6,736 results for Scholarly text

  • Grasp

    Cann, Rosemary (2016)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    A screenplay.

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  • In the Neck of Time

    Poojary, Snehal (2016)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Numerous studies over the past decade have investigated to making human animation as realistic as possible, especially facial animation. Let’s consider facial animation for human speech. Animating a face, to match up to a speech, requires a lot of effort. Most of the process has now been automated to make it easier for the artist to create facial animation along with lip sync based on a speech provided by the user. While these systems concentrate on the mouth and tongue, where articulation of speech takes place, very little effort has gone to understand and to recreate the exact motion of the neck during speech. The neck plays an important role in voice production and hence it is essential to study the motion created by it. The purpose of this research is to study the motion of the neck during speech. This research makes two contributions. First, predicting the motion of the neck around the strap muscles for a given speech. This is achieved by training a program with position data of marker placed on the neck along with its speech analysis data. Second, understanding the basic neck motion during speech. This will help an artist understand how the neck should be animated during speech.

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  • A life cycle analysis of living: Measuring behaviour and the impact of dwelling rather than the dwelling alone

    Bakshi, Nilesh (2017)

    Doctoral thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    This research addresses the need for a more sustainable way of living by arguing that the current approach to green architecture, limited by the current criteria, needs to be refined in response to the needs of the finite world. In comparison with earlier ways of living, modern society has a large dependence on technology. This dependence only further reinforces the overall detrimental environmental impacts of human behaviour. The original contribution to knowledge this thesis contributes is to establish the effect of behaviour on the total impact of a dwelling by measuring behaviour in the act of dwelling in New Zealand households. The thesis maps human behaviour; first looking at global practices and raw materials extraction: and second New Zealand's interaction with the global market. The inherent relationship between manufacturing nations and countries like New Zealand entails an indirect link revealing how international policies can be influenced by the average New Zealand household. By means of an in-depth life cycle assessment, approximately 400 households are examined to identify the embodied energy in the act of dwelling, including ownership of the various household items that use finite raw materials in both operation and manufacture. This research identifies the existence of crucial "Hidden Emissions" that are currently not considered in national and international CO₂ accounting methods. This research also identifies the links between appliance ownership, its usage and how these vary for different types of appliances. The outcome of this research posits, first, a theoretical framework for establishing impact as a result of behaviour, dubbed the “Effect on Operation” formulae, making it possible to measure behaviour in total emissions and how this impacts climate change. Second, this work identifies key changes in both the energy generation sector and in household behaviour to meet current emissions reduction targets. The hypothetical reduction scenarios presented in this thesis identify the possibility of a prospective change in the relative importance of embodied energy when compared to the impact of operational energy. This reveals a possible future in which embodied energy may well account for over sixty per cent of total emissions associated with household behaviour, suggesting several avenues for further research.

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  • Conceptualisations of Youth and Implications for Policy: A Study of Four Cases in Aotearoa/New Zealand

    Buckley, Sue (2017)

    Doctoral thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    What we claim to know and understand about youth has roots in history and culture, and is informed by disciplines within both the natural and the social sciences. Policy and legislation that concern youth draw on all these understandings in their efforts to manage, develop, control and protect young people. Yet there has not been a serious consideration of the fixing of age limits in either historical or current legislation, which means the potential limiting of young people’s rights as citizens and their exposure to learning experiences has not been challenged. Taking a critical approach to contemporary views of youth, this study examined the conceptualisations of youth that have influenced the development of policies and legislation that concern young people in New Zealand/Aotearoa. It reviewed a range of legislation and policies and found that age limits existed in a broad scope of legislation and were applied in an arbitrary fashion. Four case studies were investigated: three cases concerned legislation that set age limits for young people, and one case study where an age limit has not been applied, that of medical consent. I analysed the submissions to Select Committees and the associated Hansard debates and other related documents for the legislation cases, and the relevant legislation and other documents that were associated with the case of medical consent. This exploration of the development of these policies and the critical explication of the constructions of youth that informed them found that views of youth were contradictory and equivocal, and that the justifications for the age limits in these cases were inconsistent. Evidence for the development of principles that might guide policy or legislation concerning age-setting was not available. Instead, it was found that a predominant view of ‘youth as risk’ overwhelmed any rational, evidence-based assessments of young people at various ages and in a range of policy contexts. The explanation for this view of ‘youth as risk’ is found in Ulrich Beck’s ‘Risk Society’ theorising, although he did not specifically refer to or single out young people. This study therefore builds on his work since I argue that because of their life stage and their position in contemporary western societies, young people are particularly exposed to the risks of the ‘risk society’. The study concludes that given that much of the ‘risk’ associated with young people lies in the social context over which they have little control, youth policy should consider more seriously the impact on young people of policy developments across all sectors. It should also take into account the diversity of young people, not just in such differences as gender, ethnicity and disability, but also in their very different roles and activities in families and communities. A focus on ‘inclusion’ rather than ‘participation’ of young people in society would better encourage consideration of young people in policies across all sectors, and would also help promote more positive views of young people. If it is established that an age limit is necessary, then a youth ministry should examine more closely the impact on young people of an age change and provide a more sophisticated analysis of evidence and principles, as well as the competencies required for the activity under discussion. It should also consider whether the motive for an age limit might be the perceived vulnerability or riskiness of young people when in fact the problem the policy is endeavouring to solve is a wider societal one.

