6,738 results for Scholarly text

  • Event Travel Careers of Singaporean Artists and Producers: An Arts-Informed Life History Approach

    Goh, Sandra (2017)

    Doctoral thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Artists and producers engage in event tourism in the course of their leisure and work but existing research on event tourism has placed emphasis on the event audience rather than artists and producers at events. An event travel career is developed when a person travels to participate in events ranging from local to regional and international scale. Getz and Andersson (2010) event travel career trajectory (ETCT) has been used to study serious amateur sport athletes and yoga devotees, looking at motivations, changing travel styles, spatial and temporal patterns, event and destination choices and their competing priorities as constraints to travel. However, participants in the arts world have not yet been identified as serious event tourists. Further, the event travel career progression of artists and producers in the performing arts world has yet to be established to determine their purpose, and frequency of travel at each stage of their career. This study aims to investigate how amateur and professional artists and producers develop their event travel career using the ETCT to examine the factors that constrain or facilitate their event travel career, the extent to which artists and producers conceptualize themselves as serious event tourists, and the role open access and other events play in the ETCT. A social constructionist paradigm is adopted with the use of an arts-informed life history approach to gather and interpret the stories of 19 Singaporean artists and producers representing three generations. The participants are well known to the researcher who performed the role of both the insider (member of Singapore arts community) and the outsider (PhD researcher) in this study. The arts-informed method involved creative inquiries (memory maps, drawings, and symbolic items) to invite participants to construct their ETCT visually over three research meetings. Pamphilon’s (1999) zoom model was adapted to analyze and interpret the stories in three parts: individually; against the participants’ cohort; and as part of the macro environment. The findings shed new light on the foundational stage of event travel career; the constraints, facilitators and motivations to travel; and social world events and destinations as key drivers in the development of an event travel career. The findings also revealed higher travel activity by the semi-professional and professional artists and producers in the arts, unlike the amateurs in sport tourism. This study contributes to the field of theory by developing an integrative framework of event travel careers, that incorporates Unruh’s social world theory and Stebbins’ serious leisure career perspective to examine and trace the event travel career development of serious event travellers. The study suggests that artists and producers are serious event travellers who start as hobbyists or leisurists before they develop their event travel career as semi-professionals and professionals. This study also contributes a different context in the study of ETCT by focusing on the development of Singapore’s arts scene, through the ETCTs of her artists and producers as amateurs, semi-professionals, and professionals – a move from the Western context found in extant research on event travel careers. Further, this study contributes methodologically to the development of the use of the arts-informed life history approach with Pamphilon’s (1999) zoom model, to enable a more holistic and structured analysis of the individuals’ stories, and the macro-environment of Singapore. The arts-informed life history research approach provides fruitful ground for future research in event travel career and should be repeated. It is capable of eliciting information about the past beyond the principal topic to inform the present.

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  • The unfortunate regressivity of public natural disaster insurance: Quantifying distributional implications of EQC building cover for New Zealand

    Owen, Sally Margaret Frean (2017)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    This thesis examines the question “What have been the distributional implications of the setup of Earthquake Commission (EQC) building cover for New Zealand homeowners?” In New Zealand, the vast majority of property owners pay identical premiums for the benefit of the first $100,000 tranche of natural disaster cover per dwelling. The research provides a detailed quantification of the degree of regressivity of the scheme created by these flat premiums. Using EQC claims and property datasets relating to the Canterbury Earthquake Series, I test the hypothesis that wealthier homeowners are receiving more benefit. Wealth is identified by property value, income and a range of socio-economic variables collected from the most recent New Zealand Census before the earthquake series. In explaining EQC total dwelling payout by property value and by these socio-economic variables, the research shows there is a distributional implication to EQC’s building cover. This thesis includes a proposed modification to the premium structure of the scheme, whereby regressivity could be avoided. The research concludes with a survey of other public natural disaster insurance schemes worldwide, and identifies those likely to face similar regressivity issues.

