6,851 results for Scholarly text

  • Velocity structure of the Whataroa Valley using Ambient Noise Tomography

    McNab, Andy (2017)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    This thesis applies ambient noise tomography to investigate the shallow structure of the Whataroa Valley. Ambient noise techniques are applied to continuous seismic recordings acquired on 158 geophones deployed during the Whataroa Active Source Seismic Experiment. Despite only having four days of data, a robust shear-wave velocity model is calculated using a phase-weighted stacking approach to improve the cross-correlation functions' signal-to-noise ratios, allowing for robust velocity measurements to be obtained between periods of 0.3 and 1.8\,s. This yields a database of 12,500 vertical component cross correlation functions and the corresponding Rayleigh wave phase and group velocity dispersion curves. Linearised straight-ray tomography is applied to phase and group velocity dispersion measurements at periods ranging from periods of 0.3 to 1.8\,s. The tomography reveals a velocity that decreases from the vicinity of the DFDP-2B borehole to the centre of the valley. This is interpreted to be the geologic basement deepening towards the centre of the valley. A Monte-Carlo inversion technique is used to jointly invert Rayleigh-wave phase and group velocity dispersion curves constructed from phase and group velocity tomography maps of successively higher periods. Linear interpolation of the resulting 1D shear-wave velocity profiles produces a pseudo-3D velocity model of the uppermost 1,000\,m of the Whataroa Valley. Using sharp increases in velocity to represent lithological change, we interpret two velocity contours at 1,150 and 1,250\,m/s as potential sediment-basement contacts. Depth isocontours of these velocities reveal that the basement deepens towards the centre of the valley, reaching a maximum depth of 400 or 600\,m for the 1,150 and 1,250\,m/s velocity contours respectively. These depths indicate strong glacial over-deepening and have implications for future drilling projects in the Whataroa Valley. A sharp velocity increase of 200\,m/s also occurs at 100\,m depth at the DFDP-2B borehole. We interpret this to be a change in sedimentary rock lithology from fluvial gravels to lacustrine silty sands, related to a change in sedimentary depositional environment.

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  • Green IT in an Iridescent World

    Algar, Carolyn (2016)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Climate change is a significant and compelling issue that has captured the attention of world leaders and driven them to action. In 2015, 195 countries collaborated and developed the Paris Agreement. The sole aim of the agreement is to reduce global environmental impacts and slow down climate change. As consumers endeavour to reduce reliance on fossil fuels and move to cleaner, more environmentally friendly energy solutions, the oil industry is significantly affected as a result of reducing demand for product. As an organisation with oil as a primary product, Z Energy, the subject of this case study, is forced to examine their operations and investigate alternative product options. Z is a downstream fuel business, purchasing crude oil on the international market, importing it into New Zealand and processing it into fuel. This is distributed and sold to retail and commercial customers. Z own and manage over 200 service stations. Sustainability matters at Z. They have a sustainability strategy with goals to use less and waste less in their business; reduce the carbon intensity of customers; reduce reliance on fossil fuels and support New Zealand businesses and communities. Z is faced with a challenging issue. They are committed to running an environmentally sustainable business but operate in an industry where the primary product has significant negative impacts on the environment. It is vital that the commitment to environmental sustainability is supported through internal business functions, and to examine this challenge, this case study looks at Z through two lenses. 1. The Information Systems Triangle is used to evaluate alignment between Z’s sustainability strategy and their organisational and information strategies. In order to successfully deliver on their sustainability goals, Z should ensure they have alignment between the three strategies and furthermore, the organisational and information strategies should be designed to complement the business (sustainability) strategy. 2. The Green IT Maturity Model is used to evaluate the ICT practices at Z to determine if they are positioned to support the corporate sustainability goals. As a sector ICT contributes to climate change by emitting 2-3% of total carbon emissions. As well as a part of the problem, ICT can also contribute solutions to reduce emissions in other sectors. The methodology used to gather research data was a combination of semi structured face to face interviews with selected Z employees, analysis of Z strategy documents and review of academic and practitioner research and frameworks. The data was evaluated against the IS Strategy Triangle and analysis found that while the sustainability strategy is in place, it is not supported by or aligned with the organisational and information strategies. The data was also used to evaluate the maturity of the ICT practices by comparing the current ICT processes as described by interviewees against each maturity measure in the Green IT Maturity model. While some areas were assessed to have average maturity, overall the maturity of the practices was low. Recommendations were developed that if implemented would result in convergence between the business sustainability strategy and the organisation and information strategies. Other recommendations were to improve the maturity of the ICT practices through: • implementation of an ICT sustainability strategy • establishment of green ICT maturity goals • encouragement of telecommuting • implementation of guidelines for ICT asset procurement, and • development of guidelines for ICT asset disposal.

