6,515 results for Scholarly text

  • Fishing for answers: The implications of Environmental Defence Society v King Salmon

    Milne, Eleanor (2014)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

    The Supreme Court's decision Environmental Defence Society v King Salmon, released in early 2014, is a positive development in New Zealand's resource management law. The decision endorses the environmental bottom line approach and prohibits the use of the purpose section of the Resource Management Act 1991 when making operative decisions. If the decision is applied widely, there is scope for some of the problems with the resource management law framework to be addressed. In particular, it has the potential to reduce the uncertainty within the system caused by the lack of central government direction and the inconsistencies between local governments, and the issues when applying the purpose of the Resource Management Act. The paper also analyses the effect of King Salmon on the proposed reforms, and concludes that the arguments for the reforms are now much weaker.

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  • Transaction cost implications of two approaches to forests in climate change policy: New Zealand and California

    Chiono, Anton A. (2014)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    New Zealand and California present an opportunity to assess how two different designs for incorporating forests in climate policy affect transaction costs for participants in the forest sector. Forests play a prominent role in achieving the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions reduction goals established by each policy. In New Zealand, the forest sector provides an important option for domestic GHG emissions reductions in an economy where opportunities in other sectors, like agriculture and energy, may be limited. In California, offsets from forests are projected to have the greatest technical potential of any approved offset project type, and will be an important option for reducing the costs of compliance in regulated sectors. This research investigates the different approaches taken by New Zealand and California, the circumstances surrounding each policy, and the transaction cost implications for forest participants under each programme.

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  • The Discretionary Remedial Constructive Trust: "[A] debate as cogent as a discussion of the merits of English versus American unicorns"¹

    Meagher, Jacob Joseph (2014)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Those who seek settled property rights in Equity will find little comfort in this paper. With legal realism in mind the author asks what are the courts of Equity doing to property when recognising an institutional constructive trust? The author concludes that there is little distinction between a remedial and an institutional constructive trust; they are the same remedial equitable mechanisms for transferring property from A to B in equity. That is, an ICT, like the RCT is are awarded/imposed/recognised by the courts based on the underlying concepts of fairness and justice (or the equitable term of art; 'unconscionability'). The ICT is seen as legitimate because it hides behind the mask of language of 'institution'. Finally if jurisdictions continue to recognise and impose the ICT, then there is no logic in rejecting the RCT as an any less legitimate tool in the Equities armory. ¹ William Swadling "The Fiction of the Constructive Trust" (2011) 64 Current Legal Problems 399 at 432.

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  • Mathematical modelling of solute transport in a heterogeneous aquifer

    Dommisse, James Phillip (2015)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    This study provides a contribution to the understanding of parsimony and predictive uncertainty in the context of groundwater solute transport modelling. The study is unique because the modelling was undertaken using tracer test data from a heterogeneous artificial aquifer whose structure was known to a very high level of detail. The aquifer structure was based on a ‘real life’ Canterbury Plains alluvial aquifer (in New Zealand). Parsimonious principles were applied by starting with a simple analytical model that assumed homogeneity then progressively adding heterogeneity using numerical models with varying degrees of parameterisation complexity. The results show that increased complexity did not necessarily make the model better at replicating the tracer test data. For example, the outputs from a numerical model that represented heterogeneity using a zone based approach based on the recorded distribution of all 2,907 blocks that comprised the artificial aquifer was little different to a simple numerical model that adopted a homogenous distribution and included a single value of dispersion. Parameterisation of numerical models using ‘pilot points’ provided the most complex representation of heterogeneity and resulted in the best replication of the tracer test data. However, increasing model complexity had its disadvantages such as decreasing parameterisation uniqueness. The contribution to predictive uncertainty from model parameters and observations was assessed using a linear approach based on Bayes theorem. This approach has been applied to other groundwater modelling studies, but not to solute transport modelling within Canterbury Plains alluvial aquifers or to an artificial aquifer. A unique finding was the reduction in predictive uncertainty along the groundwater flow path. This finding correlated well with the numerical model outputs which showed closer fits to the observation data near the end of the aquifer compared to those near the top of the aquifer where the tracer was injected. Physical solute transport processes were identified and described as part of the modelling. These included the increase in dispersivity with travel distance and the spatial distribution of the aquifer hydraulic properties. Analytical modelling was a useful tool in identifying physical processes, aquifer characteristics and the variation in aquifer hydraulic properties both spatially and with depth. An important finding was the value of undertaking multiple modelling approaches. This is because each approach has its own advantages and disadvantageous and by comparing the results of different approaches, the true facts about the aquifer system are made clearer.