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  • Developing a psychologically informed typology of partner violent women

    Dempsey, Fiona (2017)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Little research to date has considered the aetiological risk of female perpetrators of intimate partner violence (IPV), particularly in dating samples. This is despite evidence that shows perpetration is highly prevalent in this population. This study aims to address this gap and develops a typology of partner violent female university students using the psychopathology dimension of the Holtzworth-Munroe and Stuart (1994) typology. Online survey methodology was used to collate information from 434 participants about a range of psychological characteristics and aggression toward intimate partners in the previous twelve months. Latent Profile analysis identified three reliable subgroups of participants who differ in their level of psychopathology in comparison to Non-Violent Controls and/or each other (‘Low’, ‘Moderate’ and ‘Moderate-High’ Psychopathology). Chi Square analysis investigated group differences in the use of psychological aggression, physical assault and sexual coercion towards an intimate partner, and towards other people. Results show that the Moderate-High Psychopathology group use severe psychological aggression significantly more frequently than the Low Psychopathology group. Trends for minor physical violence were also found with frequency of use increasing with increases in levels of psychopathology. The classifications proxy the Holtzworth-Munroe and Stuart (1994) findings to some extent. However, it is suggested that the profiles of female perpetrators are best described in terms of varying levels of psychopathology in general, with corresponding increases in some forms of partner aggression. The need to develop typologies of female, non-clinical samples of IPV is discussed.

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  • Visitor satisfaction with services for environmental interpretation in Cat Tien National Park, Vietnam

    Phan, Thi Thuy Linh (2017)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    The increase in visitor demand creates more and more pressures on visitor management, especially in protected areas like national parks. Environmental interpretation is regarded as an effective soft management strategy that aims to educate visitors in national parks. However, no study about visitor satisfaction with environmental interpretation using Importance-Performance analysis has been undertaken in national parks in general and national parks of Vietnam in particular. This study attempts to fill in the research gaps in the literature by examining visitor satisfaction with services for environmental interpretation in Cat Tien National Park of Vietnam using Importance-Performance Analysis. The research aims are: (1) To identify current interpretive services in Cat Tien National Park; (2) To explore visitor use of these services for environmental interpretation; (3) To investigate visitor satisfaction with these services using Importance-Performance Analysis and (4) To analyze similarities and differences in visitor satisfaction with services according to motivation-based segments and market-based segments. Secondary research, a site visit and three semi-structured interviews were first implemented to provide information background for the study. Next, the main survey for both international and domestic visitors was conducted at the entry point of Cat Tien National Park. Data from 237 pre-visit and post-visit questionnaires collected in four weeks was then analyzed with relevant statistical analyses. Market-based segmentation and motivation-based segmentation were also implemented to analyze the data. The findings show that site interpreters were the most important service provider for environmental interpretation in Cat Tien National Park. Site interpreters, interpretive signs and staff at the museum are very important and very satisfying services for environmental interpretation. Displays at the museum need to be redesigned to meet visitor satisfaction. Moreover, videos at the rescue centre need to improve the performance to ensure domestic visitor satisfaction. With regard to twelve roles of site interpreters, the role for a comfortable pace of the trip, the role for a good group organisation, the communicative roles and the roles of an environmental interpreter are important and satisfying roles according to visitors. The performance of the instrumental role for visitor safety and the social role for a positive group environment need to be enhanced to meet visitor satisfaction. Also, two roles of a motivator of responsible behaviour need to be enhanced to meet the satisfaction of “Passive visitors” and “Active learners”, as well as international visitors. The study highlights the need for continuing research on visitor satisfaction with environmental interpretation using importance performance analysis and visitor segmentation. Some management implications were given for future development of services for environmental interpretation in Cat Tien National Park.