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  • The darker side of the moon: Satanic traditions in New Zealand as magick systems

    Latham, John (2001)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    When people discover the topic of my thesis they usually ask "Why Satanism?". In 1998 Satanism caught my attention when I was doing an undergraduate paper in sociology, the sociology of religion. Here I encountered several studies on the Satanic Ritual Abuse phenomena (SRA, also known as Satanic Panic and Satanism scare) See appendices for a brief history of SRA of the late 1980's and early 1990's in England, America, Australia and here in New Zealand. SRA evolved from accusations that satanic cults were involved in rituals where children were physically and sexually abused, and possibly killed. There were also reports that children were being bred for such practices. Both here and overseas cases were investigated by government agencies. The Peter Ellis case is perhaps the defining example of SRA in New Zealand. See appendices for an overview of this case In 1999,I noticed the census figures between 1986 and 1996 showed a growth of New Zealanders who identified as Satanist during the height of SRA scare, with the number rising nearly 400% (from 240 to 906). From this several questions arose: perhaps most importantly what is Satanism: why had this number grown: and how does one become a Satanist? As I began researching answers to these questions, I became aware of elements that were not apparent from the literature. Not all Satanism is about being evil and using black Magick. The spelling of Magick with a 'k' is to differentiate between religious Magick and show (illusional) magic. This is explained in more detail later. Some elements of Satanism link it closely with other Magick traditions. In this thesis I discuss two questions: what is Satanism in New Zealand and is there a relationship between Satanism and other Magick traditions in New Zealand?

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  • Building a Leadership Brand within the Public Sector: A Critical Assessment

    Jog, Samradhni; Löfgren, Karl; Jackson, Brad (2016)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

    This paper investigates the potential utility of leadership branding for the public sector by ap-plying it as a sense-making approach to recent cross-sector leadership development initiatives that have been launched in the New Zealand State sector over the past eight years. We critically assess the collective effort to build a new, distinctive and positive leadership brand for the New Zealand public service aimed at improving the material and perceived performance of the pub-lic sector. Based on a discursive analysis of documentary evidence produced by the central actors within the NZ government who are charged with leadership development across the state sector, we have sought to investigate the discursive practices of leadership roles and identities. Specifically, we ask two questions: what have been the dominant discursive constructions of leadership that have been promulgated within the New Zealand state sector? To what extent do these serve to strengthen or weaken a compelling leadership brand? The study observes that, while leadership is constructed in a loose and ambiguous manner, two dominant themes perse-vere: leadership is primarily cast as a top-down process that is required to serve managerialist ends. We conclude that the leadership brand building efforts to date might well be hampered because of their exclusive, functionalist, internal and leader-centered focus.

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  • Literary Serial Killer Fiction: The Evolution of a Genre

    Cook, Grant (2017)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    This study examines the dynamics of post-war American serial killer fiction as it relates to social and literary contexts. In the context of history and development, this study considers the impact and origins of particular works and how they have influenced the stylistic and thematic evolution of a particular subgenre I have called literary serial killer fiction. Emphasis is placed on select narratives that directly (or indirectly) transform, challenge and critique the genre conventions in which they are written. Of interest is the evolution of general serial killer fiction as a postmodern phenomenon, in terms of its popularity with the reading public, and in line with the growth of media interest in representations of serial killers. I draw on literary theory (in particular, ‘new historicism’) to demonstrate that the appeal and tropes of serial killer fiction reflect socio-political interests indicative of the era from where they were produced, and to show how the subgenre of literary serial killer fiction can be categorized using its own particular set of defining features. I examine these aspects in detail in relation to the following selection of fictional serial-killer narratives: Jim Thompson’s The Killer Inside Me, James Ellroy’s Killer on the Road, and Brett Easton Ellis’s American Psycho. For brevity’s sake, I have selected American narrative works that employ first-person narration and are transgressive in the way they focus on characters who defy convention and push boundaries, as do the narratives within larger genre traditions and protocols. In my view, these works are the purest examples of literary serial killer fiction in that they are characteristically unlike other examples that can easily be categorised under other literary genres. The appeal and popularity of the genre, alongside the functional aspects of the trope, leads me to conclude that it is an ideal form to interact with popular cultural narratives, while also allowing subversive interplay between both real and fictional concerns. The appeal of the genre to those authors who usually write outside of it, particularly in regard to its transgressive and allegorical qualities, is also of particular interest to this study. Because of the hybrid nature of the genre and the ease with which the central trope of the fictional serial killer transcends genres, the resulting possibilities provide a transgressive outlet for authors who wish to test boundaries, in both a literary and an ontological sense, in regard to the commentary serial killer fiction allows on the state of contemporary American literature and society.

