6,864 results for Scholarly text

  • The Interface of Copyright and Human Rights: Access to Copyright Works for the Visually Impaired

    Ayoubi, Lida (2015)

    Doctoral thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Reproduction of copyright protected material in formats that are accessible to the blind and visually impaired persons constitutes a copyright infringement unless there are specific limitations and exceptions in place. Most countries do not have copyright limitations and exceptions for the benefit of the visually impaired in their copyright laws. This has contributed to the issue of book famine, meaning the unsatisfactory access to copyright protected material for the blind and visually impaired. This thesis examines the claims of the visually impaired for improved access to copyright protected works in the context of the interface of human rights and intellectual property rights. This research demonstrates that insufficient access to copyright protected material is discriminatory against the visually impaired and negatively affects their human rights such as the right to education, information, health, employment, culture, and science. Moreover, the thesis analyses the international and domestic copyright law’s impact on the needs of the visually impaired. In analysing the international copyright law, the thesis evaluates the Marrakesh Treaty to Facilitate Access to Published Works by Visually Impaired Persons and Persons with Print Disabilities. Highlighting the insufficient consideration for the rights of the visually impaired in domestic and international copyright laws including the Marrakesh Treaty, the thesis proposes adoption of a human rights framework for copyright law to the extent that it affects the human rights of the visually impaired. Such framework requires copyright law to accommodate those human rights of the visually impaired that are dependent on access to copyright protected material. The thesis offers two categories of measures for creation of a human rights framework for copyright to the extent that it affects the human rights of the visually impaired. The measures include optimisation of already available options and adoption of new mechanisms. The first category discusses minimum mandatory copyright limitations and exceptions and the possibility to harmonise them. The second category covers extra measures such as clarifying the implications of different human rights and copyrights in the context of the book famine; ensuring compatibility of human rights and copyright when adopting policy and law; and, regular monitoring of the impact of copyright law on human rights.

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  • The Floating Village: Fostering Social Capital in Chinese Migrant Settlements through Mobile Architecture

    Woon, Vincent (2015)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    In the past two decades, China has realised one of the fastest and largest rural to urban migrations in the world. The country’s urban population has increased by 20% over the last 20 years due to rapid urbanisation and a drastic improvement in urban opportunities. It is projected that by the year 2020 China aims to house 60% of its population in urban areas, resulting in a population shift of over 100 million people. One of the major issues which is presented to rural migrants is the hukou system. Hukou acts as a domestic passport which prevents rural migrants from attaining social benefits within urban areas. This has created an underclass within China’s urban areas known as the “floating population”. This thesis focuses on the architecture of the “floating villages” of China which accommodate this floating population. The floating village is an informal settlement of migrant workers which develops around construction sites. The village provides services such as food, entertainment, medical care and recycling to the construction workers., However, as a pseudo-urban typology accommodating many of the functions of a town, it lacks one important element: a focused communal area. The absence of deliberately designed a communal space has led to social tensions within the floating village due to the different cultural origins of the migrant workers. Migrant workers arrive in floating villages without knowledge of urban culture and with no communal support. Varying migrant accents, and traditions, alongside struggles with poverty, creates friction between workers. This thesis proposes a temporary and portable architectural intervention within the floating village which fosters a positive community. The research of community design is explored through an architecturalisation of Dr Robert D. Putnam’s understanding of social capital.

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  • Synthesis and Reactivity of Group 12 β-Diketiminate Coordination Complexes