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  • Victim Participation at the Extraordinary Chambers in the Courts of Cambodia: Challenges to the Civil Party Framework and Lessons for the Future

    Neale, Laura (2014)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

    This paper examines the victim participation framework at the Extraordinary Chambers in the Courts of Cambodia (ECCC or Court), established to deal with crimes during the Khmer Rouge regime. The background which has led to the creation of the ECCC will be explained, before the paper will look at the way the Court is structured to include civil parties. The Court has consistently limited the civil parties’ role since its establishment and these limitations and the justifications are outlined in the paper. Solutions in the context of the ECCC are then considered, although due to the political environment, no changes in favour of victim rights are likely. Future models are considered, with the benefits of a Truth and Conciliation Commission’s analysed by looking at Sierra Leone and East Timor, as examples of successful frameworks where both a Court and a Truth and Reconciliation Commission proceeded simultaneously. This paper concludes that although every situation requiring a judicial response will be different, the option of having both a Court and a Truth and Reconciliation Commission can fulfil multiple victim needs.

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  • All smoke and mirrors? The Taylor litigation and issues surrounding the smoking ban in New Zealand prisons

    Olsen, Caitlin (2014)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

    A 2005 prisoner health survey found that almost three quarters of the New Zealand prison population identified as smokers. Tobacco was deeply engrained in prison culture and smoking was viewed as an aid for managing the stress and boredom associated with prison life. The Department of Corrections implemented a policy on 1 July 2011, banning smoking in all areas of all prisons in New Zealand. The policy aimed to improve the long-term health of prisoners, and create a healthier workplace environment. Arthur Taylor, a notorious and litigious criminal, successfully challenged the delegated legislation implementing the policy by way of judicial review. This paper argues that the judicial reasoning was flawed, as it was based on erroneous assumptions without a thorough assessment and interpretation of the legislative history. Despite Taylor’s successful claims, the smoking ban was then incorporated into primary legislation. This paper examines the method of implementation, finding issues with retrospective and privative clauses introduced by a late stage supplementary order paper. Prisoners are a group especially vulnerable to curtailment of rights and freedoms, and this paper concludes that removal of the freedom to smoke in prison cells and outside in prison yards was a step too far.

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  • Sentience: 3D printed living products

    Rewiri-Chrastecky, Tahi (2014)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    This thesis is a research through design based investigation that explores the possibility of creating three dimensional (3D) products that are tactilely responsive, in an attempt to discover whether 3D printing technologies can be utilized to generate contemporary products that adapt, evolve and develop features synonymous with living organisms. It looks at the possibility of sentient, 3D printed products and explores the potential that these objects have to interact with both the user and their surrounding environment. It also looks into the possibilities for 3D printed processes to allow for materials to better reflect the sensory and information processing capabilities of digital interface technologies. By placing a series of iterative design experiments within a contextual background this thesis not only explores what is currently possible, but theorizes about what could be possible in the future, when current technological and material limitations have been surpassed. Essentially, this thesis focuses on answering one underlying question: can 3D printing be utilized to create a product that appears to be alive.

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  • Spatial and temporal genetic structure of the New Zealand scallop Pecten novaezelandiae: A multidisciplinary perspective

    Nunes Soares Silva, Catarina (2015)