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  • A cutlery set for stroke

    Chen, Lin (2017)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Stroke is a common problem that affects approximately 700,000 patients annually in the United States alone and can cause long-term disabilities (Mallory, 2006, p.33). The long-term effects of a stroke can impact on the patient’s ability to use one side of their body. Upper limb, lower limb, postural and communication difficulties are common factors that patients experience after a stroke (Perry, 2004), which can affect the patient’s ability to eat (McLaren, 1997). After a stroke, the impairment of an upper limb can lead to problems that make it difficult for people to use cutlery, and include poor grip, decreased muscle control, tremors and upper limb weakness (Brackenrige, 2016). Currently, there are some assistive technology (AT) cutlery sets aimed to help patients who have difficulty in eating and muscle control. Several reasons why stroke patients abandon AT cutlery are cost, appearance, and function (Vaes, 2014). However, an experiment (Torrens, 2013) in to adaptive cutlery products and previous research suggest that there is a large space to improve this, such as appearance and function. AT cutlery sets have been criticized because of their appearance and inferior functions (Torrens, 2013). This then leads to a disconnection between the user and the AT cutlery products, in which the user experiences visible stigma and links the cutlery to an undesirable characteristic (Vaes, 2012). There are some limitations of the current AT cutlery sets that have been identified in the evaluation (Torren & Smith, 2013), such as poor friction material, stereotypical shapes, and skin-tone handle colour. The limitations create an opportunity for the designers to improve the AT cutlery set to be a selected object and a pleasurable product to use in everyday life. The purpose of this research is to explore how human-centred design can reduce the stigma of using AT cutlery for stroke patients through addressing the appearance and interactions of spoons, forks and knives. The research involves the following steps: observing videos of stroke patients eating, interviewing clinicians, interviewing stroke patients, and iterative design with the supervision of clinicians. Some of the main issues identified surrounding stroke patient eating and using cutlery include grip weakness, muscle contracture, and difficulty of flexion. Based on the product intervention model for stigma (PIMS) (Vaes, 2014), this study utilized existing research surrounding the evaluation of assistive technology. To help understand each stage of the user needs, previous feedback from health-care clinicians and patients will ensure the validity of ergonomic interventions and stigma strategy as a substitute for traditional cutlery design. The output of this research includes a set of cutlery as well as assistive components. The design addresses a patient’s difficulty in using cutlery through an adaptive ring to help the patients’ grip. The utensils allow the user to either carry out eating activities at home or in a restaurant. The feedback from occupational therapists and physiotherapists indicates that the cutlery should accommodate different levels of stroke severity. Based on the findings of literature reviews and feedback, I have focused my design on addressing the stroke patients’ grip weakness, muscle contracture, and difficulty of hand flexion, whilst minimizing stigma, based on the PIMS strategies (Vaes, 2014). The design principle suggests that current cutlery designs with an integrated shape cannot meet all requirements of a stroke patient. Therefore, a combination of additional wearing components needs to be used to help dietary intake.

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  • Out of place: Rewriting a landscape signature

    Baker, Alison Leonora (2017)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    South Wairarapa, in New Zealand’s lower North Island presents an interesting collision; the landscapes forms and features evidence distinct separation between traditional landscape values and recent European economic developments – a separation evident in most New Zealand regions. Combined with its low urban socio-economic outlook and the utilisation of unsustainable farming practices, the region is in decline both ecologically and socially. Near irreversible damage has been done to the landscape. Engineered floodplain manipulation, land clearing, and intensive individualistic farming has resulted in continuing land degradation, flooding, droughts, severe waterway contamination, pollution, and habitat destruction. Utilising a design led approach in a three-scale investigation with focus assumed on the Ruamahanga River catchment, this thesis investigation explores how designed intervention with regards to the Wairarapa waterway systems can promote a re-emergence of place and placement in Wairarapa to reflect an integrated relationship with the processes of one’s landscape. It discusses how this interaction could be landscape transformative, re-introduce the prosperities of historic Wairarapa, promote sustainable farming practices, and recover declining ecologies. The investigation also discusses the wider New Zealand issue of rural waterway acknowledgement, and its relationship to place, culture, and identity discourse. This study has been ethically approved. Approval number 22990.

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  • A content analysis of library job advertisements in New Zealand in 2016 compared to 2007

    Hoffmann, Sarah (2017)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Research problem: With evidence that generic skills are a de facto specification for many library roles a formal education in librarianship may be perceived as less relevant by employers. Content analysis of library job advertisements was conducted to measure and identify high ranking skills, emerging skills, required qualifications and experience. Methodology: Job advertisements were accessed and downloaded from the online archives of NZ-Libs and NZ-Libs-Jobs list servers. Non-random sampling yielded a total of 517 listings (331 in 2007 and 186 in 2016). A categorisation dictionary was compiled, frequency counts tallied and data tabulated, converted to percentages and graphed. Results: Library employers requested the majority of skills more frequently in 2016 than in 2007. Communication, customer service and computer skills were the three highest ranking skills in 2016. Qualifications and information-specific qualifications were cited less frequently in 2016 than 2007. Employers requested one year or more of experience more frequently in 2016 than 2007. Implications: It is recommended that future studies use multiple data sources to increase representativeness of samples. A mixed method approach involving interviewing of library employers could also help to improve robustness of conclusions.