    Webb, Dylan (2016)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    The variable β-diketiminate ligand poses as a suitable chemical environment to explore unknown reactivity and functionality of metal centres. Variants on the β-diketiminate ligand can provide appropriate steric and electronic stabilization to synthesize a range of β-diketiminate group 12 metal complexes. This project aimed to explore various β-diketiminate ligands as appropriate ancillary ligands to derivatise group 12 element complexes and investigate their reactivity. A β-diketiminato-mercury(II) chloride, [o-C₆H₄{C(CH₃)=N-2,6- iPr₂C₆H₃}{NH(2,6- iPr₂C₆H₃)}]HgCl, was synthesized by addition of [o-C₆H₄{C(CH₃)=N-2,6- iPr₂C₆H₃}{NH(2,6- iPr₂C₆H₃)}]Li to mercury dichloride. Attempts to derivatise the β-diketiminato-mercury(II) chloride using salt metathesis reactions were unsuccessful with only β-diketiminate ligand degradation products being observed in the ¹H NMR. A β-diketiminato-cadmium chloride, [CH{(CH₃)CN-2,6-iPr₂C₆H₃}₂]CdCl, was derivatized to a β-diketiminato-cadmium phosphanide, [CH{(CH₃)CN-2,6-iPr₂C₆H₃}₂]Cd P(C₆H₁₁)₂, via a lithium dicyclohexyl phosphanide and a novel β-diketiminato-cadmium hydride, [CH{(CH₃)CN-2,6-iPr₂C₆H₃}₂]CdH, via Super Hydride. Initial reactivity studies of the novel cadmium hydride with various carbodiimides yielded a β-diketiminato-homonuclear cadmium-cadmium dimer, [CH{(CH₃)CN-2,6-iPr₂C₆H₃}₂Cd]₂, which formed via catalytic reduction of the cadmium hydride. Attempts to synthesize an amidinate insertion product via a salt metathesis reaction or a ligand exchange reaction proved unsuccessful but a novel cadmium amidinate, [{CH(N-C₆H₁₁)₂}₂{CH(N-C₆H₁₁)(N(H)-C₆H₁₁)}Cd], was synthesized from addition of dicyclohexyl formamidine to bis-hexamethyldisilazane cadmium. A β-diketiminato-zinc(II) bromide, [o-C₆H₄{C(CH₃)=N-2,6- iPr₂C₆H₃}{NH(2,6- iPr₂C₆H₃)}]ZnBr, was synthesized by addition of [o-C₆H₄{C(CH₃)=N-2,6- iPr₂C₆H₃}{NH(2,6- iPr₂C₆H₃)}]Li to zinc dibromide. The β-diketiminato-zinc(II) bromide was derivatized to a variety of complexes (including amides and phosphanides) by a salt metathesis reaction. Chalcogen addition reactions were performed from [o-C₆H₄{C(CH₃)=N-2,6-iPr₂C₆H₃}{NH(2,6-iPr₂C₆H₃)}ZnP(C₆H₁₁)₂] to produce double addition products from sulfur, selenium and tellurium. Chalcogen addition reactions from [o-C₆H₄{C(CH₃)=N-2,6-iPr₂C₆H₃}{NH(2,6-iPr₂C₆H₃)}ZnP(C₆H₅)₂] produced a double addition product for selenium and a β-diketiminato-zinc(II) tellunoite bridged dimer, [o-C₆H₄{C(CH₃)=N-2,6-iPr₂C₆H₃}{NH(2,6-iPr₂C₆H₃)}Zn]Te, from tellurium. A total of 14 compounds were characterized via X-ray diffraction. Photoluminescence studies of the β-diketiminato-zinc(II) compounds were conducted where it was proposed that an electron transfer from the lone pair on the hetero-atom influenced the quantum yield and fluorescence intensities.

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  • Introducing remote printing into the publishing industry of a small, remote economy: The case of New Zealand

    Fabling, Timothy (2017)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    This research investigates the expected effects on developed business models of introducing remote printing technology into the New Zealand book publishing industry. Remote printing technology will both address and improve on the constraints of geographical proximity and market size, enabling the New Zealand book publishing industry to collectively grow and experience future prosperity. Aspects of technological innovation and consumer behaviour are examined to explore issues surrounding geographic proximity and supply chain inefficiencies. Criteria are developed using Just-In-Time (JIT) theory and Supply Chain Management (SCM) to evaluate where remote printing technology might best be integrated in the New Zealand book publishing industry’s supply chain. The mutual effects between remote printing technology adoption and the expected effects on business models are evaluated, identifying which model is expected to provide the most significant benefits in a New Zealand context. A case study of six New Zealand book industry respondents was conducted. Qualitative data was collected in semi-structured interviews with members associated within different sectors of the New Zealand book publishing industry. The interview data was supplemented with secondary data sources, including publicly available information about the New Zealand book industry. A within-case and cross-case analysis was performed around the research identified above. By evaluating developed business models and assessing which model/s effectively address the New Zealand context, remote printing offers brick-and-mortar booksellers the ability to better compete with offshore online booksellers. The expected effects remote printing technology will have on the New Zealand book industry are presented. A major contribution to this study is that remote printing technology could in fact have a revolutionary impact on the New Zealand book industry, compared to what has been previously considered.