    Doctoral thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Knowledge about the population genetic structure of species and the factors shaping such patterns is crucial for effective management and conservation. The complexity of New Zealand’s marine environment presents a challenge for management and the classification of its marine biogeographic areas. As such, it is an interesting system to investigate marine connectivity dynamics and the evolutionary processes shaping the population structure of marine species. An accurate description of spatial and temporal patterns of dispersal and population structure requires the use of tools capable of incorporating the variability of the mechanisms involved. However, these techniques are yet to be broadly applied to New Zealand marine organisms. This study used genetic markers to assess the genetic variation of the endemic New Zealand scallop, Pecten novaezelandiae, at different spatial and temporal scales. A multidisciplinary approach was used integrating genetic with environmental data (seascape genetics) and hydrodynamic modelling tools. P. novaezelandiae supports important commercial, recreational and customary fisheries but there is no previous information about its genetic structure. Therefore, twelve microsatellite markers were developed for this study (Chapter 2). Samples (n=952) were collected from 15 locations to determine the genetic structure across the distribution range of P. novaezelandiae. The low genetic structure detected in this study is expected given the recent evolutionary history, the large reproductive potential and the pelagic larval duration of the species (approximately 3 weeks). A significant isolation by distance signal and a degree of differentiation from north to south was apparent, but this structure conflicted with some evidence of panmixia. A latitudinal genetic diversity gradient was observed that might reflect the colonisation and extinction events and insufficient time to reach migration-drift equilibrium during a recent range expansion (Chapter 3). A seascape genetic approach was used to test for associations between patterns of genetic variation in P. novaezelandiae and environmental variables (three geospatial and six environmental variables). Although the geographic distance between populations was an important variable explaining the genetic variation among populations, it appears that levels of genetic differentiation are not a simple function of distance. Evidence suggests that some environmental factors such as freshwater discharge and suspended particulate matter can be contributing to the patterns of genetic differentiation of P. novaezelandiae in New Zealand (Chapter 4). Dispersal of P. novaezelandiae was investigated at a small spatial and temporal scale in the Coromandel fishery using genetic markers integrated with hydrodynamic modelling. For the spatial analysis, samples (n=402) were collected in 2012 from 5 locations and for the temporal analysis samples (n=383) were collected in 2012 and 2014 from 3 locations. Results showed small but significant spatial and temporal genetic differentiation, suggesting that the Coromandel fishery does not form a single panmictic unit with free gene flow and supporting a model of source-sink population dynamics (Chapter 5). The importance of using multidisciplinary approaches at different spatial and temporal scales is widely recognized as a means to better understand the complex processes affecting marine connectivity. The outcomes of this study highlight the importance of incorporating these different approaches, provide vital information to assist in effective management and conservation of P. novaezelandiae and contribute to our understanding of evolutionary processes shaping population structure of marine species.

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  • “This journey has definitely changed me”: An ethnographic narrative exploring disabled peoples’ lives through embodied experiences and identity negotiation

    Sait, Callan (2015)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Following calls from both disability studies and anthropology to provide ethnographic accounts of disability, this thesis presents the narratives of nine people living with disability, focusing on what disability means to them, how it is incorporated into their identities, and how it shapes their lived experiences. While accounts of disability from disability studies often focus on the social model of disability (Shakespeare 2006) and emphasise social stigma and oppression (Goffman 1967, Susman 1994), anthropological accounts often emphasise the suffering and search for cures (Rapp and Ginsburg 2012) that is assumed to accompany disability. Both approaches have their benefits, but neither pay particularly close attention to the personal experiences of individuals, on their own terms. By taking elements from both disciplines, this thesis aims to present a balanced view that emphasises the lived experiences of individuals with disability, and uses these experiences as a starting point for wider social analysis. The primary focus of this thesis is understanding how disability shapes an individual’s identity: what physical, emotional, and social factors influence how these people are perceived – by themselves and others? Through my participants’ narratives I explore how understandings of normal bodies and normal lives influence their sense of personhood, and investigate the role of stigma in mediating social encounters and self-concepts. Furthermore, I undertake a novel study of the role of technology in the lives of people living with disability. My work explores how both assistive and non-assistive (‘general’) technologies are perceived and utilised by my participants in ways that effect not just the physical experience of disability, but also social perceptions and personal understandings of the body/self. I argue that although the social model of disability is an excellent analytical tool, and one which has provided tangible benefits for disabled people, its political nature can sometimes lead to a homogenisation of disabled experiences; something which this thesis is intended to remedy by providing ethnographic narratives of disability, grounded in the embodied experiences of individuals.