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  • Blurring Binaries: A Queer Approach to Architecture

    Caldwell, Andrew Logan (2017)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Binary oppositions are a divisive force in social and physical space. This thesis engages the notion of heteronormativity as the primary source of binarism which oppresses expressive diversity of sexuality, gender and architecture. Queer, as the antithesis of binarism, is used as a process and as an action enacted through spatial design and experience to challenge normative assumptions in architecture. This thesis proposes a queer approach to design, questioning and blurring architectural binaries. A process of questioning, designing and reflecting – in non-linear, iterative, design-led research – establishes itself through three projects, each increasing in scale and complexity. For the purpose of clarity, the thesis is structured in a linear fashion: theoretical context and case study analysis is established before engaging with this design process at three scales – installation (breaking binaries), domestic (blending binaries) and public (blurring binaries) – followed by overall reflection. Primary modes of experimentation include analogue and digital drawing and modelling with photography as a method of documentation. This thesis concludes that, by focusing on modes of being and engagement, read and lived conditions combine in blurred non-binary experience. Blurring binaries enables people to engage their diverse subjectivities in space, making their space queer, instead of being defined by heteronormative social and architectural norms.

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  • Novel approaches to quantify the emergence of anthropogenic climate change

    Harrington, Luke James (2017)

    Doctoral thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Understanding how the climate system will respond to ongoing human interference is a question of profound societal importance. A significant barrier to quantifying the effect of human activity on the climate system is interpreting how the signal of anthropogenic change can be isolated and distinguished from the background noise of internal variability. An emerging framework in the scientific community is now to investigate signal-to-noise ratios as a more effective measure of the impact of human influence on the climate. As the cumulative amount of greenhouse gases emitted by the global population continues to increase, emerging (human-induced) signal-to-noise ratios in temperatures are starting to become clear for highly aggregated spatial and temporal scales. However, some other climate phenomena, such as meteorological drought, exhibit a more complex response to anthropogenic forcings. Identifying how further warming will change the characteristics of such phenomena is therefore more difficult, despite the significant policy implications for both climate adaptation and mitigation. In this thesis, I investigate novel approaches towards separating the relative signal of anthropogenic climate warming from internal variability for these cases of low signal-to-noise ratios. By more effectively understanding the drivers of emergent changes to the climate system, these results help to quantify, and thus communicate, the increasingly damaging effects of human interference on the climate system.

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  • Counselling Distance Learners: An Experiment at the Open Polytechnic of New Zealand

    Pack, Margaret (1995)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

    In August 1993, The Open Polytechnic decided to establish a counselling service for it's 30,000 enrolled students. Historically, The Open Polytechnic (previously the Technical Correspondence Institute) had specialised in trades and vocationally based courses, having been developed after the Second World War by the Government of the day to rehabilitate returned servicemen. As students studied by correspondence, it was possible for ex-serviceman to complete vocational qualifications without the disruption of leaving home and work to study.

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  • Margaret Mahy and the Golden Age of Children's Literature

    Proffitt, Catherine (2011)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Margaret Mahy’s novels contain numerous allusions to the classics of Victorian fiction for children. Some of these take the form of passing references; in 24 Hours, for example, protagonist Ellis thinks of himself as “Ellis in Wonderland.” But Mahy also draws on Victorian precedents for some of her settings, taking imaginary islands from Peter and Wendy and Treasure Island, and the secret garden from Frances Hodgson Burnett’s novel of the same name. She also invokes the forest of the fairy tales that (although they were not invented by the Victorians) featured so prominently in the reading of Victorian children. To date, little attention has been paid to what might be described as the “Victorian dimension” of Mahy’s work. In what follows, I examine its function in five novels. It emerges that Mahy’s response to the values embodied by her Victorian texts is critical on at least three counts. Mahy’s heroines (or, rather, female heroes) reject the passivity and silence exhibited by fairytale characters such as Jorinda in the Grimms’ ‘Jorinda and Joringel’, and the lack of emotional growth displayed by Lewis Carroll’s Alice. They are also shown in the process of leaving childhood (nostalgically idealized by Carroll, J.M. Barrie and other Victorian authors) behind. Moreover, this thesis exposes the tension between Mahy’s insistent allusion to quintessential fantasy spaces such as Wonderland on one hand, and the distinct anxiety present in her work about the dangerously isolating nature of fantasy on the other. While for Mahy’s teenage protagonists the domestic “real” wins out more often than not over the fantastic but dangerous “true”, the transformative journey of maturation that each undergoes is figuratively sparked by their belief in the Red Queen’s “six impossible things before breakfast”. Perhaps by the same token, they learn that fantasy worlds (like Barrie’s “Neverland”) can be dangerously isolating.