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  • Late Holocene Sedimentation on the Southern Kāpiti Coast

    Nolan, Rackley Michael (2017)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    The Kāpiti Coast is a broad low lying coastal plain on the western coast of New Zealand’s North Island. The coastal plain has formed over the last 6500 years through rapid progradation of coastal sediment, developing a distinct cuspate foreland. With numerous coastal communities across the low coastal plain, recent coastal erosion of the southern coastal plain combined with forecast sea level rise has drawn attention to coastal hazards. However, understanding these hazards has been hampered by a lack of information on the Holocene tectonic and sedimentary development of the coastal plain. This study focuses on the southern portion of the Kāpiti Coast using a geological approach to document coastal outcrops and drillcores. Using detailed sedimentological analysis including description, grainsize, composition and shape, in addition to observation of the modern environment, a detailed facies scheme and depositional model for the southern Kāpiti Coast are produced. Combining the interpreted depositional environments and age control provided by C14, OSL and well-dated pumice deposition, progressive coastal progradation and a transition from marine to terrestrial environments is reconstructed for the southern Kāpiti Coast. Records from this study reveal rapid sedimentation, at rates of up to 12.6m/1000 years within this southern limb, slowing dramatically with coastal retreat beginning within the last 400 years. Recognising the vertical offset of the beach/dune boundary as a marker of past sea level recorded in the cores and outcrops, a 1m uplift is recognised at the southernmost point of the coastal plain. In addition to constraining the penultimate movement of the Ohariu Fault, it contrasts with the tectonic stability of the central part of the coastal plain and subsidence further north. Such insight into vertical base level change across the coastal plain has implications for future coastal hazard identification.

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  • Place-making Through Time: Future-proofing Tauranga Borough through the evolution of 'Place Identity'

    Gibb, Callum (2017)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    The water’s edge is a vital element in New Zealand’s natural environments and established communities. Development of industrial infrastructure along this threshold, has left many coastal settlements stagnant and slipping into demise, negatively impacting the connection with the land and people, while industries continue to thrive. This research responds to this problem by exploring the potential of a place’s identity to become a catalyst to moderate the impact of industrial infrastructure on inner city consumption, community engagement and urban use. Tauranga City provides appropriate testing grounds for this research. It has an under-utilized and uninspiring city centre, that suffers from the impact of industrial domination. The lack of diversity in civic and community spaces and opportunity for community engagement and interaction with Tauranga’s water’s edge has encouraged its community to move out of the city into more vibrant neighbouring suburbs and cities. This situation is contributing to the gradual demise of Tauranga City. This investigation considers the studies of Tauranga’s original settlement and evolution to its current condition, before turning to literature on place-making and resiliency for both people and environments. Appropriate and relevant cases from architectural practice, which address these urban issues, have been selected. Applying these studies, a speculative design has been developed which also sources other literature for guidance and idea generation. This has resulted in a process of pro-grammatically representing place identity for spatial use, along with iteratively testing the organization and prioritisation of people and infrastructure within a city centre in a coastal context. Exploring the potential for prioritizing people over infrastructure, has resulted in the realization that we must engage, involve and consult with people to mediate the displaced developments of community and the impact of growth of industrial activity.

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  • New Halogenated Secondary Metabolites from Red Algae of the South Pacific

    Woolner, Victoria (2017)

    Doctoral thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    An NMR- and MS-directed study led to the isolation and structure elucidation of several halogenated secondary metabolites from a New Zealand and a Tongan red alga. An extensive investigation was carried out on the New Zealand red alga Rhodophyllis membranacea following mass spectrometric evidence for an unusual tetrahalogenated indole with the exceptionally rare inclusion of bromine, chlorine and iodine within a fraction of a semi-purified extract. Due to the difficulty associated with the structure elucidation of proton deficient molecules, a strategic isolation and structure elucidation of several polyhalogenated indoles was employed in order to unequivocally assign the halogen positions on the indolic core. This resulted in the isolation and characterisation of 11 new tetrahalogenated indoles (123–133), four of which contain bromine, chlorine and iodine (124 and 129–131) and represent the first isolation of such compounds. Additionally, four new pentahalogenated indoles (134–137) and an uncharacterised tribromotrichloroindole were isolated. The synthetically known compound 4-chloroisatin (138) was isolated as a new marine natural product, while 4-chloro-3-hydroxyl-3-(2-oxopropyl)-2-oxindole (139) was established to be an artefact of isolation. Several compounds were found to exhibit antifungal properties against Saccharomyces cerevisiae. A detailed examination of the Tongan alga Callophycus serratus led to the isolation of six new meroditerpenoids: callophycol C (227), iodocallophycols E (228) and F (229), iodocallophycoic acid B (230), deiodocallophycoic B (231) and callophycoic acid I (232). The relative configurations in compounds 228–231 are proposed to differ from closely related compounds in the literature. Iodocallophycol E (228) exhibited moderate cytotoxicity against the HL-60 cell line with an IC50 value of 6.0 μM.