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  • “I know what that is! It’s modern art!” Early childhood access to and use of art museums and galleries in Aotearoa New Zealand

    Terreni, Lisa (2017)

    Doctoral thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    This thesis examines issues of access to art museums and galleries for young children attending early childhood (EC) centres, the ways in which the EC sector uses the institutions to enhance young children’s learning, and the relationship art museums and galleries have with New Zealand’s youngest citizens. It is the first in-depth study of young children’s use of art museums and galleries in Aotearoa New Zealand. A mixed methods approach to the research involved a range of data gathering tools to observe, document, and analyse the practices and attitudes towards art museum visiting by the EC sector. Key participants were EC teachers, art museum directors, and art museum educators. Rich quantitative and qualitative data were elicited from a national survey of 17 of New Zealand’s largest art museums and galleries, an extensive national online questionnaire to EC centres, and an embedded case study of three EC centres who visited art museums as part of the research. Bourdieu’s key concepts of habitus, cultural capital and, particularly, field provide the fundamental tools for analysis within this inquiry. These have been used to examine and attempt to explain why some EC teachers visit art museums and galleries with young children while others do not, and understand issues of power within the field of art education in an art museum or gallery. The study found that there are both facilitators and barriers to art museum and gallery visiting by the EC sector. Barriers included: funding limitations, teachers’ fears about using art museums and galleries with young children, lack of professional development for teachers, and poor marketing of exhibitions to the EC sector. Facilitators included EC teachers’ positive perceptions of art museums and galleries as places for enriching and extending young children’s visual arts education, visual art pedagogical practices that support visiting, and the willingness of some art museums and galleries to work with the EC sector. On the basis of the findings from all three phases of the research and informed by the literature reviews and the conceptual tools used in the analysis of data, a ‘third space’ for art education in art museums and galleries for young children attending EC centres is proposed.

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  • Intensity at the Edge

    Kelly, Hannah (2017)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    There is an inherent relationship between New Zealanders and the coast and has become part of our culture and identity. The coastal threshold is a place of emersion in time, surface and weathering process of materials and the marks and traces of time, this thesis explores architectural expression on Wellingtons coastline. This project proposes the design of a series of six interventions along Wellington’s south coast. This research explores how architecture can respond to the temporality and extreme contextual conditions of the diverse landscapes. By developing an inherent architectural language of shelter that identifies and embodies the contextual and programmatic narrative, this thesis proposes for the occupation of site through a protective and experiential architecture.

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  • Is Romance Dead? Erich Korngold and the Romantic German Lied

    Jamieson Emms, Georgia (2017)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Far from being the operatic aria's less glamorous sister, the Romantic German Lied offers much dramatic scope for the classical performer. It has been described as the “quintessential Romantic genre”: the balanced and harmonious union of the music and text, in which the pianist and singer are equals. As accessible at private music gatherings as in concert halls, the Lied enjoyed popularity in German-speaking countries for over a hundred years, before facing its greatest adversary: Modernism. Romanticism, as an artistic movement, fought to survive in the uncertain musical and political landscape of the twentieth century. In Erich Korngold, Romantic music found a staunch advocate, and Lieder gained one of its most gifted contributors. Following in the daunting footsteps of Richard Strauss and Gustav Mahler, Korngold's unashamedly luscious, rich orchestrations and soaring melodies earned him the nickname “the Viennese Puccini.” A child prodigy, Erich Korngold's rise was swift and glorious; his fall coincided with that of the German Lied and Romanticism itself. Romance may not have “died”, but it became outdated in the twentieth-century push for modernity and innovation across all art forms. In encyclopedias little is written of Korngold and his compositional output beyond his most famous and enduring opera Die tote Stadt, and his pioneering film scoring in pre- and post-war Hollywood. In my research I will show that Korngold is deserving of a place in the music canon as not only one of the last great composers of Lieder, but one of the last great Romantics, whose life and works sit on the cusp between the old world and the new. Furthermore, I will address the question of whether Romanticism died with the arrival of Modernism and revolutionary experimentation in music, or whether it lives on today, albeit in different forms.

