimes focus solely on the other 10%; the biological aspect. Furthermore, despite the growing popularity of recreational fishing and increased awareness of its biological effects, there exists even less literature on the human dimensions in this domain than in commercial fisheries. In New Zealand, the Marlborough Sounds recreational blue cod fishery is strictly regulated, due to its popularity and a top-down management regime, with limited fisher involvement. Despite substantial biological information on the fishery, there is only one piece of human dimensions research, carried out before the current management regime came into force. This thesis responds to calls for greater integration of human behaviour into fisheries analyses and management. Specifically, the aim is to explore fisher attitudes towards and compliance with the fishery regulations. The research presented here is a combination of intercept and online surveys of over 500 fishers and is interdisciplinary in nature. Four related studies, aimed towards publication, provide important insights for a more inclusive management style in the future. The first chapter examines fisher attitudes and the factors shaping them, a poorly understood area. Responses reveal that although overall, fishers were dissatisfied with the current regulations, inexperienced and non-locally-resident fishers display more positive attitudes towards the regulations. The second core chapter examines regulation non-compliance, a worldwide fisheries problem that can undermine the effectiveness of a management regime. As rule-breaking behaviour is often a sensitive behaviour, two indirect methods (Randomized Response and Item Count) are tested against direct questioning in estimating violations of three recreational blue cod fishing regulations. Results show mixed effectiveness for the indirect methods, with a significantly higher estimate of non-compliance estimate obtained for only one of the three regulations. The third core chapter uses structural equation modeling to examine the drivers of non-compliance with the size and daily limits for blue cod. Knowledge of these drivers is essential to increasing voluntary compliance with the regulations and these results demonstrate that social norms are the largest influence for both the regulations. Finally, the fourth core chapter examines the potential effects of the maximum size limit on the number of blue cod discarded as well as fisher satisfaction and compliance. A scenario approach reveals that either increasing or eliminating the maximum size limit could offer significant gains compared with the control scenario. The four chapters contribute to the global literature on subjects including fisher attitudes, estimating sensitive behaviours, drivers of non-compliance, discards in recreational fisheries and natural resource management. Taken together, the results reaffirm the benefits of including the human dimensions in fisheries management regimes. For the Marlborough Sounds recreational blue cod fishery, a shift away from the current, top-down and biologically focused management regime is suggested. I also argue that a more inclusive management strategy may be the best chance for success and allow the fishery to be saved for future generations; a goal shared by both fishers and management.

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  • Diverse Education for Diverse Economies: The relevance of Rural Training Centres in the Solomon Islands

    Fleming, Kathryn (2015)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Education is considered the cornerstone of development, essential to achieving economic and social goals. Under the powerful global education agenda, the western model of formal education has been implemented hegemonically in developing countries. This model largely prepares young people for a role in the formal economy in an urban environment, overlooking fundamental questions of purpose and relevance for local context. In the Solomon Islands, where 85% of the population reside rurally, such opportunities often do not exist or reflect local livelihoods. Rural Training Centres (RTCs) are informal vocational institutions that sit outside of the dominant education paradigm by aiming to prepare young people for local livelihoods. Through informal and vocational learning, they offer an alternative to urbanisation, supporting self derived and locally based livelihoods. Paradoxically, for this very reasons they are often disregarded at the government and donor level. From a postdevelopment perspective, this thesis considers the roles and relevance of RTCs under a wider conceptualisation of economy and knowledge than is applied in mainstream development practice. Using qualitative and ethnographical methodologies, this research investigates local understandings of RTCs as an education alternative through the voices of young people, women and the wider community. The inter-related aspects: economy, education, and development, are considered in two case study communities, Gizo and Vatu, providing a semi-urban/rural comparison. Using a Diverse Economies Framework (Gibson-Graham, 2005), this thesis reveals a more realistic picture of the myriad of activities that support local livelihoods exists. The formal economy is found to play a secondary role to informal and direct economic practices. Similarly, under a pluralistic view of education that accepts the legitimacy of traditional, cultural and indigenous knowledge, the aspirations of young people are found to be deeply rooted ‘at home’. Yet, this research argues that they do not conform to a simplistic modern-traditional dichotomy. Rather they reflect cultural hybridity, a third space ‘in between’ where different knowledges are transformed and negotiated. Despite criticisms, RTCs were positively viewed at a community level. They were considered to fill a vital gap left by the formal education system, support local livelihoods and help stem the flow of urban migration. They also offer an opportunity to support women in existing gender roles, as well as expand existing cultural educational boundaries. However, RTCs are facing pressure to standardise and formalise in order to attract greater government and donor funding. This reflects wider tensions in development policy and practice that favour the universal and the global over the local, and brings to light the inherent power disparity in the aid relationship.