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  • Ghost in the Machine: Architecture, People and Data

    Speedy, Benjamin (2017)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    In an age of electronic networks and digital communities, the ability to access the world’s knowledge from anywhere, by anyone, at anytime is the new reality. With data growing at an exponential rate, questions of its physical manifestation in the socio-environment become inescapable. As digital networks grow and develop a mounting influence on our urban and social condition, it becomes critical to develop a platform from which a tangible relationship with data in the public realm can be accomplished. The Data Centre is an architectural typology that has recently emerged in response to the rapid consumption and production of digital information. While these data centers serve in driving global communication and economies, they operate as impenetrable objects without a common physical expression away from red and blue wires. Many adapt existing buildings and bunkers, occupy nondescript warehouses and are placed in remote sites for reasons of energy consumption and security. The current data centre typology blends in to urban contexts, sometimes disregarding humanised space entirely, justified as a response to operational constraints. The illegibility of this architectural strategy camouflages the physicalness of rapid digital data production and consumption. Giving data this ‘ghost’ like presence within the mechanisms of the modern world. This thesis proposes the need for an architectural response aware of the changing knowledge landscape, one that recognizes that the human condition in the digital environment requires more than just a sign to Silicon Valley. Calling for an architectural restructuring of the data centre, enacting a tangible interface in the pursuit to locate the human condition within the digital expanse.

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  • Early Literacy Practices of New Zealand Children’s Librarians in Storytimes

    Harbison-Price, Alicia (2017)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Research problem: Programmes such as Every Child Ready to Read (ECRR) in the United States of America provide librarians with training to support and encourage the development of early literacy skills in storytime programming. Existing research into the practices of librarians delivering storytimes in New Zealand Aotearoa suggests librarians wish to distance themselves from educational environments and are at risk of compromising their own commitments to supporting literacy in the community. Strategic alignment between library programming and library goals has not been investigated in the literature. The purpose of this research was to examine the aims of storytimes and training of New Zealand librarians to establish to what extent early literacy theory/research informs their practice. Methodology: In this qualitative study, purposive sampling was used to select 9 participants from five library networks across New Zealand Aotearoa. Semi-structured interviews were conducted face-to-face, over the phone, and by email to collect data. Results: The aims of storytimes sat on a spectrum of storytimes as recreational activities and as educational opportunities. Developing a ‘love of reading’ or print motivation through engaging and enjoyable storytimes was the primary aim of librarians delivering storytime programming. In addition to this, some librarians reported storytimes supported the development of select early literacy skills such as vocabulary and background knowledge, and provided caregivers with advice to support their children’s early literacy development. Training was infrequent with early literacy instruction rarely mentioned. Librarians preferred training which focused on directly improving practice. Strategic plans often lacked specific goals for literacy or learning and didn’t communicate the value of common library goals such as supporting lifelong learning. Implications: The findings of this study will be of interest to librarians delivering storytimes in New Zealand. The results can serve as a guide for the development of storytime training, including early literacy-based training utilising ECRR and Te Whāriki.

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  • When You Know Your Neighbour Pays Taxes: Information, Peer Effects, and Tax Compliance

    Alm, James; Bloomquist, Kim M.; McKee, Michael (2017)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

    In this paper, we suggest that individuals’ tax compliance behaviours are affected by the behaviour of their “neighbours”, or those about whom they may have information, whom they may know, or with whom they may interact on a regular basis. Individuals are more likely to file and to report their taxes when they believe that other individuals are also filing and reporting their taxes; conversely, when individuals believe that others are cheating on their taxes, they may well become cheaters themselves. We use experimental methods to test the role of such information about peer effects on compliance behaviour. In one treatment setting, we inform individuals about the frequency that their neighbours submit a tax return. In a second treatment setting, we inform them about the number of their neighbours who are audited, together with the penalties that they pay. In both cases, we examine the impact of information on filing behaviour and also on subsequent reporting behaviour. We find that providing information on whether one’s neighbours are filing returns and/or reporting income has a statistically significant and economically large impact on individual filing and reporting decisions. However, this “neighbour” information does not always improve compliance, depending on the exact content of the information.