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  • Classical Myth and Margaret Mahy's Young Adult Fiction

    Pohl, Michael (2010)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    This thesis investigates the importance of classical myth in the young adult fiction of Margaret Mahy. Mahy's novels are full of references to classical myths, both direct and indirect, in names of characters like Dido, Ovid, Ariadne or Hero; in storylines such as Flora's journey to the Underworld-like Viridian to rescue her cousin Anthea, strongly reminiscent of Demeter's rescue of Persephone from Hades, which take their inspiration from classical myth; in seemingly incidental references like the persistent comparisons of Sorry to Charon, the classical ferryman of the dead, in The Changeover. These references point to a deep engagement with the heritage of classical myth. It is an engagement that has not gone unnoticed by scholars of Mahy's work, but it is one that has not enjoyed the dedicated critical attention it deserves. This thesis explores the full importance of classical myth to Mahy's young adult fiction, and shows how an understanding of the classical background of a large selection of Mahy's major novels can both enhance our appreciation of what is already there, as well as open up new avenues for critical engagement with her work.

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  • Mafutaga Samoa

    Unasa, Leilani (2008)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Turquoise water laps the sandy white shore where coconut palms hang lazily over the sea. The sound of a church choir singing a Samoan hymn in the background. A loud phone ring. The entire landscape shakes like crazy. What is this? An earthquake in paradise? Pan out to reveal that the image is cell phone wallpaper. The phone rests on a church pew beside a bible and a Samoan hymnbook. The ring tone is a tinny version of George McCrae's 'Rock Your Baby'. The phone spills out a chorus before a hand frantically locates it and hits the off button ...

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  • A Persistent Force: Violence in Maurice Gee’s Historical Novels for Children

    Armour, Susan (2012)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Since the publication of his first novel, The Big Season, in 1962, Maurice Gee’s fiction for adults has been noted for its preoccupation with violence. But can we say the same of his fiction for children? And if so, how might that predisposition be reconciled for young readers? Using a predominantly literary-historical reading of Gee’s fiction for children published between 1986 and 1999, this thesis attempts to answer these questions. Chapter 1 establishes the impact of violence on Gee’s early years and its likely influence on his writing. Chapters 2-4 then consider the presence of violence in Gee’s five historical novels for children. Chapter 2 focuses on the wartime novels, The Fire-Raiser and The Champion, and their respective depictions of war and racism, while chapter 3 explores individual, family and social violence as “expanding scenes of violence” (Heim 25) in The Fat Man. The fourth and final chapter discusses the two post-war novels, Orchard Street and Hostel Girl, where social violence runs as an undercurrent of everyday life. The thesis finds that violence – in different forms and at different intensities – persists across the novels and that Gee tempers its presence appropriately for his young readers. Violence, Gee seems to be saying, is part of the mixed nature of the human condition and this knowledge should not be denied children.

