6,738 results for Scholarly text

  • Phylogeography of the New Zealand whelks Cominella maculosa and C. virgata

    Walton, Kerry (2017)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Cominella maculosa and C. virgata are common rocky shore whelk species from New Zealand. This study used DNA sequences from the mitochondrial gene cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (CO1) to expand an earlier unpublished dataset and examine the phylogeographic structure of both species in the Cook Strait region, of C. maculosa in the Chatham Islands, and of C. virgata in the northern North Island. Both species are found to have a considerable degree of phylogeographic structure, concordant with that reported by an earlier study and for other species with direct development. South Island sites sampled for C. maculosa had several private haplotypes and a high frequency haplotype that is shared with populations from the southern North Island. Together, these formed a ‘southern haplogroup’. Low diversity in ‘southern’ populations may reflect founder effects that would have occurred as part of a southward range expansion during the onset of the present interglacial period. The Chatham Islands samples had two haplotypes that formed a separate sub-group to the ‘southern haplogroup’, suggesting Chatham Islands populations are moderately isolated from those on mainland New Zealand but may have been founded from ‘southern’ populations relatively recently. The high frequency haplotype present in South Island samples of C. virgata is absent in Wellington samples but widespread in those from the north-eastern North Island. South Island populations may have been founded from the Hauraki Gulf through human-mediated translocation events. Phylogenetic analyses with a focus on C. virgata were conducted using the mitochondrial genes CO1 and 16SrRNA, and the nuclear gene 18S rRNA, to expand an earlier published dataset. The purported northern subspecies C. virgata brookesi does not form a monophyletic lineage and voucher specimens fluidly intergrade with the nominal subspecies, with which it is synonymised. A lectotype is designated for Buccinum lineolatum Quoy & Gaimard, 1833, for which Cominella virgata is a replacement name. Potential causes of the disjunct distribution patterns of C. virgata and other mollusc taxa are discussed with particular reference to the formation and timing of marine straits through the Auckland Isthmus and Cook Strait.

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  • Plotting labour force status shares: Interdependence and ternary plots

    Jackson, L. Fraser; Khaled, Mohammed S (2017)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Data on the proportions in each of the labour force status categories sum to one and form a composition which can be displayed with a ternary diagram. However the points lie in a small region and need to be scaled or transformed if ternary diagrams are to be a useful tool. This paper uses both scaling and transformation to study labour force status. The simple graphic illustration of patterns of movement over time emphasizes the multivariate character of the data and the changing interaction of employment, unemployment and non market work. It shows the importance of heterogeneity in the population and raises many issues about the relative magnitude of different sources of variation.

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  • Personal frameworks and subjective truth: New Journalism and the 1972 U.S. presidential election

    Nelson, Ashlee Amanda (2017)

    Doctoral thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    This thesis examines the reportage of the New Journalists who covered the United States 1972 presidential campaign. Nineteen seventy-two was a key year in the development of New Journalism, marking a peak in output from successful writers, as well as in the critical attention paid to debates about the mode. Nineteen seventy-two was also an important year in the development of campaign journalism, a system which only occurred every four years and had not changed significantly since the time of Theodore Roosevelt. The system was not equipped to deal with the socio-political chaos of the time, or the attempts by Richard Nixon at manipulating how the campaign was covered. New Journalism was a mode founded in part on the idea that old methods of journalism needed to change to meet the needs of contemporary society, and in their coverage of the 1972 campaign the New Journalists were able to apply their arguments for change to their campaign reportage. Thus the convergence of the campaign reportage cycle with the peak of New Journalism’s development represents a key moment in the development of both New Journalism and campaign journalism. I use the campaign reportage of Timothy Crouse in The Boys on the Bus, Norman Mailer in St. George and the Godfather, Hunter S. Thompson in Fear and Loathing: On the Campaign Trail ’72, and Gloria Steinem in “Coming of Age with McGovern” as case studies for the role of New Journalism at this moment in literary journalism history. As writers who rejected the mainstream press’s requirement for objectivity, the New Journalists occupied a unique role in the campaign coverage by offering different agendas and more personal frameworks than the mainstream media. I examine the framework of each of these writers’ reportage, and how their secondary agendas shaped their consciously personal narratives of the campaign. These secondary agendas and personal narratives give the New Journalists’ reportage a lasting meaning and cultural significance beyond the initial context of reporting on the campaign, and beyond the victory of Nixon, whom all four of the New Journalists analysed in this thesis opposed. As my examination of Crouse’s, Mailer’s, Thompson’s, and Steinem’s New Journalism about the 1972 campaign establishes, this microcosm represents a key point in the development of New Journalism. The research and analysis in this thesis argues that the field of study devoted to New Journalism needs to re-think some of the ways the mode has been written about. There are assumptions in the critical discourse that have been consistently accepted but which should be questioned further. It is crucial to an in-depth understanding of the mode that New Journalism scholarship reassess some of the ideas that we have become certain about and make sure they actually fit the aims and output of the New Journalists at the time. The importance of understanding the role of personal frameworks and secondary agendas in campaign journalism reaches beyond New Journalism and, as I argue in the conclusion to this thesis, has been demonstrated to be keenly relevant by the role of the press in the 2016 presidential election and the striking similarities between the 1972 and 2016 campaigns.