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  • Systematic study of the synthesis of nanostructured multiferroic films and their structural, electronic and magnetic properties

    Couture, Pierre (2017)

    Doctoral thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Multiferroics are unique materials that display multiple ferroic properties (ferroelectricity, ferromagnetism and ferroelasticity) simultaneously. A number of materials containing bismuth have intrinsic multiferroic properties, including BiFeO₃ and BiCrO₃. Among them, BiFeO₃ has attracted widespread attention because BiFeO₃ was the first material to display multiferroic behaviour at ambient temperature. A weak ferromagnetism occurs only at low temperatures depending on synthesis conditions. This thesis reports the structural, magnetic and optical properties of nanostructured BiFeO₃ thin films prepared by two novel approaches of ion beam sputtering and ion implantation techniques. Nanocrystalline BiFeO₃ films were prepared at ambient temperature by sputtering and thermal annealing at 500 °C in an oxygen atmosphere. The annealing resulted in the formation of multiferroic BiFeO₃ phase with a reduction of iron oxide and bismuth phases. Superparamagnetism was observed and could be attributed to magnetite and maghemite nanoparticles. The magnetic properties were mainly due to magnetite and maghemite nanoparticles. The saturation magnetic moment was 60% lower after annealing, which was due to Fe in phases of iron oxide being incorporated into BiFeO₃ nanoparticles. An exchange bias was observed before and after annealing. The exchange bias cannot be attributed to BiFeO₃ structure. Instead, the exchange has likely arisen from magnetite and maghemite cores with spin-disordered shells. Piezoelectric responses measured by piezoelectric force microscopy confirmed the presence of BiFeO₃ ferroelectric material. The Magneto-optical Kerr effect (MOKE) and optical studies were used to calculate an anomalously high Verdet constant. The MOKE and magnetic circular dichroism (MCD) displayed a significant modification in function of the wavelength. Further increasing the annealing temperature lead to an increase in iron oxide phases, while increasing the annealing duration reduced the iron oxide phases, however this increases the fraction of Bi₂Fe₄O₉ and Bi₂O₃. Another approach to synthesise BiFeO₃ thin film was investigated by bismuth ion implantation into iron oxide thin film. An as-made iron oxide film subsequently implanted with bismuth and annealed showed a 6.5% reduction of the ferromagnetic phase fraction. An annealed iron oxide film subsequently implanted with bismuth and annealed show that the ferromagnetic phase was present at less than 4% while Fe₃O₄ and γ-Fe₂O₃ increased to 7%. The coercive field is affected by annealing. However, this field is not affected by the bismuth implantation. For the first-time, a preliminary investigation reporting the implantation of Bi then Fe then O into SiO₂:Si was made with the aim to synthesise BiFeO₃ films and magnetic nanoparticles. The implantation of Fe then O then Bi into SiO₂:Si contained a mix of iron oxides: α-Fe₂O₃ and Fe₃O₄, as confirmed by Raman spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction, while γ-Fe₂O₃ was most likely also present in the film. The as-implanted sample displayed a sign of a superparamagnetic phase that was lost with annealing the sample. Preliminary investigations of another multiferroic material, BiCrO₃, were carried out. Thin films of BiCrO₃ were prepared by ion beam sputtering and annealing the sample in an oxygen atmosphere which lead to BiCrxOy with chromium oxides and bismuth oxide phases. Magnetic enhancement was observed when annealing above 700 °C. Annealing in an oxygen atmosphere followed by an argon atmosphere created a superparamagnetic phase that was not visible under other annealing conditions.

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  • Independent Review of the Performance Improvement Framework

    Allen, Barbara; [and 8 others] (2017)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

    The research was commissioned by State Services Commission and constitutes the first independent assessment of the Performance Improvement Framework (PIF). The project brief was to produce three key sets of information: - Comparative research with similar interventions across international jurisdictions; - An assessment of the value and impact derived from the PIF, and; - Recommendations for the future development and application of the PIF. Conclusions The PIF is, on balance, a successful and credible performance improvement tool that has contributed to the development of organisational strategic thinking within organisations. The longevity of the PIF is potentially down to the stability of political support offered by successive governments (unlike, for example, in the UK). Adaptations and evolution of the PIF also contributes to its longevity. Attention needs to be paid, therefore, to continuing evolution; particularly succession planning for personnel such as lead reviewers who have a trusted position and very positive reputation. PIF is one of many review processes and therefore attention needs to be paid to situating PIF within these broader themes; and also to investigate ways in which they can enhance the overall ‘ecosystem’ rather than replicate or challenge or elements of it.