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  • Factors and consumer attitudes that affect the sustainable management of used mobile phones: A repertory grid analysis

    Coffey, Philip (2017)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Used mobile phones with their small size but vast numbers, create a unique problem when it comes to managing the part they play in the creation of electronic waste (E-waste). Whilst previous studies have identified what consumers appear to be doing with their used mobile phones, there is also a need to better understand why they are doing it. This study investigated what factors appear to influence consumer attitudes towards adopting a more sustainable approach when dealing with their used mobile phones. A reuse, refurbish and recycle strategy was used as a lens to examine the current literature from which an initial model was developed. Using the repertory grid interview technique a group of participants was interviewed to try to determine their core beliefs when it came to managing their used mobile phones. Analysis of the interviews was completed using several analysis techniques including word clouds, percentage similarity analysis, and Honey’s content analysis. The results of the study indicate that consumers care about the effect of used mobile phones on the environment although the degree of concern appears to vary across individuals. In addition, it was identified that in general, consumers perceive reuse, refurbishing, and recycling all as positive ways to sustainably manage used mobile phones, whilst environmental awareness appears to play a significant role in engaging people with recycling and being a rational for storing used mobile phones. Finally, the study suggests that telecommunication providers when trying to improve engagement with takeback schemes should focus more on consumers’ environmental concerns and social norms, rather than financial incentives or promoting easy engagement.

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  • Chinese international students travelling with friends: Group decision-making and disagreement prevention

    Zhu, Hanru (2017)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    This thesis investigates the group decision-making process of Chinese international students travelling with friends in New Zealand. Focusing on groups of friends, a neglected decision-making unit, it explores models of group decision-making and disagreement prevention and resolution strategies of Chinese international students making travel-related decisions. Qualitative research method governed by the interpretive paradigm was adopted. Sixteen Chinese international students from Victoria University of Wellington were interviewed. They were from eleven travel groups and had experience of independent leisure travel in non-family groups in New Zealand. Given that Chinese independent visitor market to New Zealand keeps growing, and Chinese international students have been referred as “China's first wave of independent travellers” (King & Gardiner, 2015), this study adds knowledge to the understanding of the travel behaviours and decision-making process of this market travelling in New Zealand. Tourism attractions were the most discussed travel-related decision during the group decision-making process, followed by decisions on travel activities, food and restaurants, accommodation and transportation. Three group decision-making models were identified: leadership, division of work, and shared decision-making. Leadership includes three roles of leaders, namely the travel initiator who has the initial idea for the trip and who gets potential members together, the main plan-provider who is responsible for collecting travel information and travel tips to make the whole travel plan and arrange travel schedules, and the main decision-maker who makes the final decision in the travel group. The former two roles are with less dominance, while the latter is with higher dominance in the decision-making process. The division of work model refers to dividing the tasks (e.g. organising accommodation or transport) within the travel group and includes two roles: the plan-provider who is responsible for making the plan for the allocated task, and the decision-maker who made the decision on the allocated task. In the shared decision-making model, the group members make the travel-related decisions collectively by discussion and voting. Most travel groups were found to use multiple group decision-making models conjointly, with a few groups only using the shared decision-making model. Overall, the most used models were shared decision-making and leadership. Most travel group who adopted the leadership model tended to then use either shared decision-making model or the division of work model depending on the level of dominance of group leader. Most interviewees indicated that there was lack of disagreement during the group decision-making process. Thus the research focus has shifted from the disagreement resolution to the disagreement prevention. Five disagreement prevention strategies and one influencing factor were identified: travelling with like-minded people, adequate preparation, empathy and mutual understanding, tolerance, compensation and external factors. If disagreements occurred, one or more of tight strategies were adopted by the interviewees to resolve them, namely making concessions, discussing and voting, looking for alternatives, persuasion, toleration, splitting up, accommodating and delaying. Implications and recommendation for industries and future studies are discussed.

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  • Insuring disasters: A survey of the economics of insurance programs for earthquakes and droughts

    Noy, Ilan; Kusuma, Aditya; Nguyen, Cuong (2017)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Natural disasters have adverse consequences. A combination of effective mitigation strategies and appropriate coping measures—decreasing both exposure and vulnerability—can reduce their detrimental impact. Further policies can reduce the consequent losses to the economy in the aftermath of catastrophic events. Although constituting no panacea, the evidence suggests that insurance enables improved recovery and increases resilience. Yet, insuring catastrophic risks is complex and not easily achieved. Different types of disaster insurance products are found globally, but to narrow our discussion, we focus on two types of insurance for catastrophic hazards: earthquake insurance and agricultural insurance (for floods and droughts). We survey strategies implemented by governments, the private sector and multilateral/regional organizations that aim to address several impediments to insurance adoption and also describe the available evidence about the performance of such insurance systems in the aftermath of disaster events. We conclude with some thoughts about future research directions.