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  • Street perceptions: A study of visual preferences for New Zealand streetscapes

    Gjerde, Morten (2015)

    Doctoral thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    City leaders often make reference to their built and natural environments when they compete domestically or internationally for financial investment, tourism spending and high quality workers. These leaders are aware that people in the workforce, investors and tourists would prefer to be associated with vibrant and attractive places. Research has confirmed the important role the appearance of the built environment plays in people’s physical, financial and psychological wellbeing, not the least of which is helping to foster a sense of individual and community pride. However, there is also literature critical of the appearance of many individual buildings and urban streetscapes, particularly those that have arisen through the well-intentioned but uncoordinated efforts of those involved in the development of individual sites. Recognising that wider public interests have not always been well-served by private development, governments and local authorities become involved to control development outcomes. One aspect of development control is design review, which aims to improve the quality of urban places by influencing the design of individual buildings. However, given that design review is administered by professional experts and that design guidance is based on normative expressions of what good design should be, what assurances are there that urban transformation meets with public expectations? The research reported in this thesis addresses this question. This research seeks to identify those streetscape design characteristics that are best liked by people and those that they dislike. A methodology based on mixed research methods was developed. An initial study sought people’s preferences for six different urban streetscapes, as depicted photographically. Analysis of nearly 200 responses to the survey questionnaire identified several building and streetscape characteristics that were consistently liked and disliked. To explore these and other responses from another perspective, a second study was designed that would examine people’s preferences in more detail and on the basis of their actual experience of the streetscapes. Study Two was developed around three separate case studies and two focus group discussions. Demographic information about the 156 survey respondents was collected, along with their aesthetic perceptions about individual buildings, relationships between buildings and overall streetscapes. This enabled comparisons to be made on the bases of gender, age and occupational background. Of particular interest was to understand the streetscape preferences of lay members of the public, those whose interests design review aims to ensure, and change professionals, who make the design and planning decisions. Two focus group discussions were convened, one for change professionals and the other for lay people, to explore findings from the survey in more detail. The results indicate that people prefer older buildings whose façade designs are based on more traditional composition patterns, and that the activities with which a building is associated have considerable influence on perceptions. These are two matters about which design control of new building development is not interested. In general, people prefer moderate variations in height between buildings along the length of a street and change professionals seem to tolerate/prefer bigger variations than others. Abrupt differences in height between adjoining buildings were viewed negatively by lay people, in large part because blank walls on internal boundaries become evident. On the other hand, change professionals were less sensitive to such differences, in part because they understood the nature of change and anticipated that future change would help heal such conflicts. In addition to exploring people’s perceptions of New Zealand streetscapes the thesis discusses several of the best-liked and the least-liked buildings in the context of design control processes in order to speculate about which methods might hold the greatest promise for creating well-liked urban streetscapes. While this discussion is relevant it sits outside the main thrust of the project and is necessarily brief. In anticipation that this discussion will continue the thesis concludes with a summary of the matters around which design control could, and perhaps should, be interested, based on the collected evidence. The findings of the research help us to better understand how people perceive urban streetscapes and therefore these become a platform for future work, one aspect of which could explore how people’s preferences can be better integrated with development control.

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  • Towards the Making of User Friendly Public Space in China: An Investigation of the Use and Spatial Patterns of Newly Developed Small and Medium-Sized Urban Public Squares in Guangzhou and Shenzhen

    Nguyen, Ngoc Minh (2017)