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  • The Reality of Return: Exploring the Experiences of World War One Soldiers after Their Return to New Zealand

    Clarkson, Coralie (2011)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    The focus of this thesis is the lives of New Zealand's returned Great War soldiers. This thesis explores the experiences of men who did not successfully repatriate as a counterpoint to the experiences of those who did, and argues that men's return to New Zealand and their post war lives were shaped by many factors including access to employment and good health. Many returned soldiers were able to resume their lives on return and led relatively happy and successful lives. For these men, their success seems to have come from the ability to find or resume employment, good health, family support, and financial support. For those who did not, one or more of these factors was often missing, and this could lead to short or long term struggle. The 1920s form the backdrop of this thesis, and were a time of uncertainty and anxiety for returned men and their families. The disillusionment of the 1920s was exacerbated by men's nostalgia for New Zealand which they built up during the war. Tens of thousands of men returned to New Zealand from war with dreams and hopes for the future. The horrors of war had given men an idealistic view of peaceful New Zealand, and dreams of home comforts and loved ones had sustained these men through their long absence. For those who returned to find life difficult, the idealistic view of New Zealand as a land of simplicity and happiness would have been hard to maintain. Chapter 1 demonstrates the idealisation of New Zealand and 'home' built up by soldiers and their families during the war. Chapters 2, 3 and 4 use the lenses of employment, illness – specifically tuberculosis – and alcoholism to argue that for many men and their families, the 1920s were an extension of the anxieties and separation of the Great War years. Sadly, for some, their lives were forever marred by the spectre of war and what their absence from home cost them.

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  • Trash or Treasure? Te Papa and the collecting on everyday material culture

    Hackett, Amy (2017)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    The everyday, ordinary, and mundane are categories of material culture that challenge traditional museum collecting. Collection planning is an absolute necessity for museums if they are to avoid becoming unmanageable time capsules. With cuts to resources and space now at a premium, it is important that museums clarify their purpose and begin to collect more strategically. This dissertation asks: if collecting everyday material culture is now an accepted part of curatorial practice today, then how does Te Papa approach this fraught task? How does the museum define the everyday, how much of it already exists in the museum’s collections, and what tools and strategies does it deploy to ensure that these objects are collected and appreciated as part of the nation’s history and heritage? Using a multi-method approach comprising document analysis, interviews and observation, this dissertation provides insight into how Te Papa collects everyday material culture. It provides an in-depth view of the national museum’s current collecting processes, all the way from how it collects on paper, to how it collects in reality. The research addresses gaps in literature on institutional collecting, particularly in a national museum setting. Building on work by James B Gardner and Simon Knell, and by observing and interviewing curators, this study is able to respond to calls for research that approaches collecting from an internal ‘on-the-ground’ viewpoint. Trash or Treasure? reveals that at Te Papa, although everyday material culture is being collected and displayed, it exists at a crossroads of traditional and contemporary conceptions of collecting. Policy enables collecting of these everyday objects provided acquisition proposals demonstrate national significance. However, curators are less concerned with this aspect of an object. This discrepancy occurs because of the challenging nature of everyday material culture, namely its mutability; it can be all things to many people. The findings suggest that policy does not always trump practice unless strict approval processes are put in place. In order to build a strong collection, this dissertation argues that museums need to find a balance between careful planning while also allowing space for unexpected collecting opportunities.

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  • Seeing Things Differently: The use of mobile app interpretation and its effect on visitor experience at two heritage sites in Aotearoa New Zealand

    Aitken, Jessica (2017)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    The practice of contemporary heritage interpretation has seen increased investment in digital technologies and more recently in mobile applications. However, few empirical studies assess how effective mobile apps are to the visitor experience of heritage sites. What kind of visitor experience do mobile apps provide? How do mobile apps deliver on the aims of interpretation for heritage sites? What types of apps work best? What are the challenges for developers and heritage professionals? A qualitative research approach is used to examine two case studies; High Street Stories: the life and times of Christchurch’s High Street Precinct and IPENZ Engineering Tours: Wellington Heritage Walking Tour. These case studies ask what kind of experience mobile apps offer as an interpretation tool at these heritage sites. To investigate the topic, email interviews were carried out with heritage professionals and digital developers; together with qualitative interviews with visitors recruited to visit the case study sites using the mobile applications. This study explores two current examples of mobile app technology in the heritage sector in a New Zealand context. The results of this study aim to augment current literature on the topic of digital interpretation. This study seeks to offer heritage managers and interpreters some key factors to consider when making decisions regarding the methods used to present and interpret heritage sites to visitors and in developing new interpretation and digital strategies that include mobile applications. Although each scenario presents its particular set of considerations and all heritage sites are different, it is hoped these recommendations can be applied and offer working models and strategies.