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  • The Porirua Transcripts: Affect, Atmosphere and Place

    Thomson, Scott (2017)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Porirua is a young city in many respects, but the relationship this city has to the landscape in which it lies is deep-rooted. The connection between the harbour water, the land and the people that dwell there contribute to a sense of place. But, the extensive development of Porirua’s urban realm in the recent times has resulted in inner-city planning schemes and architectural projects that turn the city’s back on the natural landscape and the ephemeral qualities that evoke a sense of place. What remains is a disenfranchised population that is unaware of the relationship between land and water within Porirua’s urban centre, and is consequently unable to recognize the effect that further urban growth will have on the landscape in years to come. Therefore, the research in this thesis explores the proposition that architecture holds a vital role in facilitating and amplifying the relationship between people and a place. This proposition is explored through a design-led research methodology that adopts and employs both analogue and digital design methods for the extraction, design, and occupation of ephemeral and atmospheric qualites of place. Furthermore, the methodology in this thesis requires the use of both research for design and research through design. This will provide the basic structure whereby a literary and physical context is established that situates the research in an existing theoretical body of knowledge. Design chapters follow this context chapter utilizing the information to generate a body of architectural work that responds to the research proposition. The body of architectural design work consists of three iterative experiments that increase in scale and complexity, architectural interventions include: an installation, a house and a public building. In each design iterative methods of representation were fundamental in the process of extracting, amplifying through design, and occupying atmospheric and ephemeral qualities. Architectural outcomes and iterative design explorations demonstrate the importance of drawing from ephemeral and atmospheric qualities of a place in order to generate architecture that can amplify the connection people have to Porirua.

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  • A Curated Cacophony: Implementing an Intangible

    Wright, Oliver (2017)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    This research investigates a progression away from acoustics formed by spaces and towards spaces that are driven by target acoustics. Despite architecture and acoustics’ shared consideration of form, materiality and inhabitation, too often acoustics is neglected from design and so is treated remedially, nullifying creativity. A case study project was undertaken to investigate the opportunities and limitations of two parametric tools, Galapagos (a generative solver) and Pachyderm (an acoustic simulation tool), to develop acoustic qualities in early architectural design. Yet, what are these acoustic qualities and how could they be measured? Testing of cafes in the Wellington CBD was undertaken to investigate these questions. Six cafes were acoustically tested and five patrons from each of these completed a subjective survey. The café testing suggested that Reverberation Time (RT) could be an effective acoustic measure to direct architectural design. The café with the lowest patron enjoyment rating also recorded the longest RT and highest Sound Pressure Level (SPL), reinforcing the relationship between these three elements. Through these findings, patron enjoyment was concluded to be dependent on SPL and SPL was concluded to be dependent on RT (Whitlock and Dodd, 424). In order to increase patron enjoyment, Galapagos was utilised to explore possible forms that met a target design RT of 0.7 seconds. An RT of 0.7 seconds was chosen as it was shorter than the AS/NZS 2107 (2000) maximum and was comparable to the cafés with the two highest subjective enjoyment ratings. Through a parametric and analogue design methodology, Galapagos and Pachyderm were used to investigate how acoustic goals could shape a café design. The case study project produced a design that not only meets this acoustic criterion but harnesses form to sculpt sound. Instead of applying absorption to flat surfaces, the convex curves on the north and east facades disperse sound, producing both a diffuse environment and an engaging architectural element. This integrated investigation demonstrated that a parametric and analogue design process can be implemented to create a acoustically and architecturally effective design.