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  • Public service dynamics

    Plimmer, Geoff (2015)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Creating High Performing Public Service Organisations – moving from problem ID to solutions Date: Tuesday 14 April 2015 With an excellent line-up of presenters from across the Public Service this seminar brought together, senior executives, managers, policy and employment relations people and researchers to discuss high performance in the public sector. It looked at how the issues are currently being addressed, strategies and tactics for success, and the role of leadership.

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  • Possible selves and career transition: It's who you want to be, not what you want to do

    Plimmer, G. (2007)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Desire for career change is the driver behind much adult study. Career change and going back to school as an adult are often stressful. For the individual, the experience often begins with a state of dissatisfaction about who you are and who you are becoming. Dissatisfied adults who make major career changes generally become more satisfied than those who did not, suggesting that the associated struggle is usually worthwhile (Thomas, 1980). Career transition often represents a radical break from earlier goals and plans. It may conflict with family obligations; it may involve trying out new roles and identities and revisiting past obstacles and fears (Schlossberg, 1984). Beneath the carefully written resume, the reasons for seeking career change may be fraught with emotion, uncertainty, and the desire to be someone different. Possible selves theory, when applied to new approaches to career development and adult education, helps us understand how adults manage transition and move toward being the selves that they want to become. This chapter outlines how possible selves theory is used in career development, and how these uses might apply to adult learning. It draws on theory, practice, and, for illustration, vignettes from a study of mature students’ experiences in a New Zealand polytechnic college (Schmidt, Mabbett, and Houston, 2005). It includes some personal conclusions taken from our experience of using possible selves with clients and presents a five-step process to use with learners in developing effective possible selves. Each section ends with some practical career development techniques that may be of use to adult educators. Being a mature adult in career transition is different from being a younger person, though younger people are the chief concern of traditional learning and career theories (Taylor and Giannantonio, 1990). Mature adults interpret themselves and the world with more complexity than the young (Hy and Loevinger, 1996), while also having a more narrow and specialized sense of self. Mature adults are less guided by social comparison and more guided by comparison with how they ideally want to be (Ouellete and others, 2005). Usually, they are less malleable than younger people, and may be experiencing an intense search for meaning (Zunker, 1990). Their sense of opportunity is often limited by obligations to others, like Kim, a middle-aged woman who comments that “The biggest obstacle for me is my home commitments because I have four children and a family to run”. Adult learners may also have a sense of running out of time. William, a mature part time student, is dispirited by what he calls his “protracted process” and is daunted by his realisation that “I’ve got a six year process before I’m even qualified … at that stage I’ll be 51 years old.” When an adult returns to study, it can be an attempt to break out of a sense of limited opportunities and restricted roles. Back in an education setting, adults may find their deeply held assumptions, beliefs and expectations threatened. Further, mature adults can feel like impostors, culturally alien and isolated (Brookfield, 1999). Older people in career transition often see themselves as having fewer psychological resources; they may experience more stress and less progress, and may perceive more barriers to change than younger people (Heppner, Multon, and Johnston, 1994). These themes of stress, circumscription, search for meaning, complexity, and narrowing and consolidating the self are well traversed in the adult learning and adult careers literatures (Brown and Brooks, 1996; Knowles, 1990; and Zunker, 1990).

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  • Skills and people capability in the future state: Needs, barriers and opportunities

    Plimmer, G (2011)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

    The initial paper in the Future State Project (IPS Working paper 10/08) describes several powerful new trends beginning to impact on public sector management including limited funding, rising public expectations, and more complex problems. But what are the implications of these trends on human resource management (HRM) within the New Zealand public sector? What ideas are emerging within the HRM literature, and how do these relate to the perspectives of practitioners – human resource managers, CEOs and senior executives, and staff – in New Zealand’s public sector organisations? The formal system in New Zealand, focused on improvement of pre-specified and auditable outputs monitored through detailed agency performance plans, may no longer be sufficient for the public sector environment of the future. Instead, new individual and collective capabilities may be needed. Current state servants have been selected, developed and rewarded in an environment which has emphasised stability, control, linear accountability and outputs. In contrast, we will argue that the emerging environment requires adaptability and the ability to work across public, private and non-profit public sector boundaries, locally and internationally. Bottom line accountability for the efficient operations of a tightly defined functional task is fundamentally different from the messiness of managing public sector responses to shifting social and economic challenges which have no easily defined finish lines. We begin this paper with an overview of the current state of skills and people capability in the New Zealand public sector, including employee commitment and engagement, and the impact of the new wave of reforms over the last decade. We then identify several emerging ideas about the future of public sector HRM, including the need to develop better leaders, encourage innovation and collaboration, and take a longer term, more intense effort in capability development. These ideas were explored with practitioners in a series of focus groups in April and May 2011. In this paper, we discuss the results of the focus groups, in which we found general agreement with many of the ideas tabled for discussion but some key differences in perspective between human resource managers, CEOs and senior executives, and staff. We conclude this paper with a discussion of the future of public sector HRM in New Zealand.