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  • The impacts of institutional differences in relation to intellectual property rights protection on foreign market direct investment: FDI inflows and modes of foreign market entry

    Mo, Xiaoxin (2017)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    This Master‘s thesis seeks to consider the impacts of institutional distance regarding IPR protection on Foreign direct investment’s (FDI) internationalization strategies. Estimated at approximately US$ 1.8 trillion in 2015 and sitting at its highest level since the global economic and financial crisis in 2008 (UNCTAD, 2016), FDI flows are fast becoming a focal issue of global business. Developing Asia, for example, has emerged as the world’s largest FDI recipient region in the world, which has attracted a wide and public attention. China, in particular, is the largest recipient of FDI among the emerging economies. In 2014, it overtook the US as the most popular destination for multinational enterprises (MNEs). To date, most academic interest has focused on how the institutional environment of the host country affects both the overall volumes of FDI (e.g., Lee & Mansfield, 1996; Smarzynska Javorcik, 2004), and the modes of entry strategy (e.g., McCalman, 2004; Dikova & Witteloostuijn, 2007). However, other areas of research also consider institutional distance, and the magnitudes and asymmetric effects of institutional distance (e.g., Cuervo-Cazurra & Genc, 2011; Phillips, Tracey, & Karra, 2009; Zaheer et al., 2012). In this context, this thesis, uses China as a sample of FDI recipient to seek to understand how the directions of institutional distance affect FDI’s flows and MNEs’ choice of entry mode into the host country. In particular, the research questions being addressed in this study are: (1) How does the bidirectional distance between home and host country regarding IPR protection affect FDI’s inflows to China? and (2) How does this bidirectional distance regarding IPR protection influence MNEs’ choice of entry mode? Using a quantitative research design, two dependent variables are examined in this study: FDI inflows and entry mode (wholly-owned subsidiaries (WOS) versus joint ventures (JVs)). Using the institutional theory as its theoretical underpinning, this study hypothesizes that IPR distance between home and host countries negatively affects FDI inflows to the host market. It also hypothesizes that IPR distance is positively related to MNEs’ choice of WOS as an entry mode as opposed to JVs. Both hypotheses build on the new notion regarding the directions of institutional distance that MNEs’ strategies and behaviours are divided into positive and negative directions. This consideration of directions of institutional distance differs to that of the general institutional approach, which typically clusters all regulative, normative and cognitive pillars within the institutional distance. However, this research focuses on the single regulative distance of IPR protection. Using the 691 collected observations of FDI flows to China from 2006 to 2012, hypothesis 1 was tested by employing the estimation techniques of panel linear regression. To further assess hypothesis 2, 801 instances of foreign market entry of FDI in China between 2008 and 2012 were analysed by logistic regression. From the panel linear regression model, the empirical results show that the larger the distance of IPR protection between home and host countries, the fewer the flows of FDI that entered into China. Such results are consistent with previous mainstream literature suggesting that greater institutional distance significantly diminishes the MNEs’ intentions to invest (e.g., Du, 2009; Berry et al., 2010). Moreover, logistic regression for hypothesis 2 reveals that IPR distance appears to be significantly and positively associated with the choice of WOS. This means that the tendency of MNEs from countries with a higher distance of IPR protection to enter China’s market by means of WOS (as opposed to JVs) will decrease. This result is in line with previous studies that note that larger institutional distance is associated with a lower level of equity ownership mode, such as JVs over WOS (e.g., Xu et al., 2004; Xu & Shenkar, 2002; Estrin et al., 2009). The greatest takeaway from this study is that it advances knowledge about the impact of the directions of IPR distance and provides new opinions on the debate around the asymmetric effect of institutional distance on internationalization decisions. This study also offers practical implications for both firm managers and public policy makers.

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  • Situated literacy : a study of family literacy in Aotearoa/New Zealand

    Smith, Juliet Suzanne (2004)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    This study investigated the family as a site for literacy. The theoretical approach is that all literacy is situated in a social context. Eleven parents were interviewed about literacy use and practices both in their present families. The parents were from India, Sri Lanka, Britain and Aotearoa/ New Zealand. The study explored generational differences as well as aspects of diversity among the families. While there were similarities in the uses of literacy across the generations, diversity was evident in the differences in purpose between the Pakeha families and the others. For the Paheka the purpose of reading was for pleasure while the other parents stressed the importance of reading for moral messages and guides to behaviour. Parents spoke more often about reading than about writing, they recalled favourite books, especially those by Enid Blyton, and reported stories they told their own children. It is suggested that teachers might explore their own literacy experiences to better understand the issues of both literacy and diversity.