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  • Youth Participation in Community Development: A Case Study of Youth in Takeo Province, Cambodia

    Khin, Sam Ann (2017)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Youth participation in community development has been viewed as one of the most effective methods for promoting young people’s active engagement with social services. However in rural communities of Cambodia, young people’s participation is most commonly related to their labour contribution, which lacks core components of participation such as decisions, choices, and management. Zeldin (2004) explains that adults usually initiate organisational structures and norms for young people’s participation, which can inhibit young people from reaching their needs or interests. Addressing these issues this thesis, from a qualitative perspective, aims to contribute to local understandings about youth participation in development. With a focus on Cambodia, it explores the grounded experiences of two youth groups in order to offer considerations for social practice, programme implementations and further studies. The research involved in-depth interviews, focus group discussions, and participant observations with youth, village chiefs, commune councils, NGO staff, a church leader, a school teacher and young people’s parents in Chumras Pen commune, Samroang district, Takeo Province of Cambodia. The examination of local perspectives of youth participation is unravelled through participants’ practical experience and knowledge. The respondents considered charitable contributions of youth as their primary form of active participation, including educational awareness and campaigns in the community. Provided there are some positive outcomes from youth engagement, one of the influential aspects is contributed by local partnerships. This substantial contribution stimulates interactions between key local members and youth so they can work together for positive change in the community. This thesis suggests that young people do need support from key local groups or recognised agents to assist them in initiating participation in terms of forming groups, and providing training and coaching to open new possibilities and strengthen youth’s initiatives. The study also reveals several factors which have both direct and indirect effects on youth participation practices. These include religion and development, power relations, and women’s leadership. This research suggests that these factors either motivate or inhibit youth participation because of social norms and cultural acceptance.

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  • Paris in Niue: An Analysis of the Aid Effectiveness Agenda in Niue

    Talagi, Felicia Pihigia (2017)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    The rise of critical thinking about aid and aid effectiveness has shifted development practice towards promoting an active role for aid recipients in their development. The Paris Declaration on aid effectiveness and the five principles for effective aid sits at the core of this development agenda. The aim of this study is to investigate how the aid effectiveness agenda has influenced Niue’s development policy and practice. The Government of Niue aspires to be financially self-sufficient. It is an ambitious goal for a small nation that is heavily reliant on aid from the Government of New Zealand. Using primary and secondary sources the results suggested that the Government of Niue asserts a moderate level of effectiveness. To further improve and strengthen the delivery of services the Niue Government undertook a transformation process of the public sector. The major change resulting from this transformation was the amalgamation of over fifteen different departments into five ministries with an added layer of management. The transformation had not yielded the expected results at the time of the research but it has uncovered critical areas for the government to strengthen. These are capacity constraints within the public service, a requirement for a coordinated approach for communication internally and externally, harmonisation of development efforts, transparency and accountability, and the political backing to achieve it all. The New Zealand assistance to the Government of Niue is also analysed using the principles of the Paris Declaration. The results indicated a positive change, considerable improvements from the historical dominating tactics experienced in earlier days. The relationship between the two governments is now recognised as a partnership. The flexibility and the clear communication and dialogue has solidified the partnership which has given confidence and certainty for the Government of Niue to work towards its goal of a prosperous Niue.

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  • Staging Tourism: Performing Place

    Boyd, Giuseppina (2017)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    This thesis examines the relationship between architecture and the tourist experience. In architecture, an understanding of the active tourist body is underdeveloped as visuality is often positioned as the dominant mode of analysing tourism. This thesis mobilizes the tourist by recognising a paradigmatic shift from the ‘gaze’ towards the ‘performance turn’ which privileges the multisensuous experiences of the tourist engaged with architecture. The thesis investigates how architecture can stage and amplify the performances of tourists in order to produce place, en route. To test this enquiry, a ‘design through research’ methodology is employed where the design proposition is developed through iterative design experiments. Within each experiment, drawing, physical modelling, collage and digital modelling are utilised to explore the dynamic relationship between architecture and tourists. Carried out alongside the design process, a comparative literature review and case study analysis provide a theoretical framework to support ‘design through research’. The design proposition is explored across three increasing scales, progressing the research through stages of development and refinement. In these three investigations the site of experimentation shifts from an installation to the domestic scale, through to the public scale. The first experiment engages with the human scale to mobilise a conceptual understanding of place through a 1:1 installation. The next experiment amplifies the domestic and exotic aspects of performing tourism through the design of a hotel. In the final experiment, the design of an artificial island stages the public performances of tourists of tourists, who produce place en route. This thesis concludes that while tourists performances are staged by architecture, tourists produce place through their individual and collective performances, indicating that neither tourism nor place are merely products, but part of a process.