    Doctoral thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    This thesis investigates how new small and medium-sized public squares are designed and used on a daily basis in Guangzhou and Shenzhen, two major cities in the Pearl River Delta, China. Given an extreme lack of open public space in these cities, these newly developed public space are expected to improve the life of millions of Chinese urban citizens; however, many of them are frequently criticised as inconvenient for users. How to improve the performance of these small and medium-sized public squares is therefore a critical issue faced by the city planners and designers. However, to dates, academic studies of public space in China are primarily focused on the architectural expression of the space or the development of the ‘public sphere’ in China. Hence, information about the actual use of small and medium-sized public squares in China is virtually absent. In order to fill this gap in knowledge on how these new public space are designed and used, this thesis examines 13 small and medium-sized public squares that have been (re)developed over the last 15 years in Guangzhou and Shenzhen using primarily the space syntax methodology, including direct (non-participant) observations and space syntax analysis techniques. The thesis focuses on the examination of three aspects: static occupancy and its relation to actual physical settings, transient use of the space and its relation to urban configuration, and the location preferences by Chinese users and the underlying visual logic. The findings from this thesis document a significantly different way of using public squares in China, as compared to their Western counterparts. Specifically, these spaces are used primarily by the elderly and organised activity groups. This collective way of using public space in China in combination with a wide range of cultural specific activities such as “exercising”, “babysitting”, “playing chess/cards” and “group-singing” has resulted in different spatial use patterns. In particular, this thesis has documented a strong preference for visually exposed locations, with much activity occurring at the centre rather than at the edges of public space, which are the most popular locations in public space in the West. Apart from providing valuable insights about the use and design patterns of small and medium-sized public squares, this research also proposes a number of spatial principles that could provide some guidance for designers and policy makers in the making of more user friendly public space in China in the future. Last but not least, findings of this thesis also hope to stimulate further studies of public space in China, especially those using Space Syntax methods.

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  • Opportunity and Uncertainty: Supervisors, examiners and graduates describe the Critical/Creative Nexus in practice in the Creative Writing PhD at the International Institute of Modern Letters (University of Victoria, Wellington, New Zealand)

    Jenner, Lynn (2017)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

    In December 2014 I held six exploratory interviews with participants in the PhD programme at the International Institute of Modern Letters (IIML), Victoria University of Wellington, New Zealand to explore the relationships between the critical and creative components of the PhD as understood by these particular individuals. The interviews show a range of opinions regarding the purpose of the critical component, its form, the assessment of the critical and creative components and the degree structure.My aim for this research was to create a feedback loop of information about the critical/creative nexus from people who are members of the IIML community of practice. I hoped also to collect and share practical ideas from graduates, supervisors and examiners on how to work through or with the tensions surrounding the critical/creative nexus. In line with that, the purpose of this report is to make the whole content of the six interviews available so that readers can investigate issues which might be of particular interest to them.

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  • The Interface of Copyright and Human Rights: Access to Copyright Works for the Visually Impaired

    Ayoubi, Lida (2015)

    Doctoral thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Reproduction of copyright protected material in formats that are accessible to the blind and visually impaired persons constitutes a copyright infringement unless there are specific limitations and exceptions in place. Most countries do not have copyright limitations and exceptions for the benefit of the visually impaired in their copyright laws. This has contributed to the issue of book famine, meaning the unsatisfactory access to copyright protected material for the blind and visually impaired. This thesis examines the claims of the visually impaired for improved access to copyright protected works in the context of the interface of human rights and intellectual property rights. This research demonstrates that insufficient access to copyright protected material is discriminatory against the visually impaired and negatively affects their human rights such as the right to education, information, health, employment, culture, and science. Moreover, the thesis analyses the international and domestic copyright law’s impact on the needs of the visually impaired. In analysing the international copyright law, the thesis evaluates the Marrakesh Treaty to Facilitate Access to Published Works by Visually Impaired Persons and Persons with Print Disabilities. Highlighting the insufficient consideration for the rights of the visually impaired in domestic and international copyright laws including the Marrakesh Treaty, the thesis proposes adoption of a human rights framework for copyright law to the extent that it affects the human rights of the visually impaired. Such framework requires copyright law to accommodate those human rights of the visually impaired that are dependent on access to copyright protected material. The thesis offers two categories of measures for creation of a human rights framework for copyright to the extent that it affects the human rights of the visually impaired. The measures include optimisation of already available options and adoption of new mechanisms. The first category discusses minimum mandatory copyright limitations and exceptions and the possibility to harmonise them. The second category covers extra measures such as clarifying the implications of different human rights and copyrights in the context of the book famine; ensuring compatibility of human rights and copyright when adopting policy and law; and, regular monitoring of the impact of copyright law on human rights.

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  • The Floating Village: Fostering Social Capital in Chinese Migrant Settlements through Mobile Architecture

    Woon, Vincent (2015)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    In the past two decades, China has realised one of the fastest and largest rural to urban migrations in the world. The country’s urban population has increased by 20% over the last 20 years due to rapid urbanisation and a drastic improvement in urban opportunities. It is projected that by the year 2020 China aims to house 60% of its population in urban areas, resulting in a population shift of over 100 million people. One of the major issues which is presented to rural migrants is the hukou system. Hukou acts as a domestic passport which prevents rural migrants from attaining social benefits within urban areas. This has created an underclass within China’s urban areas known as the “floating population”. This thesis focuses on the architecture of the “floating villages” of China which accommodate this floating population. The floating village is an informal settlement of migrant workers which develops around construction sites. The village provides services such as food, entertainment, medical care and recycling to the construction workers., However, as a pseudo-urban typology accommodating many of the functions of a town, it lacks one important element: a focused communal area. The absence of deliberately designed a communal space has led to social tensions within the floating village due to the different cultural origins of the migrant workers. Migrant workers arrive in floating villages without knowledge of urban culture and with no communal support. Varying migrant accents, and traditions, alongside struggles with poverty, creates friction between workers. This thesis proposes a temporary and portable architectural intervention within the floating village which fosters a positive community. The research of community design is explored through an architecturalisation of Dr Robert D. Putnam’s understanding of social capital.