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  • The Maori district high schools : a thesis for the degree of Master of Arts in Education in the University of New Zealand

    Jennings, Hugh M (Hugh Marchwell) (1950)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

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  • Courage, commitment and collaboration : notions of leadership in the New Zealand ECE 'Centres of Innovation'

    Thornton, Kate (Kathryn Ruth) (2005)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Historically there has been a lack of recognition for, and research into, leadership in the New Zealand early childhood education sector. The Centres of Innovation (COI) programme provides a unique opportunity for research into effective leadership in quality services that can contribute to our knowledge and understanding of leadership in the sector as a whole. This study, exploring how leadership is defined and enacted in the COI, found that although not all educators were comfortable with being identified as leaders, individuals and the centres as a whole were demonstrating leadership in ways that fitted their service contexts. Leadership across the COI was characterised by courage, commitment and collaboration. The innovative approaches of the COI appear to be due in no small part to the collaborative centre cultures in which innovation is encouraged, educators feel valued and supported, and there is regular reflection and a commitment to continuous improvement . Those in leadership positions in the COI have promoted these collaborative cultures and through their example teacher leadership has been encouraged. The COI not only provide case studies of educative leadership (Meade, 2003a) but also case studies of learning communities. These learning communities include researchers and members of the wider community as well as the educators. Leadership as defined and enacted in the COI is a shared endeavour and this model of working collaboratively in a learning community towards a shared vision is one that the rest of the sector can learn from.

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  • Te reo tatai : the relationships between Maori culture and Maori mathematical language

    Trinick, Tony (1999)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Ten a tato u i o tatou tini mate e hing a mai nei e hinga atu na, huri noa i te mot u. Kia tangihia, kia mihia ratou. Na reira, moe mai ratou i te moe nga te whakaarahia. Ratou te hunga mate ki a ratou, tato u te hun ga ora ki a tatou. Tihei mauri ora. E nga mana, e nga reo, e nga maunga, e nga awaawa, e nga pata ka o nga taonga tuku iho, tena koutou. E mih i kau atu ana ki te tokomaha, na ratou i para te huarahi, i awhina ahau ki te whakahuihui i nga kupu, nga kore ro me nga whakaaro hei panuitanga, hei whakaarotanga, hei puhipuhi ma te hau. He kore hiahia nok u kia whakahuahua mai i nga ingoa kato a o era kua tautoko mai i a au, otira e tika ana kia mihia etahi, ara te hun ga i tuku iho i to ratou mohiotanga ki nga kau pap a kua whakahuihuia i roto i tenei tuhinga. No reira, ki oku whaea o Nga i Tuh oe me oku kau mat ua o nga uri o Porourangi, tena raw a atu koutou. Ko te tumanako kia whai hua tenei tuhi nga mo a tatou tamariki mok opu na hok i e tipu ake. Kei te mih i atu hoki ki toku whanaunga no te hau kainga. No reira e te wha nau nga tena raw a atu koe mo to tautoko mai, awhina mai, kia whai huru huru tenei tuhi nga roa, kia rere. Ka nui hoki te mih i ki taku kaiarahi a Bill Bar ton not e Wh are Wananga o Tam aki makaurau. Ten a koe e Bill e awhina mai i ahau, ahak oa nga pikinga me nga hek eng a o te mahi nei. He mih i whanui hok i ki a Colleen Mc Murchy-Pilkington. E hia ke nga po i mah i tahi kia whakatutuki i tenei kaupapa kia tika. No reira e te tuahine tena koe, tena koe. Ki toku whanau, ki toku wahine anei te mih i atu ki a kou tou mo to koutou manaaki kia mut u marika i tenei tuhinga, no reia, tena koutou. Me pen ei noa ake te korero, i te kore koutou, e kore raw a tenei manu e rere. No reira, raurangatira ma, tena koutou, tena koutou, tena koutou katoa.

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  • Programme evaluation and educational policy development : an exploration

    Jackman, Patricia Helen (2005)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Programme evaluation in education began as a form of public inquiry and has developed into a tool for informing policy development. This process has accompanied the government's focus on outcomes rather than outputs and the current global demand for accountability. In recent years there has been an increase in the letting of contracts by the New Zealand Ministry of Education for the production of evidence to support educational policy and this has included the evaluation of programmes designed to improve teaching and raise student achievement. The study reports the historical development of programme evaluation and the different schools of thought which have evolved. It outlines the management of formative programme evaluation within the Ministry of Education's Research Division and describes Rist's approach to policy making, used in the Numeracy Development Project. Two large-scale programmes, the Strengthening Education in Mangere/Otara (SEMO) Project and the Numeracy Development Project, are discussed as examples of initiatives involving programme evaluation. The results of both have informed policy and have been extended more widely. The relationship between research and programme evaluation is discussed with reference to the Performance-Based Research Fund.