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  • Event Travel Careers of Singaporean Artists and Producers: An Arts-Informed Life History Approach

    Goh, Sandra (2017)

    Doctoral thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Artists and producers engage in event tourism in the course of their leisure and work but existing research on event tourism has placed emphasis on the event audience rather than artists and producers at events. An event travel career is developed when a person travels to participate in events ranging from local to regional and international scale. Getz and Andersson (2010) event travel career trajectory (ETCT) has been used to study serious amateur sport athletes and yoga devotees, looking at motivations, changing travel styles, spatial and temporal patterns, event and destination choices and their competing priorities as constraints to travel. However, participants in the arts world have not yet been identified as serious event tourists. Further, the event travel career progression of artists and producers in the performing arts world has yet to be established to determine their purpose, and frequency of travel at each stage of their career. This study aims to investigate how amateur and professional artists and producers develop their event travel career using the ETCT to examine the factors that constrain or facilitate their event travel career, the extent to which artists and producers conceptualize themselves as serious event tourists, and the role open access and other events play in the ETCT. A social constructionist paradigm is adopted with the use of an arts-informed life history approach to gather and interpret the stories of 19 Singaporean artists and producers representing three generations. The participants are well known to the researcher who performed the role of both the insider (member of Singapore arts community) and the outsider (PhD researcher) in this study. The arts-informed method involved creative inquiries (memory maps, drawings, and symbolic items) to invite participants to construct their ETCT visually over three research meetings. Pamphilon’s (1999) zoom model was adapted to analyze and interpret the stories in three parts: individually; against the participants’ cohort; and as part of the macro environment. The findings shed new light on the foundational stage of event travel career; the constraints, facilitators and motivations to travel; and social world events and destinations as key drivers in the development of an event travel career. The findings also revealed higher travel activity by the semi-professional and professional artists and producers in the arts, unlike the amateurs in sport tourism. This study contributes to the field of theory by developing an integrative framework of event travel careers, that incorporates Unruh’s social world theory and Stebbins’ serious leisure career perspective to examine and trace the event travel career development of serious event travellers. The study suggests that artists and producers are serious event travellers who start as hobbyists or leisurists before they develop their event travel career as semi-professionals and professionals. This study also contributes a different context in the study of ETCT by focusing on the development of Singapore’s arts scene, through the ETCTs of her artists and producers as amateurs, semi-professionals, and professionals – a move from the Western context found in extant research on event travel careers. Further, this study contributes methodologically to the development of the use of the arts-informed life history approach with Pamphilon’s (1999) zoom model, to enable a more holistic and structured analysis of the individuals’ stories, and the macro-environment of Singapore. The arts-informed life history research approach provides fruitful ground for future research in event travel career and should be repeated. It is capable of eliciting information about the past beyond the principal topic to inform the present.

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  • The unfortunate regressivity of public natural disaster insurance: Quantifying distributional implications of EQC building cover for New Zealand

    Owen, Sally Margaret Frean (2017)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    This thesis examines the question “What have been the distributional implications of the setup of Earthquake Commission (EQC) building cover for New Zealand homeowners?” In New Zealand, the vast majority of property owners pay identical premiums for the benefit of the first $100,000 tranche of natural disaster cover per dwelling. The research provides a detailed quantification of the degree of regressivity of the scheme created by these flat premiums. Using EQC claims and property datasets relating to the Canterbury Earthquake Series, I test the hypothesis that wealthier homeowners are receiving more benefit. Wealth is identified by property value, income and a range of socio-economic variables collected from the most recent New Zealand Census before the earthquake series. In explaining EQC total dwelling payout by property value and by these socio-economic variables, the research shows there is a distributional implication to EQC’s building cover. This thesis includes a proposed modification to the premium structure of the scheme, whereby regressivity could be avoided. The research concludes with a survey of other public natural disaster insurance schemes worldwide, and identifies those likely to face similar regressivity issues.