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  • The End of the Sea Wall

    McStay, Shannon (2017)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    With climate change becoming more widely understood, we are beginning to see how this phenomenon is impacting on our ability to live coastally. Coastal properties represent some of the most expensive real estate in the country, however these properties are being battered by increasing storm surges causing coastal erosion and decay to the land on which they sit. This is resulting in people fighting to keep their homes out of the water, along with an increasing need for a solution to keep the water out of their homes. In Raumati, sea walls began appearing in the 1950s with people blocking their individual properties from the ocean with wooden log walls. These walls have continued to get larger, higher and more solid until they have become the rock accumulation, stone path and concrete walls that stand today along almost the entire length of the Kapiti Coast. The impact of such walls is that, while they protect the land immediately behind them, they cause greater issues further down the coast, causing sections of the coastline to deteriorate at a far more accelerated rate. The aim of this project will be to put an end to the Kapiti sea wall by addressing the site at the southern end of Raumati where this erosion is becoming increasingly evident. Here, the delicate sand dunes are being eaten away by heightened storm surges and an ever-increasing sea level. Rather than looking at it as a negative effect, this thesis will explore the opportunities that are opened by this decay. The project proposes the reinstating and re-wetting of the once drained wetlands that lie behind the natural dunes. Above these wetlands, a ranger’s hut will act as a home, embassy and church within Queen Elizabeth Park. This allows for a greater sense of custodianship, with more people coming, going and staying within the park. The project outcome will be a building that combines public and private spaces. It will allow for the fluctuation in sea levels to interact with and become a part of the building, rather than being excluded through traditional approaches to dealing with climate change on coastlines. Hence, this ranger’s hut will put an end to the sea wall.

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  • Capture and Activation of Carbon Dioxide Using Guanidine Superbases

    Bomann, Grace (2017)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Due to its abundance and low-cost, carbon dioxide is a desirable C₁-building block within organic transformations. However, the thermodynamic and kinetic stability of CO₂ often necessitates preliminary activation before it can be inserted into organic molecules. This prompts the need for compounds that can effectively promote the activation of CO₂. This research investigates the capture and activation of carbon dioxide using a class of superbases that incorporate the bicyclic guanidine unit, 1,3,4,6,7,8-hexahydro-2H-pyrimido[1,2-a]-pyrimidine (hppH, 1). A series of compounds containing multiple hpp-units assembled around a phenyl ring scaffold were synthesized and investigated in the functionalization of CO₂. The work presented in this study has demonstrated the ability of protonated superbasic hppH derivatives to efficiently and effectively capture and activate carbon dioxide from ambient air to form the corresponding guanidinium bicarbonate salts. A series of optimization reactions was carried out, and showed that addition of substoichiometric concentrations of a proton source activates these guanidine compounds to their fully protonated cationic forms, and results in CO₂ capture through bicarbonate formation. A series of protonation studies were employed to fully characterize the cationic species. The tetraphenylborate and hydrochloride guanidinium salts were synthesized, isolated, and characterized by ¹H NMR and ¹³C NMR spectroscopic analysis. Molecular structures of relevant crystals were obtained through single crystal X-ray diffraction. These structures revealed a complex hydrogen-bonding network within these ionic species, and showed efficient delocalization of the formal positive charge within the protonated guanidinium units. The guanidine superbases were implemented in a series of reactions attempting the functionalization of CO₂ and an alcohol to form corresponding alkylcarbonate products. However, the synthesis of these carbonate products was not achieved under the reaction conditions employed. This lack of success has been attributed to the hygroscopic nature of this class of compounds, resulting in the preferential capture of ambient water.

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  • Population Genetics of New Zealand Scampi (Metanephrops challengeri)