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  • Digital Materiality, Heritage Objects, the Emergence of Evidence, and the Design of Knowledge Enabling Systems

    Sanderson, Kay (2017)

    Doctoral thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Beneath the problem of achieving digital convergence in the heritage sector is a problem of deeply entrenched discourses generated in a physical paradigm where objects kept in heritage sector institutions were treated as goods to be divided, and where notions about the nature of those goods, their use, and practices facilitating their use, were imagined in terms of the norms for each institution type. The digital paradigm provides new opportunities, amongst them the possibility of creating intersecting digital knowledge spaces designed to aid processes of enquiry and meaning-making and to maximise possibilities for rational and justifiable knowledge formation about predictable and still to be imagined topics of enquiry. Achieving that vision calls for research that seeks to understand the process of knowledge formation, that hunts out the strengths and weaknesses in existing bodies of thought, and that works, through its modes of transmission, to instil the understanding necessary for a shared knowledge-oriented body of theory and practice to emerge. The research reported in this thesis responds to these needs. It was conducted by a former archives practitioner taking a fresh look at her own discipline’s body of thought, and reflecting on its utility across the whole heritage sector. An open and exploratory research question was posed: What can be learnt about archives domain thinking, heritage objects and their evidentiality, and the design of knowledge enabling systems by exploring how evidence emerges during a historical research process? The research design combined close examination of the archives domain’s explicit and implicit thinking with a case study in the form of a deeply reflective historical enquiry that was committed to tracking down and tracing seemingly relevant objects (both physical and digital), and their meaningful ways of being related, across institutional and conceptual boundaries. The researcher did not plan to go into ‘the wild’, but word got out, and ‘the wild’ came to her. The research, in other words, was conducted in the space archival science’s continuum thinkers refer to as the fourth dimension - the societal plurality, where assumptions embedded in institutionalized thought can be deeply disturbed. The historical enquiry was centred on Frederick Burdett Butler (1903-1982), an eclectic ‘collector’ and local historian who built his own museum/archive/library/gallery/ information resource in New Plymouth, New Zealand. A misfit in New Zealand’s historically-oriented professional community, he nevertheless amassed a massive collection which, during his life-time and since his death, has been widely dispersed. Parts are in collecting institutions and parts are in ‘the wild’. Much is in hiding. Three major problems in archives domain discourse were identified as potential stumbling blocks in the search for sector-wide theory. These are addressed in three theory-building chapters, each of which is framed around a line of enquiry followed in the researcher’s attempt to form knowledge of Fred. One of these problems is the prevalence in the domain of a fuzzy and ‘othering’ object-privileging concept of record, but little awareness of continuum theory’s concept-privileging notion of records as logical entities, which means there is also little awareness of the relevance of the continuum notion for richer, more flexible, and potentially convergent descriptive practice. The second is the existence of unresolved debates about the nature of evidence and its importance in relation to the concept of record. The third is dichotomous thinking about the nature of objectivity and subjectivity, a problem that has caused debates about the nature of records, the value of an evidence-oriented domain discourse, and the epistemic character of descriptive practice; also, it has played a part in the ‘othering’ of libraries. A final chapter reflects on the implications of the research for the design of knowledge enabling systems and on possibilities for archival science’s continuum theory to connect with similar bodies of thought emerging in other disciplines. The research paradigm is grounded in humanities, social science, and philosophical scholarship which draws attention to inter-dependence and co-evolution in time and over time, and which challenges habituated perceptions of dichotomies. Critical realism, a third way philosophy of knowledge, was the primary philosophical and methodological under-labourer.

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  • Bridging Barriers: Study of Refugee Integration in New Zealand Communities

    Saini, Gaganpreet (2017)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    New Zealand is one of the 26 nations of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) who participate in a regular refugee resettlement program (“New Zealand Refugee Quota Programme”). It is also one of the few countries to have a refugee orientation program upon arrival and dedicates a centre especially to host the incoming refugees. The current refugee quota system in New Zealand provides a 6 week orientation and assessment period followed by dispersal into 6 different cities across New Zealand for permanent resettlement. Refugees develop friendships and a sense of comfort over the 6 weeks program with all the facilities available at the Resettlement centre. The transition from the centre into the independent housing in suburban locations therefore becomes more challenging due to the lack of induction of refugees into their host communities. Refugees are alienated in their new communities with the locals equally as oblivious to the new settlers. As a result, post settlement engagement with the host society becomes difficult for refugees. The community relations between the refugees and host society is neglected with refugees generally connecting with the same ethnic group (ii, Gray); limiting cross-cultural connections. This research investigates the role of architecture as a facilitator of social interaction between the refugees and local community to create a strong sense of belonging in the host society. The aim is to explore architectural solutions which can ease the process of resettlement for refugees into the different regions around New Zealand. It seeks to develop a design which offers social engagement that can extend into the society and cross-cultural interaction can be encouraged.