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  • Stability against movement: An extension of expressional form

    Jackson, Olivia (2016)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    This thesis has slowly become a paradox of retrieving information from the frictionless landscape of interconnected objects, through drawing, to develop an analogue methodology in understanding this provocative site at Kumutoto Lane. Making the invisible, visible. The word ‘drawing’ retains a dynamic, energetic & incipient value in which resonates well against the nature of the site. The idea of friction is imperative to both of these concepts, drawing and site, and is why I began my investigation into the abandoned site at Clifton Terrace with pencil and paper. Kumutoto Lane is an example of unfinished built form and I would like to see if I can use this awkward abandonment to express the idea of drawing as a catalyst for architectural design. A poetical expansion to how the road draws a line through the infrastructure that we live in. The site is part of a profound history in relation to the Wellington Urban Motorway and is just a small piece of what was a very large prospective precinct spanning from Ngauranga Gorge through to the the airport, facilitated by what was then the Ministry of Works. In terms of form, the project will generate an architectural reaction providing an ‘office space’ for the abandoned Ministry of Works Department. I have been really cautious to not let the specificness of the site camouflage how I am working on it, essentially appointing the Clifton terrace carpark as a case study. Ideologies of this research assimilated into dynamic forms to flow in and around the existing landscape, avoiding a static solution in which I believe will contradict the nature of the site. It has been crucial to identify a relationship between land and line through out the growth of this research, with an emphasis expressed towards the development of a methodological approach to ensure this was achieved. Methodology has become the veracious backbone to this research.

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  • The Perception of Effective Community Engagement: A Case Study in a New Zealand Public Library

    Ludemann, Sam Graeme Depree (2017)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Research Problem: Rhetoric relating to the concept of community engagement (CE) is well established internationally within the public libraries sector and has become common-place within New Zealand public libraries. Despite this there is no New Zealand framework for best practice or consideration of how existing international frameworks would be appropriate within a local, bicultural context. Furthermore, there is little understanding of how practitioners in New Zealand perceive effective CE. The implications of this is that the concept is vulnerable to inconsistencies in its application which has an impact on the way public libraries support participatory citizenship. Methodology: A qualitative case-study was employed drawing on symbolic interactionism. A large New Zealand Library organisation was selected as the ‘case’ and data was collected through eight semi-structured interviews with Team Leaders and documentary analysis of internal strategic documents. Data was analysed using inductive thematic analysis. Results: Team Leaders possessed an intuitive conceptual understanding of the essential elements of effective CE. However, predictably without a shared vision, the practical application of CE was problematic with the provision and consumption of library services being attributed to community participation, indistinct from initiatives involving true community partnership. A high proportion of the CE undertaken by the organisation therefore supported the citizen-consumer model of citizenship rather than emphasising the public citizen model. Implications: This study supports the view that a shared vision is instrumental in achieving a consistent approach to CE. It makes a strong case for the creation of a local, New Zealand model of CE that takes into account the discourse related to the public sphere, demonstrating the overall impact and principal benefactors of CE work. Further research should include how the community and in particular, Māori perceived effective participation and partnership with libraries.

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  • A Decade of the Public Records Act 2005

    Pengelly, Leah (2016)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Research problem: 2015 marked ten years since the Public Records Act 2005 superseded the Archives Act 1957. Between these pieces of legislation, the New Zealand records management community had actively engaged in attempts to update the act. As the Public Records Act seeks to ensure government accountability through the creation and maintenance of records it is prudent to evaluate the legislation. The research within this paper explores the creation of the Act, and the implementation challenges and successes that have impacted its use by public service departments. Methodology: A qualitative study was conducted using phenomenological data collection and analysis methods. Information management professionals were interviewed to discover their experience with the Public Records Act. The Records Continuum model has been applied as a lens. Results: Many challenges influenced the creation, uptake and impact of the Act. The occupational culture of records managers was found to have both impacted the Act, and be influenced by the surrounding events. Communication barriers have affected both the impact of the Act and the relationship between Archives New Zealand and public service records managers. Standards were identified as a positive outcome, while the audit programme was deemed a failure. The Act was found to have achieved important clarification, embedding records creation, and the findings suggest the Records Continuum model is taking root. Professionalisation of records management within New Zealand has also occurred. Implications: A schism exists between Archives New Zealand and the records management community, represented by a lack of occupational cultural understanding and effective communication. A better understanding of culture is required to enhance recordkeeping maturity to ensure the accountability of government and preservation of New Zealand’s national identity.