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  • Legendary Obscurity: the Working Life of Malcolm Ross

    Plummer, Matthew Robert (2011)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Malcolm Ross (1948-2003) was a sculptor, painter, photographer, cartoonist and historian who operated at one remove from the art world for the entirety of his career. As a consequence, almost no analysis, criticism or writing on his work exists, and his place within this country's history of art has subsequently been overlooked. This thesis seeks to give art historical and analytical attention to Ross's oeuvre, arguing for his status as one of New Zealand's key conceptual practitioners. It traces the thematic threads which recur throughout his work and argues that the diverse range of artistic and historic investigations he undertook are ultimately unified within his archive at the E.H. McCormick Research Library, Auckland Art Gallery Toi O Tamaki.

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  • Responsibly Engaged: Ideology and Utopia along the Backpacker Trail

    Bohn, Sonja (2012)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    By following the backpacker trail beyond the 'tourist bubble,' travellers invest in the ideals of freedom, engagement, and responsibility. Backpacker discourse foregrounds travellers' freedom to mobility as it constructs the world as 'tourable'; engagement is demonstrated in the search for 'authentic' connections with cultural Others, beyond the reach of globalised capitalism; responsibility is shouldered by yearning to improve the lives of these Others, through capitalist development. While backpackers frequently question the attainability of these ideals, aspiring to them reveals a desire for a world that is open, diverse, and egalitarian. My perspective is framed by Fredric Jameson's reading of the interrelated concepts of ideology and utopia. While backpacker discourse functions ideologically to reify and obscure global inequalities, to entrench free market capitalism, and to limit the imagining of alternatives, it also figures for a utopian world in which such ideology is not necessary. Using this approach, I attempt to undertake critique of backpacker ideology without invalidating its utopian content, while seeking to reveal its limits. Overall, I suggest that late-capitalism subsumes utopian desires for a better way of living by presenting itself as the solution. This leaves backpackers feeling stranded, seeking to escape the ills of capitalism, via capitalism.

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  • The ontology of musical objects in contemporary instrumental composition

    Post, Jason William (2015)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    The musical object occupies a strange place in music criticism. The new musicology schools influenced by post-structuralist continental thought have shied away from the object’s autonomous existence, exemplified by Christopher Small’s view of music as a cultural activity: “musicking.” Other theorists, such as Dennis Smalley, have created taxonomies of musical sound. Smalley’s spectromorphology defines sonic typologies that he claims to be based on an experiential understanding of sound, while simultaneously undertaking the technical project of a systematic cataloguing of sounds. Both views inhabit quite opposite positions in relation to the sound object – either a total rejection of its reality or a positivistic attempt at a catalogue of sound types. Both of these approaches suffer from distancing the sonic object through their respective discourse: by reducing the importance of the object for the sake of viewing music as a network of cultural relations, or by reducing it to an idealized and rationalized object, seeing it as just the product of a bundle of auditory qualities unified by perception. These views introduce a distance from auditory experience, which is at its core an object-oriented experience. In other words, neither meets the musical object on its own level, and because of this, they deny or caricature the musical object’s ontology. Graham Harman’s philosophical study of Object-oriented Ontology is a radicalization of Heideggerian phenomenology. Through a new reading of Heidegger’s tool-analysis, Harman argues that objects – whether real, living, non-living, ideal or abstract – are the primary location of ontological investigation, and that objects exist both discretely and as a part of a wider network of possible relationships. By viewing the object this way, and by recognizing the multifaceted and multidimensional features of the musical object, we may be able to account for features of music that the trends above are unable to recognize or assess, such as the twentieth century aesthetic practices of György Ligeti, Salvatore Sciarrino, and the Spectral school of composition. It is possible to read these composer’s aesthetics as object-oriented because they are so strongly focused on examining sonic objects themselves –whether it is a physical event or modeling a natural process – instead of examining objects only through their affective potential towards human beings. This practice suggests that these qualities and processes are themselves areas for possible contemplation. Historically, this move away from an emphasis on the human-world binary goes against the nineteenth century aesthetic of Romanticism, which relies on an object’s affective potential. Also, an object-oriented position rejects formalism, because of its reduction of music to an intellectual activity. An object-oriented approach to music traverses the line between these two positions, acknowledging the subtle and shifting relationships between the affective and the analytic or, to locate this within Harman’s approach, between the sensual and real. The thesis will explore the implications of an object oriented approach to music, trace the history of its development in relation to music – chiefly that of the twentieth and twenty-first centuries – as well as make object oriented analyses of selected works, including my own compositions.