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  • Pleistocene cyclostratigraphy on the continental rise and abyssal plain of the western Ross Sea, Antarctica

    Al'bot, Olga (2016)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    This thesis investigates glacimarine sedimentation processes operating on the continental margin of the western Ross Sea during the Pleistocene (˜2.5 Ma). This time period is characterised by a major global cooling step at ˜0.8 Ma, although several proposed episodes of major marine-based Antarctic Ice Sheet (AIS) retreat in warm interglacial periods are inferred to have occurred after this time. Constraining the timing and magnitude of past marine-based AIS retreat events in the Ross Sea through this time will improve our understanding of the forcing mechanisms and thresholds that drive marine-based ice sheet retreat. Identifying such mechanisms and thresholds is crucial for assisting predictive models of potential ice sheet collapse in a future world with rapidly rising atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO₂) concentrations. Six sedimentary cores forming a north-to-south transect from the continental rise to the abyssal plain of the western Ross Sea were examined in order to identify potential sedimentary signatures of past marine-based ice sheet variability and associated oceanographic change. A lithofacies scheme and stratigraphic framework were developed, which allowed the identification of shifting sedimentary processes through time. The sediments are interpreted to have been deposited primarily under the influence of bottom currents, most likely from changing rates of dense Antarctic Bottom Water (AABW) formation over glacial-interglacial cycles. Two dominant lithofacies (laminated and bioturbated) are recognised in the Pleistocene contourite sequences. Laminated facies alongside reduced ice-rafted debris (IRD) fluxes and reduced biological productivity are interpreted to represent expanded ice sheet and sea ice margins during glacial conditions, which acted to restrict surface water ventilation resulting in less oxygenated bottom waters. Conversely, laminated facies alongside reduced IRD fluxes and increased productivity are inferred to represent a reduction of ice shelf and sea ice cover resulting in enhanced AABW formation and sediment delivery. In general, it is interpreted that bioturbated facies in combination with enhanced productivity are common during interglacial conditions, with peaks in IRD associated with ice sheet retreat events leading into interglacial conditions. However, the relationships between laminated and bioturbated facies vary between sites, and facies at most sites generally alternate on timescales exceeding that of individual glacial-interglacial cycles (2 mm in x-ray images, the sieved weight percentage of the medium-to-coarse sand fraction (250 µm-2 mm), and volumetric estimates of the > 125 µm sand fraction using a laser particle sizer. The x-ray and sieve methods produced comparable results, while the volumetric estimate, although showing comparable long-term trends, produces a lesser correlation to the other two methods. Spectral analysis of the IRD content and the magnetic susceptibility data series reveals that during the Early Pleistocene (2.5-1.2 Ma) ice discharge into the western Ross Sea was paced by the 41 kyr and 100 kyr cycles of obliquity and eccentricity, respectively. The Mid-Pleistocene Transition (MPT;1.2-0.8 Ma) was characterised by a switch to a higher-frequency, lower-amplitude IRD flux during a long-term period of high power in eccentricity, obliquity and precession (˜23 kyr) observed in the orbital solutions, suggesting a relatively linear response to orbital forcing at this time. The colder climate state of the Late Pleistocene (0.8-0.01 Ma) is characterised by IRD fluctuations modulated primarily by the 100 kyr eccentricity forcing that became dominant by 400 ka. In the western Ross Sea, IRD fluxes show a clear response to the orbital pacing of glacial-interglacial cycles, but are equivocal in identifying the magnitude of ice sheet loss or growth through glacial-interglacial cycles.