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  • Design to Degrade

    Fong, Zara (2017)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Birth, growth, death and decay constitute an inherent cycle in nature that maintains balance and enables ecosystems to adapt to external changes. Although death and decay are essential for birth and growth of the following generations, these disappearing stages are often ignored and unappreciated in manmade cultures and practices. Especially in design, in the era of mass production, the pursuit of quantity and uniformity inevitably link to many environmental issues. As a desperate response, bio-based materials have recently gained attention as alternatives to fossil-derived materials or new resources for industry, and rapid advancement of additive manufacturing (AM) has revolutionised conventional methods of manufacturing, enabling low volume, quality-focused production. This research discusses the pioneering incorporation of the stages of death and decay into design practices, exploiting a novel opportunity provided by the two key innovations, AM technologies and bio-based materials. A series of digital plants which employ and undergo the two degenerative stages are designed and produced using digital and scientific processes, and their transformative degradation induced by environmental stimuli, including humidity and UV, is demonstrated. The programmed visual and physical deformations suggest that a purposeful and systematic introduction of the two stages to the current design and manufacturing practices could offer a more sustainable and responsible approach to creation and production. They also exhibit new possibilities for digital processes, including parametric modelling and 3D-printing, through an integrative combination with bio-based materials.

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  • Measuring the Effects of Microplastics on Sponges

    Baird, Clifford Alan (2016)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Microplastics (MP’s) are ubiquitous throughout the marine environment, and are derived from either direct production or from the fragmentation (to <5mm) of larger plastic pollution. Recently concern has intensified as the extent of MP pollution and its presence in the marine environment has been highlighted. Literature concerning concentrations of microplastics indicates an increasing occurrence in the marine environment, from coastal beaches to deep sea sediments. In addition, the effects microplastics have on marine organisms are well documented, with studies ranging from large pelagic animals to benthic filter feeders. However to date, there are few data on how MPs influence Porifera. Sponges are an important component of temperate benthic ecosystems, providing a range of important functional roles. Sponges are able to adapt to many environments by exploiting a variety of food sources, from dissolved organic matter to small crustaceans. Regardless of this, sponges feed primarily on picoplankton, and are able to retain up to 99% of these from seawater. The impact microplastics have on these suspension feeders is becoming of increasing concern, and previous research has centred primarily on sponge feeding or responses to sediments. As such, this thesis is the first to focus on the metabolic responses of sponges to MPs. To examine this, two response variables were measured: O₂ consumption (Respiration) and feeding (Retention efficiency). To examine the effects of MP on sponge respiration, two temperate sponge species (Tethya bergquistae and Crella incrustans) were exposed to two different sized plastic particles (1 μm and 6 μm) at two different concentrations (200,000 and 400,000 beads per mL). Results indicate that sponges are resilient to MP pollution. The only significant result was the effect of MP size on the respiration rates on Tethya bergquistae (P = 0.001), but there were no other significant main effects or interactions. Marine particulates come in many shapes and sizes, as such the retention abilities of temperate sponges were tested after exposure to different types and sizes of particulates. This was achieved by subjecting the same two sponge species (Crella incrustans and Tethya bergquistae) to two microplastic (1 μm & 6 μm), two sediment (1 μm & 6 μm) and two “Food” (raw sea water and Isochrysis galbana) treatments. This experiment showed some significant retention differences, but these differences were difficult to explain and largely inconclusive. This has highlighted the need for further investigation into the effects of: mixed treatments (i.e. sediments + plastics together) and varying plastic shapes (sphere + fibre + fragment). Finally, there is a crucial gap in knowledge regarding the fate of microplastics after ingestion by sponges. This research outlines the potential for temperate sponges to be resilient to microplastics particles when considering respiration rates. In addition, this study also outlines the variable nature of Crella incrustans and Tethya bergquistae concerning particulate retention. As the MP concentrations used in this thesis are very high and are unlikely to be found in New Zealand in the near future, this thesis therefore demonstrates the capability for sponges to be resilient to microplastic pollution. The outcomes of my thesis highlight the importance of understanding the impacts of microplastics on benthic organisms. The marine environment is dynamic and organisms are susceptible to a multitude of stressors. As such, there is a need to explore interactions between multiple factors at the same time.