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  • The darker side of the moon: Satanic traditions in New Zealand as magick systems

    Latham, John (2001)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    When people discover the topic of my thesis they usually ask "Why Satanism?". In 1998 Satanism caught my attention when I was doing an undergraduate paper in sociology, the sociology of religion. Here I encountered several studies on the Satanic Ritual Abuse phenomena (SRA, also known as Satanic Panic and Satanism scare) See appendices for a brief history of SRA of the late 1980's and early 1990's in England, America, Australia and here in New Zealand. SRA evolved from accusations that satanic cults were involved in rituals where children were physically and sexually abused, and possibly killed. There were also reports that children were being bred for such practices. Both here and overseas cases were investigated by government agencies. The Peter Ellis case is perhaps the defining example of SRA in New Zealand. See appendices for an overview of this case In 1999,I noticed the census figures between 1986 and 1996 showed a growth of New Zealanders who identified as Satanist during the height of SRA scare, with the number rising nearly 400% (from 240 to 906). From this several questions arose: perhaps most importantly what is Satanism: why had this number grown: and how does one become a Satanist? As I began researching answers to these questions, I became aware of elements that were not apparent from the literature. Not all Satanism is about being evil and using black Magick. The spelling of Magick with a 'k' is to differentiate between religious Magick and show (illusional) magic. This is explained in more detail later. Some elements of Satanism link it closely with other Magick traditions. In this thesis I discuss two questions: what is Satanism in New Zealand and is there a relationship between Satanism and other Magick traditions in New Zealand?

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  • Building a Leadership Brand within the Public Sector: A Critical Assessment

    Jog, Samradhni; Löfgren, Karl; Jackson, Brad (2016)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

    This paper investigates the potential utility of leadership branding for the public sector by ap-plying it as a sense-making approach to recent cross-sector leadership development initiatives that have been launched in the New Zealand State sector over the past eight years. We critically assess the collective effort to build a new, distinctive and positive leadership brand for the New Zealand public service aimed at improving the material and perceived performance of the pub-lic sector. Based on a discursive analysis of documentary evidence produced by the central actors within the NZ government who are charged with leadership development across the state sector, we have sought to investigate the discursive practices of leadership roles and identities. Specifically, we ask two questions: what have been the dominant discursive constructions of leadership that have been promulgated within the New Zealand state sector? To what extent do these serve to strengthen or weaken a compelling leadership brand? The study observes that, while leadership is constructed in a loose and ambiguous manner, two dominant themes perse-vere: leadership is primarily cast as a top-down process that is required to serve managerialist ends. We conclude that the leadership brand building efforts to date might well be hampered because of their exclusive, functionalist, internal and leader-centered focus.

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  • Literary Serial Killer Fiction: The Evolution of a Genre

    Cook, Grant (2017)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    This study examines the dynamics of post-war American serial killer fiction as it relates to social and literary contexts. In the context of history and development, this study considers the impact and origins of particular works and how they have influenced the stylistic and thematic evolution of a particular subgenre I have called literary serial killer fiction. Emphasis is placed on select narratives that directly (or indirectly) transform, challenge and critique the genre conventions in which they are written. Of interest is the evolution of general serial killer fiction as a postmodern phenomenon, in terms of its popularity with the reading public, and in line with the growth of media interest in representations of serial killers. I draw on literary theory (in particular, ‘new historicism’) to demonstrate that the appeal and tropes of serial killer fiction reflect socio-political interests indicative of the era from where they were produced, and to show how the subgenre of literary serial killer fiction can be categorized using its own particular set of defining features. I examine these aspects in detail in relation to the following selection of fictional serial-killer narratives: Jim Thompson’s The Killer Inside Me, James Ellroy’s Killer on the Road, and Brett Easton Ellis’s American Psycho. For brevity’s sake, I have selected American narrative works that employ first-person narration and are transgressive in the way they focus on characters who defy convention and push boundaries, as do the narratives within larger genre traditions and protocols. In my view, these works are the purest examples of literary serial killer fiction in that they are characteristically unlike other examples that can easily be categorised under other literary genres. The appeal and popularity of the genre, alongside the functional aspects of the trope, leads me to conclude that it is an ideal form to interact with popular cultural narratives, while also allowing subversive interplay between both real and fictional concerns. The appeal of the genre to those authors who usually write outside of it, particularly in regard to its transgressive and allegorical qualities, is also of particular interest to this study. Because of the hybrid nature of the genre and the ease with which the central trope of the fictional serial killer transcends genres, the resulting possibilities provide a transgressive outlet for authors who wish to test boundaries, in both a literary and an ontological sense, in regard to the commentary serial killer fiction allows on the state of contemporary American literature and society.