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  • The Wishbone Ridge at the Chatham Rise Intersection: Structural Characteristics and Tectonic Implications

    Barrett, Rachel (2017)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Geophysical data show that the West Wishbone Ridge, offshore of eastern New Zealand, is best described as having previously been a crustal transform fault, which first propagated along the eastern margin of the Hikurangi Plateau as subduction along the New Zealand sector of the Gondwana margin began to slow and reorientate between 105 and 101 Ma. Variation in the strike of the West Wishbone Ridge has resulted in contrasting compressional and extensional zones along the ridge. These regimes reflect the direction of strike offset from the direction of fault propagation, and constrain the sense of motion along the West Wishbone Ridge as having been dextral. We find evidence that Cretaceous subduction along the Chatham Rise margin extended east of the margin offset at 174°W that marks the edge of Hikurangi Plateau subduction beneath the margin. Rotation of the Chatham Rise margin between 105 and 101 Ma was accommodated by westward broadening of the extensional zone of deformation associated with the West Wishbone Ridge near its intersection with the Chatham Rise. The amount of offset along the ridge indicates that significant transform motion along the West Wishbone Ridge south of ~40.5°S ceased ca. 101 Ma, coeval with the cessation of spreading of the Osbourn Trough, and of subduction of the Hikurangi Plateau. Additionally, we find anomalously thick oceanic crust adjacent to the WWR and north of the Hikurangi Plateau (>12 km thick). This is attributed to the proximity of this crust to the Hikurangi Plateau Large Igneous Province. The results of this study are based on seismic reflection and magnetic data recently collected during the 2016 R/V Sonne survey SO-246, as well as previously collected seismic reflection profiles and satellite gravity data.

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  • Sustainable financing for climate and disaster resilience in Atoll Islands: Evidence from Tuvalu and Kiribati

    Taupo, Tauisi (2017)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

    This paper examines the financing of disaster risk management. Future climate and disaster risks are predicted to impose increasing financial pressure on the governments of low-lying atoll nations. The aftermath of a disaster, such as a cyclone, requires financial means for quick response and recovery. We quantify the appropriate levels of financial support for expected disasters in Tuvalu and Kiribati by building on the Pacific Catastrophe Risk Assessment and Financing Initiative (PCRAFI) calculated likely costs for disasters. To these, we add estimates of the potential effects of distant cyclones, droughts, sea level rise, and climate change, as they are predicted to affect low-lying atoll islands. This paper focuses on the potential contribution of the sovereign wealth funds (SWFs) of Tuvalu and Kiribati in reducing reliance on foreign aid for ex-post disaster risk management. We forecast the future size of SWFs using Monte Carlo simulations and an Auto-Regressive Integrated Moving Average model. We examine the long-term sustainability of SWFs, and the feasibility of extending their mandate for disaster recovery.

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  • Virtual Fieldtrips and Climate Change Education for Tourism Students

    C, Schott (2017)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

    While the pedagogical benefits of fieldtrips have long been recognised our ever increasing understanding of the impacts of flying on climate change is presenting educators with a poignant dilemma; the many benefits long associated with international fieldtrips are at odds with the world community’s needs in limiting/halting climatic change. In response, the paper presents the concept of a VR-based virtual fieldtrip as an innovative and carbon-sensitive type of (educational) travel. The paper not only makes the case for virtual fieldtrips as a meaningful learning tool but also explores both the virtual fieldtrip’s impact on Greenhouse Gas emissions and climate change-related learning. On both accounts the initial findings in this paper are very encouraging. More in-depth research is now required to not only develop a deeper understanding of the full breadth of benefits, but also of the diverse weaknesses presented by virtual fieldtrips and how to negotiate them.

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  • A Selected Annotated Bibliography of Books at the New Muslim Project Collection: Providing a Guided Description of Islamic Resources for Information Seekers in Aotearoa New Zealand

    Mahli, Rudy bin (2017)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

    The New Muslim Project (NMP) office has a considerable collection of printed books about Islam, and the unique feature of the collection is that most of the books are in English. These meticulously handpicked books are available to either be taken home permanently (as some titles have multiple copies), or borrowed by those who would like to know about the religion. NMP’s initial plan was to set up a proper online library for the collection. However, due to the scarcity of staff time and volunteers, the collection lacks even a basic catalogue that makes informed access to the books almost impossible. The main objective of this bibliography is not about introducing Islam. Instead, it is about providing people with a relevant summation of selective Islamic books from the NMP collection so they are better informed before choosing a book from NMP collection to read. The bibliography of selected Islamic books from the NMP collection consists of entries arranged in an index card format utilising a modified variety of the Zotero reference report. The primary focus of the bibliography will be the annotations, and subjects that categorise each book. Each book’s annotation will help readers decide whether the book contains the information they seek. Subjects work as a rudimentary method of grouping the bibliography, as well as an elementary approach for readers when deciding on a topic to read. The items are first grouped based on their subject, and then ordered alphabetically based on their title. Lastly, the bibliography also provides a list of subject, tag and author indexes to further facilitate readers’ access to the selected books.

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