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  • Velocity structure of the Whataroa Valley using Ambient Noise Tomography

    McNab, Andy (2017)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    This thesis applies ambient noise tomography to investigate the shallow structure of the Whataroa Valley. Ambient noise techniques are applied to continuous seismic recordings acquired on 158 geophones deployed during the Whataroa Active Source Seismic Experiment. Despite only having four days of data, a robust shear-wave velocity model is calculated using a phase-weighted stacking approach to improve the cross-correlation functions' signal-to-noise ratios, allowing for robust velocity measurements to be obtained between periods of 0.3 and 1.8\,s. This yields a database of 12,500 vertical component cross correlation functions and the corresponding Rayleigh wave phase and group velocity dispersion curves. Linearised straight-ray tomography is applied to phase and group velocity dispersion measurements at periods ranging from periods of 0.3 to 1.8\,s. The tomography reveals a velocity that decreases from the vicinity of the DFDP-2B borehole to the centre of the valley. This is interpreted to be the geologic basement deepening towards the centre of the valley. A Monte-Carlo inversion technique is used to jointly invert Rayleigh-wave phase and group velocity dispersion curves constructed from phase and group velocity tomography maps of successively higher periods. Linear interpolation of the resulting 1D shear-wave velocity profiles produces a pseudo-3D velocity model of the uppermost 1,000\,m of the Whataroa Valley. Using sharp increases in velocity to represent lithological change, we interpret two velocity contours at 1,150 and 1,250\,m/s as potential sediment-basement contacts. Depth isocontours of these velocities reveal that the basement deepens towards the centre of the valley, reaching a maximum depth of 400 or 600\,m for the 1,150 and 1,250\,m/s velocity contours respectively. These depths indicate strong glacial over-deepening and have implications for future drilling projects in the Whataroa Valley. A sharp velocity increase of 200\,m/s also occurs at 100\,m depth at the DFDP-2B borehole. We interpret this to be a change in sedimentary rock lithology from fluvial gravels to lacustrine silty sands, related to a change in sedimentary depositional environment.

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  • Green IT in an Iridescent World

    Algar, Carolyn (2016)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Climate change is a significant and compelling issue that has captured the attention of world leaders and driven them to action. In 2015, 195 countries collaborated and developed the Paris Agreement. The sole aim of the agreement is to reduce global environmental impacts and slow down climate change. As consumers endeavour to reduce reliance on fossil fuels and move to cleaner, more environmentally friendly energy solutions, the oil industry is significantly affected as a result of reducing demand for product. As an organisation with oil as a primary product, Z Energy, the subject of this case study, is forced to examine their operations and investigate alternative product options. Z is a downstream fuel business, purchasing crude oil on the international market, importing it into New Zealand and processing it into fuel. This is distributed and sold to retail and commercial customers. Z own and manage over 200 service stations. Sustainability matters at Z. They have a sustainability strategy with goals to use less and waste less in their business; reduce the carbon intensity of customers; reduce reliance on fossil fuels and support New Zealand businesses and communities. Z is faced with a challenging issue. They are committed to running an environmentally sustainable business but operate in an industry where the primary product has significant negative impacts on the environment. It is vital that the commitment to environmental sustainability is supported through internal business functions, and to examine this challenge, this case study looks at Z through two lenses. 1. The Information Systems Triangle is used to evaluate alignment between Z’s sustainability strategy and their organisational and information strategies. In order to successfully deliver on their sustainability goals, Z should ensure they have alignment between the three strategies and furthermore, the organisational and information strategies should be designed to complement the business (sustainability) strategy. 2. The Green IT Maturity Model is used to evaluate the ICT practices at Z to determine if they are positioned to support the corporate sustainability goals. As a sector ICT contributes to climate change by emitting 2-3% of total carbon emissions. As well as a part of the problem, ICT can also contribute solutions to reduce emissions in other sectors. The methodology used to gather research data was a combination of semi structured face to face interviews with selected Z employees, analysis of Z strategy documents and review of academic and practitioner research and frameworks. The data was evaluated against the IS Strategy Triangle and analysis found that while the sustainability strategy is in place, it is not supported by or aligned with the organisational and information strategies. The data was also used to evaluate the maturity of the ICT practices by comparing the current ICT processes as described by interviewees against each maturity measure in the Green IT Maturity model. While some areas were assessed to have average maturity, overall the maturity of the practices was low. Recommendations were developed that if implemented would result in convergence between the business sustainability strategy and the organisation and information strategies. Other recommendations were to improve the maturity of the ICT practices through: • implementation of an ICT sustainability strategy • establishment of green ICT maturity goals • encouragement of telecommuting • implementation of guidelines for ICT asset procurement, and • development of guidelines for ICT asset disposal.