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  • Assessing the motivations of New Zealand’s International Interventions: From Practice to Theory

    Mitchell, Matthew (2015)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Since the end of the Cold War New Zealand has participated in numerous international interventions, both within the Asia-Pacific region and further afield. As a small state with limited resources and influence what have been the primary motivating factors that have influenced New Zealand’s decisions to intervene? Can the decisions to intervene be best explained by realism, liberalism, constructivism, or a combination of these theories? This essay will assess the motivating factors for New Zealand’s involvement in international interventions by analysing four case studies where New Zealand participated in an intervention – Bosnia, East Timor, Afghanistan, and the Solomon Islands. This essay will also assess whether the motivating factors for intervening within New Zealand’s geographic region differ from those outside its region, and whether there is a difference in approach taken by the two main political parties in New Zealand – Labour and National. The essay concludes that while there were elements of realism and constructivism in the decisions to intervene, liberalism provides that best explanation for the decision to intervene in three of the four case studies. The fourth case study, the Solomon Islands, is best explained by the realist factors of regional security and upholding New Zealand’s relationship with Australia. The essay finds that while the motivations for intervening in three of the four case studies were similar, the motivations for intervening within the Asia-Pacific region were slightly more realist. The motivations to intervene were similar regardless if National or Labour were in government.

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  • Interpersonal conflict between employees and managers: The Chinese immigrants experiences of acculturation in New Zealand public sector workplaces

    Wang, Yi (2015)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    With the increase in globalisation and migration, the future workplace will become more culturally diverse. Significant literature points out that culturally diverse workplaces can create organisational conflict because of the workers’ differences in cultural values, attitudes, and work styles. New Zealand, like other countries, has also faced the challenge of an increasingly diverse workforce. Although the associations between cultural diversity and conflict management styles in different countries have been widely discussed, the existing literature focuses more on comparison studies with participants who are from different countries. There is a lack of research investigating Chinese employees who live overseas and work in overseas organisations. Research on how young Chinese migrants cope with conflict in New Zealand organisations is scarce. The purpose of this study is to explore Chinese migrant employees’ preferences for styles of conflict management and the reasons they perceive these styles, as well as the influence of acculturation and ethnic identity orientation. The study argues that acculturation, the process of cultural change, is one of the factors that relates to the use and perceptions of different conflict management styles. This study explores how immigrants who have acculturated, learned and adopted their host society’s cultural characteristics, perceived and faced conflict issues in the workplace. More particularly, this study investigates how the role of ethnic identity influences different conflict management styles. A qualitative phenomenological method is employed in this study to obtain a deeper picture of conflict phenomena among Chinese migrant employees who have been through the process of acculturation. This method is useful for describing the lived experiences of conflict and acculturation. The data consisted of twenty one in-depth interviews with Chinese migrant employees from mainland China who work in twenty different New Zealand public sector organisations. The findings of this study reveal that due to their acculturation experiences, interviewees have developed an integrated bicultural identity that is rooted in good feelings about being New Zealanders, accompanied by a positive sense of Chinese ethnic identity. They view their own identity as a combination of both New Zealand and Chinese identities. Depending on the situation and the nature of their interpersonal relationships, interviewees can switch between these two identities without a problematic struggle. Based on the influence of this integrated bicultural identity, the study finds that young Chinese migrant employees prefer to use a combination of integrating and compromising conflict management styles. The tendency to use integrating conflict management is highly influenced by their adaptation to New Zealand cultural values and attitudes. Being New Zealanders gives these bicultural Chinese migrant employees confidence to confront and integrate conflict directly, and solve it in cooperative manner. The findings also show that Chinese beliefs and values continue to be maintained. The principles of Confucianism are deeply rooted and included showing mutual respect, avoiding embarrassment to other parties, controlling emotions or psychological impulses. Under the influence of being Chinese, young Chinese migrant employees incline towards compromising style depending on the circumstances. However, if integrating and compromising styles fail to resolve the conflict because the other party refuses harmony and escalates the conflict, young Chinese migrant employees would change their strategies by asking for third-party interventions and seeking for a sense of justice and fairness.

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