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  • Late Transition Metal Complexes of Pyridyldiphosphines

    Vaughan, Teresa Florence (2015)

    Doctoral thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    This thesis provides an account of research into the properties of pyridyldiphosphines with o-xylene and m-xylene backbones. The coordination behaviour of the o-xylene based ligand with platinum, palladium, silver, rhodium and iridium metal centres has been studied, with an emphasis on whether the presence of the pyridyl rings affects the products formed. Platinum and palladium pincer complexes have been synthesised and the intermediates investigated. The formation of trimetallic complexes with these ligands acting as bridging ligands has also been explored. Two new pyridyldiphosphines, o-C₆H₄(CH₂PPy₂)₂ (3) and m-C₆H₄(CH₂PPy₂)₂ (4), and one known pyridyldiphosphine, PPy₂(CH₂)₃PPy₂ (5), have been synthesised via an improved method. Tris(2-pyridyl)phopshine was reacted with a lithium dispersion to give LiPPy₂, which was then reacted with the appropriate dichloride or dibromide compound to yield the desired ligand. The phosphine selenides of 3 and 4 were synthesised and the ¹J PSe values of 738 and 742 Hz indicated these ligands were less basic than PPh₃. While the ligands themselves were not water-soluble, protonation by a strong acid, such as HCl or H₂C(SO₂CF₃)₃, rendered them soluble in water. A series of [MX₂(PP)] complexes (where M = Pt, X = Cl, I, Me, Et, PP = 3, 5; M = Pd, X = Cl, Me PP = 3, 5) were synthesised. Complexes of 3 displayed dynamic behaviour in solution which was attributed to the backbone of the ligand inverting. When [PtMeCl(PP)] (27) was reacted with NaCH(SO₂CF₃)₂ no evidence for the coordination of the pyridyl nitrogens was observed. The synthesis of a series of unsymetrical [PtMeL(PP)]⁺ complexes enabled the comparison of the cis and trans influences of a range of ligands. The following cis influence series was compiled based on ³¹P NMR data of these complexes: Py ≈ Cl > SEt₂ > PTA > PPh₃. Reaction of 27 with NaCH(SO₂CF₃)₂ and carbon monoxide slowly formed an acyl complex, where the CO had inserted in the Pt–Me bond. The bis-chelated complexes [M(PP)₂] where M = Pt, Pd, and [Ag(PP)₂]⁺ were formed. In these complexes 3 acted as a diphosphine ligand and there was no evidence for any interaction between the pyridyl nitrogen atoms and the metal centre. Reaction of 3 with [Ir(COD)(μ-Cl)]₂ formed [IrCl(PP)(COD)] (42). When the chloride ligand in 42 was abstracted, the pyridyl nitrogens were able to interact with the iridium centre faciliating the isomerisation of the 1,2,5,6-ƞ⁴-COD ligand to a 1-к-4,5,6-ƞ³-C₈H₁₂ ligand. The X-ray crystal structure of [Ir(1-к-4,5,6-ƞ³-C₈H₁₂)(PPN)]BPh₄ (43) confirmed the P,P,N chelation mode of the ligand. In solution, 43 displayed hemilabile behaviour, with the pyridyl nitrogens exchanging at a rate faster than the NMR time scale at room temperature. The coordinated pyridyl nitrogen was able to be displaced by carbon monoxide to form [Ir(1-к-4,5,6-ƞ³-C₈H₁₂)(CO)(PP)]⁺. A series of [PtXY(μ-PP)]₂ complexes, where X = Y = Cl, Me, X = Cl, Y = Me and PP = 4, were formed initially when 4 was reacted with platinum(II) complexes. When heated, the dimers containing methyl ligands eliminated methane to form [PtX(PCP)] pincer complexes, X = Cl (49), Me (51). When the chloride ligand in 49 was abstracted no evidence of pyridyl nitrogen coordination was observed. Protonation of 49 did not yield a water-soluble pincer complex. The [PdCl₂(μ-PP)]₂ complex readily metallated when heated to give the pincer complex [PdCl(PCP)]. Given pyridyl nitrogen atoms are known to be good ligands for “hard” metal centres, the ability of the pyridyl nitrogens in 3 and 4 to coordinate to metal centres was investigated. While complexes with chloride ligands were found to form insoluble products, the synthesis of [(PtMe₂)₃(PP)], from the reaction of either 3 or [PtMe₂(PP)] (17) with dimethyl(hexa-1,5-diene)platinum, proceeded smoothly through a dimetallic intermediate. The same reactivity was observed in the synthesis of [(PtMe₂)₂PtMe(PCP)]. In contrast, the cationic heterotrimetallic complexes [{M(COD)}₂PtMe(PP)]²⁺ and [{M(COD)}₂PtMe(PCP)]²⁺, where M = Rh or Ir, were synthesised without the detection of any intermediates. However, dimetallic complexes were formed as part of a mixture when 17 or 51 was reacted with one equivalent of the appropriate metal complex.