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  • “I know what that is! It’s modern art!” Early childhood access to and use of art museums and galleries in Aotearoa New Zealand

    Terreni, Lisa (2017)

    Doctoral thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    This thesis examines issues of access to art museums and galleries for young children attending early childhood (EC) centres, the ways in which the EC sector uses the institutions to enhance young children’s learning, and the relationship art museums and galleries have with New Zealand’s youngest citizens. It is the first in-depth study of young children’s use of art museums and galleries in Aotearoa New Zealand. A mixed methods approach to the research involved a range of data gathering tools to observe, document, and analyse the practices and attitudes towards art museum visiting by the EC sector. Key participants were EC teachers, art museum directors, and art museum educators. Rich quantitative and qualitative data were elicited from a national survey of 17 of New Zealand’s largest art museums and galleries, an extensive national online questionnaire to EC centres, and an embedded case study of three EC centres who visited art museums as part of the research. Bourdieu’s key concepts of habitus, cultural capital and, particularly, field provide the fundamental tools for analysis within this inquiry. These have been used to examine and attempt to explain why some EC teachers visit art museums and galleries with young children while others do not, and understand issues of power within the field of art education in an art museum or gallery. The study found that there are both facilitators and barriers to art museum and gallery visiting by the EC sector. Barriers included: funding limitations, teachers’ fears about using art museums and galleries with young children, lack of professional development for teachers, and poor marketing of exhibitions to the EC sector. Facilitators included EC teachers’ positive perceptions of art museums and galleries as places for enriching and extending young children’s visual arts education, visual art pedagogical practices that support visiting, and the willingness of some art museums and galleries to work with the EC sector. On the basis of the findings from all three phases of the research and informed by the literature reviews and the conceptual tools used in the analysis of data, a ‘third space’ for art education in art museums and galleries for young children attending EC centres is proposed.

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  • Bearings: [Review of "Being here: Selected poems" by Vincent O'Sullivan]

    Houlahan, Mark (2016)

    Scholarly text
    University of Waikato

    Review of "Being here: Selected poems" by Vincent O'Sullivan

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  • Policy formulation in Malawi : case of police reform 1995-2000

    Luhanga, Ivy Jullie (2001)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

    This paper reviews the process of policy formulation in Malawi with particular reference to police reform between 1995 and 2000. After a long period of one party government, Malawi from 1994 made the transition to a multiparty parliamentary democracy. The Malawi Police is an important institution in the new regime. Within the frameworks of interest group theory and stakeholder theory the paper explores the way in which various interests influenced the reform of the police organization and management from 1995 to 2000. Reviews were undertaken of the literature on the policy process and the scholarly writing on interest group and stakeholder theory. Field research was carried out in the public documentation available in Malawi and by face to face interviews with senior officials and other participants in the reform process. The findings confirmed the utility of both interest group and stakeholder theory in explaining how public policies are formulated.

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  • Sovereign Sense

    Majurey, Dylan (2016)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    The South Pacific Island of Funafuti, Tuvalu is at threat of becoming one of the first countries globally to be Inundated due to rising sea levels. The likely result is that the people of this country will lose a sense of place and culture and be unable to sustain their National Sovereignty in the face of impending climate change and refugee status. Willi Telavi Tuvalu’s Prime Minister states ‘Relocation is not seen as an option but as a last resort, rights to land and culture are held with utmost importance’. And thus relocation will result in a loss of sovereignty (McNamara and Gibson, 2009). Architectural intervention can insure that a sense of sovereignty is maintained during the drastic climate change transformations that their native lands face. The intention of this Architectural Thesis is to design a solution that actively engages with sea level rise so that Tuvalu and other low-lying atoll nations can maintain a minimum of subsistence dwelling and economy. The current problems the Capital Island of Funafuti face are crippling with the loss of coastal areas and increased tidal flooding. This results with not only a loss in land area but also permanent salinisation in areas traditionally used for crop harvesting. This salinisation will only increase in severity with the projected future sea level rise. It will force the population of Funafuti to become climate refugees before it is fully submerged (IPCC, 2013). The main question this thesis aims to address is; How can architecture maintain a sense of sovereignty within a disappearing context. And what are the implications of habitation, culture and contested territories for the Tuvaluan’s? This critical reflection aims to investigate the architectural advantages of atoll environments. How the preservation of social, cultural identity and order can be maintained through a contemporary evolutionary process. Throughout this changing context it is imperative to maintain a sense of human scale within this small populace of Tuvaluan’s. The process begins with analysing a series of architectural design experiments. They are design led research experiments with themes of impending reality. They are similar to Tuvalu’s vernacular and built environment by their inherent characteristics and layout design Sourcing concrete current ideas and findings on Tuvalu itself are scarce as to the nature of fluxes of the global climate change predictions. Therefore research will be provided on the current environmental conditions of the island and the current problems the Tuvaluan's face, The predictions for sea level rise will be compared on a Funafuti cross section. This will show impact on the islands informal dwellings over time periods and how improvements can be made to mitigate the exacerbated conditions of climate change and the potential future problems that Funafuti Island will face.