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  • Synthesis and Reactivity of Group 12 β-Diketiminate Coordination Complexes

    Webb, Dylan (2016)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    The variable β-diketiminate ligand poses as a suitable chemical environment to explore unknown reactivity and functionality of metal centres. Variants on the β-diketiminate ligand can provide appropriate steric and electronic stabilization to synthesize a range of β-diketiminate group 12 metal complexes. This project aimed to explore various β-diketiminate ligands as appropriate ancillary ligands to derivatise group 12 element complexes and investigate their reactivity. A β-diketiminato-mercury(II) chloride, [o-C₆H₄{C(CH₃)=N-2,6- iPr₂C₆H₃}{NH(2,6- iPr₂C₆H₃)}]HgCl, was synthesized by addition of [o-C₆H₄{C(CH₃)=N-2,6- iPr₂C₆H₃}{NH(2,6- iPr₂C₆H₃)}]Li to mercury dichloride. Attempts to derivatise the β-diketiminato-mercury(II) chloride using salt metathesis reactions were unsuccessful with only β-diketiminate ligand degradation products being observed in the ¹H NMR. A β-diketiminato-cadmium chloride, [CH{(CH₃)CN-2,6-iPr₂C₆H₃}₂]CdCl, was derivatized to a β-diketiminato-cadmium phosphanide, [CH{(CH₃)CN-2,6-iPr₂C₆H₃}₂]Cd P(C₆H₁₁)₂, via a lithium dicyclohexyl phosphanide and a novel β-diketiminato-cadmium hydride, [CH{(CH₃)CN-2,6-iPr₂C₆H₃}₂]CdH, via Super Hydride. Initial reactivity studies of the novel cadmium hydride with various carbodiimides yielded a β-diketiminato-homonuclear cadmium-cadmium dimer, [CH{(CH₃)CN-2,6-iPr₂C₆H₃}₂Cd]₂, which formed via catalytic reduction of the cadmium hydride. Attempts to synthesize an amidinate insertion product via a salt metathesis reaction or a ligand exchange reaction proved unsuccessful but a novel cadmium amidinate, [{CH(N-C₆H₁₁)₂}₂{CH(N-C₆H₁₁)(N(H)-C₆H₁₁)}Cd], was synthesized from addition of dicyclohexyl formamidine to bis-hexamethyldisilazane cadmium. A β-diketiminato-zinc(II) bromide, [o-C₆H₄{C(CH₃)=N-2,6- iPr₂C₆H₃}{NH(2,6- iPr₂C₆H₃)}]ZnBr, was synthesized by addition of [o-C₆H₄{C(CH₃)=N-2,6- iPr₂C₆H₃}{NH(2,6- iPr₂C₆H₃)}]Li to zinc dibromide. The β-diketiminato-zinc(II) bromide was derivatized to a variety of complexes (including amides and phosphanides) by a salt metathesis reaction. Chalcogen addition reactions were performed from [o-C₆H₄{C(CH₃)=N-2,6-iPr₂C₆H₃}{NH(2,6-iPr₂C₆H₃)}ZnP(C₆H₁₁)₂] to produce double addition products from sulfur, selenium and tellurium. Chalcogen addition reactions from [o-C₆H₄{C(CH₃)=N-2,6-iPr₂C₆H₃}{NH(2,6-iPr₂C₆H₃)}ZnP(C₆H₅)₂] produced a double addition product for selenium and a β-diketiminato-zinc(II) tellunoite bridged dimer, [o-C₆H₄{C(CH₃)=N-2,6-iPr₂C₆H₃}{NH(2,6-iPr₂C₆H₃)}Zn]Te, from tellurium. A total of 14 compounds were characterized via X-ray diffraction. Photoluminescence studies of the β-diketiminato-zinc(II) compounds were conducted where it was proposed that an electron transfer from the lone pair on the hetero-atom influenced the quantum yield and fluorescence intensities.

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