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  • Adult career counselling using possible selves—A quasi-experimental field study in naturalistic settings

    Plimmer, G. (2012)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

    This study examined the effectiveness of an adult career development program designed to reflect the diversity and demands of career choices, the low level of comfort many have with career choices, and the limited resources available to resolve complex adult career problems. A possible selves process was used, delivered through a blend of computer and one-on-one counselling. Compared with a comparison group offered general career counselling, the program was particularly effective in raising participants’ level of comfort with career direction, particularly for those with very low scores on this dimension. Similarly, the possible selves process was effective in increasing the level to which participants were decided about their career direction. Interviews with practitioners found the computerised possible selves-based approach to be effective in engaging clients where career and personal issues were intertwined, and in helping clients find solutions to career problems.

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  • Critical success factors for outsourced software development projects from a vendor's perspective: A structural equation modelling analysis of traditional plan-based and agile methodologies

    Ahimbisibwe, Arthur (2015)

    Doctoral thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    There are many factors proposed as to why software projects fail, one of them is the inappropriate choice of a project management methodology. Although there is an increased range of available management choices, project managers do not frequently consider their alternatives. They tend to narrowly tailor project categorisation systems and use categorisation criteria that are not logically linked with objectives. To address this, this study develops and tests an integrative contingency fit model for contrasting perspectives of traditional plan-based and agile methodologies specifically for outsourced software development projects. In addition, it takes a vendor‘s perspective, rather than the client perspective that is mostly used. Overall, the research seeks to answer these questions: (RQ1) what are the Critical Success Factors (CSFs) for outsourced software development projects from a vendor‟s perspective? (RQ2) What are the differences in these CSFs for traditional plan-driven and agile methodologies towards project success from a vendor‟s perspective? The IT literature reveals two major distinct categories of methodologies: traditional plan-based and agile. Previous research has identified CSFs with respect to project success with mixed findings. The recent increase in popularity of methodologies has shifted the debate, interest and controversy to CSFs that are the factors which are most important to make a methodology successful. While there is an increasing diversity of project types, project contexts and methodologies, the frameworks or theories connecting these are limited. To date software development projects studies have addressed generally one methodology per study and perceived candidate CSFs as a form of reasons of success amidst a wide range of project success criteria. Although contingency theory has been previously argued for outsourced software development projects, empirical models have frequently not fully incorporated contingency as fit or fit as moderation (i.e. traditional vs. agile). This study sought to fill this research gap. Cross-sectional data from 984 senior vendor project managers and team leaders was collected by a global web-based survey. Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) (a multivariate statistical technique, in which parameters are estimated by minimizing the discrepancy between the model-implied covariance matrix and the observed covariance matrix) was used for data analysis. SEM results provide support for several contingency hypotheses theorizing relationships between candidate CSFs and project success. Project management methodology was found to moderate the effects of various CSFs on project success, and in different ways for various success measures. Similarly, the results show the level of project uncertainty moderates the impact of various CSFs on project success, and in different ways for various success measures. Together these findings provide empirical support for contingency as fit and more fully incorporate fit as moderation. The study contributes towards understanding the differences between traditional plan-based and agile project management based on the perceptions of vendor respondents with regard to their client organizations, and also to understanding what are the most significant antecedents of success (the CSFs) in different project contexts. The study also examines the indirect and interaction effects, and the findings contribute towards understanding of the contingency perspective as a framework to be used by project managers and organizations. Practical implications of these results suggest that project managers should tailor project management methodologies according to various project types, which is likely to improve current project success rates.