    Verry, Alexander (2017)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    A fundamental goal of fisheries management is sustainable harvesting and the preservation of properly functioning populations. Therefore, an important aspect of management is the identification of demographically independent populations (stocks), which is achieved by estimating the movement of individuals between areas. A range of methods have been developed to determine the level of connectivity among populations; some measure this directly (e.g. mark-recapture) while others use indirect measures (e.g. population genetics). Each species presents a different set of challenges for methods that estimate levels of connectivity. Metanephrops challengeri is a species of nephropid lobster that supports a commercial fishery and inhabits the continental shelf and slope of New Zealand. Very little research on population structure has been reported for this species and it presents a unique set of challenges compared to finfish species. M. challengeri have a short pelagic larval duration lasting up to five days which limits the dispersal potential of larvae, potentially leading to low levels of connectivity among populations. The aim of this study was to examine the genetic population structure of the New Zealand M. challengeri fishery. DNA was extracted from M. challengeri samples collected from the eastern coast of the North Island (from the Bay of Plenty to the Wairarapa), the Chatham Rise, and near the Auckland Islands. DNA from the mitochondrial CO1 gene and nuclear ITS-1 region was amplified and sequenced. The aligned dataset of DNA sequences was then used to estimate levels of both genetic diversity and differentiation, and examine demographic history. Analyses of population structure indicate that M. challengeri from the Auckland Islands region are genetically distinct from M. challengeri inhabiting the Chatham Rise, and those collected from waters off the eastern coast of the North Island. There appears to be gene flow among the sampling sites off the eastern coast of the North Island and on the Chatham Rise, but some isolation by distance was detected. These results indicate that some of these populations may be demographically uncoupled. Genetic diversity estimates combined with Bayesian skyline plots and demographic history parameters suggest that M. challengeri populations have recently undergone a size expansion. The genetic structuring between the Auckland Islands site and all others may be due to a putative habitat disjunction off the Otago shelf. In contrast, a largely continuously distributed population along the eastern coast of the North Island and the Chatham Rise most likely promotes gene flow as larvae can be transported limited distances by oceanic currents. Historical changes in climate may have influenced the patterns of present-day structure and genetic diversity of M. challengeri, by altering habitat availability and other characteristics of their environment. This study provides evidence that species which appear to have limited dispersal potential can still maintain connected populations, but there are situations where large breaks in suitable habitat appear to limit gene flow. The results of this study will help inform stock structure of the M. challengeri fishery, which will enable stock assessments to be more precisely aligned to natural population boundaries.

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  • Experience-driven heritage

    Du, Sian (2017)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Within the Wellington region, there are a number of abandoned military fortifications which were designed as a coastal defence system to protect the harbour from Russian attacks in late 19th Century. Changing circumstances have meant that this coastal defence infrastructure network is no longer functional, and this research aims to bring it back to life. The site chosen for this research investigation is Watts Peninsula, which is enjoyed by only a limited number of the wider public who only visit a small part of the site. The great size and topography of the landscape makes it a serious challenge to manage let alone transform. This site therefore seems to be a great opportunity to explore the disciplinary challenge of how to bring coastal military fortification sites back to life? Traditionally, the way to bring coastal sites with abandoned fortifications back to life is by treating them as heritage projects. They are protected and sometimes developed as more or less significant tourist destinations that display the significance of military history and heritage. This approach tends to break up the landscape into key areas, with the minimal path system required to connect up the various heritage items and locations on the site. This typical approach severely limits the range and richness of experiencing potential of a site like Watts Peninsula. This thesis will approach this project by engaging with the countless experiences found within the existing landscape; stepping the normal heritage approach. Topography, slope, vegetation cover, aspect and views were found to produce a great range of effectively separately experienced patches or landscape-experience zones. This thesis sought to understand how the site produced the involuntary types of movement-experiencing that it did and how it differentiated itself into these experience-zones. The types of experiencing that the site produced seemed to have a great deal to do with the interaction of paths/movement through the various mosaic of experience-zones. The aim of the analysis was to discover the actual and potential ways that the site is differentiated into these experience-areas and the actual and potential movement experiences that could allow access to these areas. The design investigation would aim to maximise the number and variety of these movement and experience-zones. The resulting development would aim to spread a complex mosaic-network of experiencing across as much of the site as possible. This network would be intended to develop in a way where the great richness of possible experiences and the mystery of the site are both increased. The project would require significant funds and so a housing scheme on the southern edge of the site seemed the most obvious way to provide income for such a development. The intended housing development was designed to increase the local population who would have access to the site but hopefully in a manner where the housing would not seriously impact on views to, or the experiences and mystery of the site. Overall, the design development would be intended to transform this landscape into a destination for varieties of adventuring, exploring and experiencing on a remarkable landscape. With the help of the housing, the possibility of this being an urban adventuring destination and the network of paths and experiencing could then provide something of a way to make the heritage transformation of the fortifications themselves a viable prospect. The treatment of the fortifications has not been engaged with in this project. So, it can be said that this research has attempted to avoid the normal way that coastal military fortifications tend to be developed and proposed, instead, an experience-driven approach to the site and to heritage.

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