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  • A cutlery set for stroke

    Chen, Lin (2017)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Stroke is a common problem that affects approximately 700,000 patients annually in the United States alone and can cause long-term disabilities (Mallory, 2006, p.33). The long-term effects of a stroke can impact on the patient’s ability to use one side of their body. Upper limb, lower limb, postural and communication difficulties are common factors that patients experience after a stroke (Perry, 2004), which can affect the patient’s ability to eat (McLaren, 1997). After a stroke, the impairment of an upper limb can lead to problems that make it difficult for people to use cutlery, and include poor grip, decreased muscle control, tremors and upper limb weakness (Brackenrige, 2016). Currently, there are some assistive technology (AT) cutlery sets aimed to help patients who have difficulty in eating and muscle control. Several reasons why stroke patients abandon AT cutlery are cost, appearance, and function (Vaes, 2014). However, an experiment (Torrens, 2013) in to adaptive cutlery products and previous research suggest that there is a large space to improve this, such as appearance and function. AT cutlery sets have been criticized because of their appearance and inferior functions (Torrens, 2013). This then leads to a disconnection between the user and the AT cutlery products, in which the user experiences visible stigma and links the cutlery to an undesirable characteristic (Vaes, 2012). There are some limitations of the current AT cutlery sets that have been identified in the evaluation (Torren & Smith, 2013), such as poor friction material, stereotypical shapes, and skin-tone handle colour. The limitations create an opportunity for the designers to improve the AT cutlery set to be a selected object and a pleasurable product to use in everyday life. The purpose of this research is to explore how human-centred design can reduce the stigma of using AT cutlery for stroke patients through addressing the appearance and interactions of spoons, forks and knives. The research involves the following steps: observing videos of stroke patients eating, interviewing clinicians, interviewing stroke patients, and iterative design with the supervision of clinicians. Some of the main issues identified surrounding stroke patient eating and using cutlery include grip weakness, muscle contracture, and difficulty of flexion. Based on the product intervention model for stigma (PIMS) (Vaes, 2014), this study utilized existing research surrounding the evaluation of assistive technology. To help understand each stage of the user needs, previous feedback from health-care clinicians and patients will ensure the validity of ergonomic interventions and stigma strategy as a substitute for traditional cutlery design. The output of this research includes a set of cutlery as well as assistive components. The design addresses a patient’s difficulty in using cutlery through an adaptive ring to help the patients’ grip. The utensils allow the user to either carry out eating activities at home or in a restaurant. The feedback from occupational therapists and physiotherapists indicates that the cutlery should accommodate different levels of stroke severity. Based on the findings of literature reviews and feedback, I have focused my design on addressing the stroke patients’ grip weakness, muscle contracture, and difficulty of hand flexion, whilst minimizing stigma, based on the PIMS strategies (Vaes, 2014). The design principle suggests that current cutlery designs with an integrated shape cannot meet all requirements of a stroke patient. Therefore, a combination of additional wearing components needs to be used to help dietary intake.

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  • Out of place: Rewriting a landscape signature

    Baker, Alison Leonora (2017)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    South Wairarapa, in New Zealand’s lower North Island presents an interesting collision; the landscapes forms and features evidence distinct separation between traditional landscape values and recent European economic developments – a separation evident in most New Zealand regions. Combined with its low urban socio-economic outlook and the utilisation of unsustainable farming practices, the region is in decline both ecologically and socially. Near irreversible damage has been done to the landscape. Engineered floodplain manipulation, land clearing, and intensive individualistic farming has resulted in continuing land degradation, flooding, droughts, severe waterway contamination, pollution, and habitat destruction. Utilising a design led approach in a three-scale investigation with focus assumed on the Ruamahanga River catchment, this thesis investigation explores how designed intervention with regards to the Wairarapa waterway systems can promote a re-emergence of place and placement in Wairarapa to reflect an integrated relationship with the processes of one’s landscape. It discusses how this interaction could be landscape transformative, re-introduce the prosperities of historic Wairarapa, promote sustainable farming practices, and recover declining ecologies. The investigation also discusses the wider New Zealand issue of rural waterway acknowledgement, and its relationship to place, culture, and identity discourse. This study has been ethically approved. Approval number 22990.