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  • The Potential of Utilising Residential Demand Response to Balance the Fluctuation of Wind Power in New Zealand

    Alzaanin, Hatem I. (2014)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    The substantial penetration of wind power introduces increased flexibility requirements on the power system and puts increased pressure on the instantaneous reserve levels required. Instantaneous reserves are a security product that ensures that electricity demand can continue to be met in the event of unplanned generation or transmission interruptions. This reserve must be available to respond very quickly to generation-demand variability. While this is an integral component of the power system, providing instantaneous reserve increases the production cost of power. More calls from energy researchers and stakeholders ask for loads to play an increasingly important role in balancing the short timescale fluctuations in generated wind power. The purpose of this study is to assess the current level of demand responsiveness among domestic refrigerators, freezers, and water heaters and their potential to contribute towards instantaneous reserve and balance the fluctuation of wind. Refrigerators, freezers, and water heaters can generally store energy due to their thermal mass. Interrupting these domestic loads for short time by employing direct load control strategies makes it possible to control these appliances by turning them on or off before their reach their maximum or minimum temperatures or by slightly modifying their temperature set point. Using this strategy helps to ensure that the overall satisfaction of consumers should not be affected. This study first modelled the load profiles of the participated residential appliances and statistically assessed the potential of controlling these residential loads using direct load control strategies to contribute towards instantaneous reserves to mitigate and balance the fluctuation of wind power in the years: 2014, 2020 and 2030. In the second section, it demonstrated the capabilities of the assessed residential responsive loads within Wellington Region network to compensate for and balance the fluctuation of wind power generated from the West Wind Farm in seven selected days in 2013-2014 as a showcase. Such technology can enable a power system operator to remove the burden of both providing instantaneous reserve from conventional sources, and instead maintain such capacity from available residential demand response. The study ends with recommendations to engage residential loads in fast timescale demand response and suggests directions for future research.

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  • Higher education expansion, economic reform and labor productivity

    Yao, Yao (2016)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

    This paper studies the impact of higher education expansion, along with economic reform of the state sector, in the late 1990’s in China on its labor productivity. I argue that in an economy such as China, where allocation distortions widely exist, an educational policy affects average labor productivity not only through its effect on human capital stock, but also through its effect on human capital allocation across sectors. Thus, its impact could be very limited if misallocation becomes more severe following the policy. I construct a two-sector general equilibrium model with private enterprises and state-owned enterprises, with policy distortions favoring the latter. Households, heterogeneous in ability, make educational choices and occupational choices in a threeperiod overlapping-generations setting. Counterintuitively, quantitative analysis shows an overall negative effect of higher education expansion on average labor productivity (by 5 percent). Though it did increase China’s skilled human capital stock significantly (by nearly 50 percent), the policy had the effect of reallocating relatively more human capital toward the less-productive state sector. This also directed physical capital allocation toward the state sector and further dampened average labor productivity. It was the economic reform that greatly improved the allocation efficiency and complemented educational policy in enhancing labor productivity (by nearly 50 percent).

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