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  • Investigating the Mesoscale of β-lactoglobulin Fibril Hydrogels

    Efthymiou, Christina (2017)

    Doctoral thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    The objective of this doctoral thesis was to investigate the relationship between the architecture of protein fibril networks and their macroscopic properties. This requires investigation of the mesoscale; the scale between the macroscopic and microscopic scales where fibril self-assembly processes occur resulting in structures organized in different hierarchical levels. The mesoscale of such networks is not extensively studied and this is where I want to add knowledge, in order for physical sciences to contribute to New Zealand agricultural food sectors by changing the way in which soft materials and biopolymer engineering is done and by taking biomaterials from commodities to specialties by adding knowledge. The protein selected for the current study was β-lactoglobulin which forms amyloid-like fibrils when heated at 80oC under acidic conditions. Specifically, hydrogels were formed under three pH conditions; 1) pH 2.3, 2) pH 2.0, and 3) pH 0.9. These three conditions result in three different types of hydrogels being formed. The β-lactoglobulin hydrogels formed at pH 0.9, which have not previously been reported in the literature, exhibit completely different structure and macroscopic properties compared with the standard and widely reported in the literature β-lactoglobulin hydrogels formed at pH 2.3 and pH 2.0. Cryo-scanning electron microscopy (cryo-SEM) was used to investigate the intact 3D structure of the hydrogels. On the contrary, there are a lot of studies reported in the literature using other microscopy techniques, like atomic force microscopy (AFM) or transmission electron microscopy (TEM), which allow the fibril characteristics and not the intact interior of the hydrogel structure to be investigated. Cryo-SEM showed that β-lactoglobulin fibrils formed at pH 2.3 are the most flexible fibrils with the longest end-to-end fibril lengths, while the fragmented-particles fibrils formed at pH 0.9 are the thickest and least flexible with the shortest end-to-end lengths. Determination of fibril characteristics helps in predicting the macroscopic behaviour of fibril networks. Small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) was used as a complementary method to cryo-SEM. SAXS allows structural investigation of fibril networks, that cryo-SEM is not able to achieve. Specifically, SAXS showed that fibril hydrogels formed at pH 2.3 exhibit the least compact structure with the least fibril surface roughness, while hydrogels formed at pH 0.9 exhibit the most compact structure and the roughest fibril surfaces. Another crucial point is that SAXS allows the thermodynamics of these systems to be probed. SAXS data confirmed that the more rod-like the network, the more favourable it is for the system to organize into a nematic phase. Rheology was used to investigate the macroscopic properties of the hydrogels. Rheology demonstrated that there are two types of behaviour exhibited by these three types of hydrogels. Although it was assumed at the start of this project that these three types of hydrogels could exhibit different macroscopic behaviour, since their end-to-end fibril length scales are different, finally, it was demonstrated experimentally that hydrogels formed at pH 2.3 and pH 2.0 exhibit roughly the same macroscopic behaviour, while hydrogels formed at pH 0.9 exhibit a completely different macroscopic behaviour. Specifically, hydrogel networks formed at pH 2.0 are slightly stiffer than those formed at pH 2.3 and exhibit fast gelation time, while hydrogels formed at pH 0.9 are the softest and exhibit slow gelation time. Considering the cryo-SEM data, the fibrils formed at pH 0.9 are the least flexible. These two sets of data appear to contradict each other, but it must be noted that the length scales being probed are different. These results indicate that the characteristics of individual fibrils do not necessarily manifest themselves directly in the macroscopic behaviour of the whole fibril network. This means that the interplay of the fibrils with each other is important in defining longer length scale behaviour. All in all, while most studies to date refer to the structural investigation of β-lactoglobulin fibril systems on a macroscopic or microscopic level, in this work it is addressed that thermodynamics, chain stiffness and thickness, electrostatic interactions, inter-fibril distances, orientation of β-sheet stacks, and the number of cross-links constitute the basic factors on the mesoscale that affect the architecture of the fibril networks and connect their architecture with their macroscopic properties. Hence, by controlling the mesoscale (self-assembly process), the manipulation of biomaterials that already exist in the market is feasible, in order to exhibit novel macroscopic properties.