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  • A content analysis of library job advertisements in New Zealand in 2016 compared to 2007

    Hoffmann, Sarah (2017)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Research problem: With evidence that generic skills are a de facto specification for many library roles a formal education in librarianship may be perceived as less relevant by employers. Content analysis of library job advertisements was conducted to measure and identify high ranking skills, emerging skills, required qualifications and experience. Methodology: Job advertisements were accessed and downloaded from the online archives of NZ-Libs and NZ-Libs-Jobs list servers. Non-random sampling yielded a total of 517 listings (331 in 2007 and 186 in 2016). A categorisation dictionary was compiled, frequency counts tallied and data tabulated, converted to percentages and graphed. Results: Library employers requested the majority of skills more frequently in 2016 than in 2007. Communication, customer service and computer skills were the three highest ranking skills in 2016. Qualifications and information-specific qualifications were cited less frequently in 2016 than 2007. Employers requested one year or more of experience more frequently in 2016 than 2007. Implications: It is recommended that future studies use multiple data sources to increase representativeness of samples. A mixed method approach involving interviewing of library employers could also help to improve robustness of conclusions.

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  • Late Holocene Sedimentation on the Southern Kāpiti Coast

    Nolan, Rackley Michael (2017)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    The Kāpiti Coast is a broad low lying coastal plain on the western coast of New Zealand’s North Island. The coastal plain has formed over the last 6500 years through rapid progradation of coastal sediment, developing a distinct cuspate foreland. With numerous coastal communities across the low coastal plain, recent coastal erosion of the southern coastal plain combined with forecast sea level rise has drawn attention to coastal hazards. However, understanding these hazards has been hampered by a lack of information on the Holocene tectonic and sedimentary development of the coastal plain. This study focuses on the southern portion of the Kāpiti Coast using a geological approach to document coastal outcrops and drillcores. Using detailed sedimentological analysis including description, grainsize, composition and shape, in addition to observation of the modern environment, a detailed facies scheme and depositional model for the southern Kāpiti Coast are produced. Combining the interpreted depositional environments and age control provided by C14, OSL and well-dated pumice deposition, progressive coastal progradation and a transition from marine to terrestrial environments is reconstructed for the southern Kāpiti Coast. Records from this study reveal rapid sedimentation, at rates of up to 12.6m/1000 years within this southern limb, slowing dramatically with coastal retreat beginning within the last 400 years. Recognising the vertical offset of the beach/dune boundary as a marker of past sea level recorded in the cores and outcrops, a 1m uplift is recognised at the southernmost point of the coastal plain. In addition to constraining the penultimate movement of the Ohariu Fault, it contrasts with the tectonic stability of the central part of the coastal plain and subsidence further north. Such insight into vertical base level change across the coastal plain has implications for future coastal hazard identification.

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  • Place-making Through Time: Future-proofing Tauranga Borough through the evolution of 'Place Identity'

    Gibb, Callum (2017)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    The water’s edge is a vital element in New Zealand’s natural environments and established communities. Development of industrial infrastructure along this threshold, has left many coastal settlements stagnant and slipping into demise, negatively impacting the connection with the land and people, while industries continue to thrive. This research responds to this problem by exploring the potential of a place’s identity to become a catalyst to moderate the impact of industrial infrastructure on inner city consumption, community engagement and urban use. Tauranga City provides appropriate testing grounds for this research. It has an under-utilized and uninspiring city centre, that suffers from the impact of industrial domination. The lack of diversity in civic and community spaces and opportunity for community engagement and interaction with Tauranga’s water’s edge has encouraged its community to move out of the city into more vibrant neighbouring suburbs and cities. This situation is contributing to the gradual demise of Tauranga City. This investigation considers the studies of Tauranga’s original settlement and evolution to its current condition, before turning to literature on place-making and resiliency for both people and environments. Appropriate and relevant cases from architectural practice, which address these urban issues, have been selected. Applying these studies, a speculative design has been developed which also sources other literature for guidance and idea generation. This has resulted in a process of pro-grammatically representing place identity for spatial use, along with iteratively testing the organization and prioritisation of people and infrastructure within a city centre in a coastal context. Exploring the potential for prioritizing people over infrastructure, has resulted in the realization that we must engage, involve and consult with people to mediate the displaced developments of community and the impact of growth of industrial activity.

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