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  • Re-Visioning Guqin Performance through Interface Design, Digital Measurement, and Signal Processing

    He, Jingyin (2017)

    Doctoral thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    The guqin is the oldest Chinese stringed instrument with a history of over 3000 years. The most distinct characteristics of the instrument are the fluid modulation of pitch, and the dynamics and timbre in the tones created by the combination of the left and right hand finger techniques, which require many years for mastery of their execution and application. Most guqin research remains limited to its history, aesthetics, philosophy, sonic properties and notation system. Despite its long history and rich literature, much remains to be discovered about the embodied relationship between the intricacies of ancillary and auxiliary movements of master musicians and their rich colour, timbre and subtle nuances in sound. This research addresses the significance of guqin hand gestures, and presents an approach for re-visioning guqin performance: firstly, by developing a physical gesture acquisition system to investigate the guqin music tradition through the measurement of hand gesture techniques; secondly, by exploring the compositional and performative potential of the developed acquisition system as a musical interface, and how guqin playing schema can evoke new amalgams of electro-instrumental music; and thirdly, by utilizing the enhanced understanding of guqin hand gestures to guide the design and development of new musical interfaces. These objectives define the re-visioning of guqin performance, and are described and detailed throughout this document. The implications of this research include preserving and inheriting guqin playing styles; supplementing and advancing pedagogy; revitalizing guqin music tradition through technological means; and utilizing the embodied performer-instrument relation to advance the state of the art in human-mechatronic musical interaction.

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  • How Women's Roles In Local Politics Are Understood At The Commune Level: Beoung Preah Commune, Cambodia

    Koy, Sokunthea (2016)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Promoting women’s political participation aims to achieve gender equality and bring justice to women whose rights and choices have been constrained. Women all around the world have remained subordinated in politics, and this is still true today, from the local to the global level (Whitworth, 1994). For some women who participate in public political activities, their ability to gain leadership or primary positions has been restricted by many factors. Gender roles and gender stereotypes shape formal political structures in the same way that these factors shape a family’s structure (Lilja, 2008). This qualitative study therefore, contributes to better understanding local perspectives on the roles of women in Cambodia’s local politics, either as voters or politicians in order to address gender inequality. This study will be an input for developing strategies which aim at engaging local people in gender equality programs which promote women’s participation in politics, and it will also contribute to the study of gender and politics in Cambodia. Based on Beoung Preah commune, Cambodia, this study drew on feminist epistemology and qualitative methodology. It involved the use of semi-structured interviews and focus groups with community members, political party representatives, local officials and other relevant local actors in Beoung Preah commune. This study explores local understandings of women’s political opportunities and political representation, in which they believe to make change in their community. This discusses the reasons behind women’s underrepresentation in local politics and suggests steps forward, grounded in local participants’ knowledge. It investigated local discourses on gender stereotypes such as how research participants conceptualize femininities and masculinities constituting the ideal attributes of political leaders. This is important for understanding women and men’s political opportunities and constraints. The study also explored different local perspectives on women’s political representation, expectations, emerging outcomes and socio-economic and political challenges, which make gender inequality a more complicated issue to address in the commune context. While achieving gender parity is in progress, the query of whether gender equality can be simply achieved right after women’s inclusion in local politics needs to be further investigated.

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  • Contracting for social and welfare services : the changing relationship between government and the voluntary sector in New Zealand

    Smith, Verna May (1996)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Ten years ago, the provision of government funding for the social and welfare services delivered by voluntary sector service providers was a simple process. In evidence presented to the Waitangi Tribunal in support of a claim by a Charitable Trust against the actions of the New Zealand Community Funding Agency heard last year, a witness who was employed by the Department of Social Welfare from early in 1988 describes the process at that time thus: The Department of Social Welfare has operated funding programmes for many years...these programmes were grant funding. That is there was no contracting nor reporting as presently known. Also they were operated on a Head Ofiice Wellington decision on the recommendation of a small team (3 or 4 people based in a Regional OfiBce Auckland).(Crown Law Office, 1994 c, 6) This simple process has, in the last decade, been replaced by a funding relationship between government and the voluntary sector which owes its origins primarily to theory emanating from the study ofthe operation of private markets and the internal organisation of firms within the marketplace. Agency theory and Transaction costs analysis, along with other theoretical perspectives from the world ofthe private business sector, have had a substantial influence upon the restructuring ofthe public sector in New Zealand during the last decade and in particular have provided the theoretical basis for the transformation of the relationship between government and the voluntary sector into one of principal and agents, bound by contractual terms and a regulatory framework for the monitoring of quantity and quality of social and welfare service outputs.

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