6,515 results for Scholarly text

  • Settlement payments in Papua New Guinea - Are they Just or Unjust?

    Sukwianomb, Sheila (2016)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

    This paper discusses and analyses settlement payments paid to customary landowners in Papua New Guinea by the State for the acquisition of their customary land prior to Independence. These payments had been introduced after customary landowners had raised their grievances over the low purchase prices that they had been allegedly paid by the early European settlers and the colonial administration over their customary land. They are statutorily fixed payments provided under the National Land Registration Act 197. However, since the introduction of these payments, the State has encountered a number of problems. The main problems are firstly that customary landowners are still dissatisfied with the amounts paid and therefore continuously demanding further payments. Secondly, the National Land Commission which was established to administer the process of facilitating these payments under the National land Registration Act is not performing its functions effectively. Therefore this paper aims to study the historical reasons behind introducing these payments and argues that based on the current problems that the State is experiencing with paying landowners’ settlement payments it should consider whether or not to continue to pay customary landowners.

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  • The Trans-Pacific Partnership - A bane or boon to corporate social responsibility?

    Ariyaratne, Nilupuli (2016)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

    This paper examines the possible positive and negative effects that the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) can have on Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR). Accordingly, the thesis will analyse these effects to determine whether the TPP could ultimately serve as a tool for improving or crippling the CSR practices of corporations within TPP States.

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  • Getting the definition of 'consumer' right - Worrying about the smaller ones in Fiji

    Khatri, Bhumika (2016)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

    This paper argues that the definition of consumer in Fiji should be broadened to include the micro and small enterprises (MSEs). A survey conducted by the National Centre for Small and Micro Enterprises Development in Fiji provides a deep insight into the operation of MSEs in Fiji. The survey findings reveal that MSEs are vulnerable and could be easily exploited by larger companies in the market. One of the ways in which MSEs could be protected is by providing them with the consumer-level protection. This paper argues that MSEs are eligible for consumer protection because like consumers, they also have poor bargaining power, less expertise in making an informed purchasing decision and significant difficulties in seeking remedies against the large suppliers. The paper further contends that the definition of consumer must not only be widened in the general consumer protection law but in the consumer credit legislation and with respect to unfair contract terms too. The arguments against the proposal to broaden the definition are that all businesses, regardless of their size, should be treated the same, there are other relevant laws for the protection of business-consumers and that it would put extra burden on the suppliers, many of whom are small businesses themselves. The paper ends with a draft definition of consumer which includes domestic consumers, micro businesses, whether purchasing for business use or re-sale and small businesses purchasing for business consumption.

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  • Principles that Should Govern the Right of Employers to Monitor Employee’s Computer Mediated Workplace Communication: Private Sector

    Rodriguez, Laura (2016)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

    This paper explores the issues that arise from the surveillance of digital communications at the workplace and how New Zealand has addressed these issues. To achieve that purpose, this paper explores the two prevalent approaches to privacy rights at the workplace: The ownership of the resources (Anglo-American) and the continental Dignity-based (Europe). New Zealand has aligned itself with the Anglo American approach. This approach is less protective of employee’s privacy interests. This paper shall demonstrate that the legal protection of employees from electronic monitoring would be greatly improved by deriving those protections from "human dignity”.

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  • The Origin and Migration of Proportionality

    McManamon, Jane (2016)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

    This paper analyses the origin and migration of proportionality covering the history of proportionality, the development into the Basic Law, its migration and current trends including its presence in international and human rights law.

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  • Audiovisual and Chill: An Evaluation of Video Digital Libraries and Catalogues

    Gordon, Timothy Dean (2016)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Research Problem: This research investigates how well video digital libraries and catalogues used in academic libraries meet user expectations. This is in the context of increasing use and demand for online audiovisual content by the wider community, as well as growing use of audiovisual materials for teaching, learning, and research at academic institutions. It also aims to give an understanding of how well libraries are meeting the challenges of delivering audiovisual materials to users in an on-demand world. Methodology: Twelve platforms—developed between 1996 and 2015—are evaluated against 23 user-centred criteria, divided into four core areas: retrieval functionality, user interface, collection qualities, and user support. Results: The study found that not one of the platforms evaluated met all the evaluation criteria, and identified three key areas in the usability of the video digital libraries and catalogues: search and retrieval, technology, and structure, scope, and strategy. Implications: From this we gain an understanding of performance and usability of video digital libraries and catalogues currently in use by academic libraries. We also learn about the difficulties those working with audiovisual materials are facing, and also of the solutions that are being proposed. Findings of this study could help influence decision making, development of future platforms, and influence policies for delivering audiovisual materials to users.

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  • Barriers to uptake and use of data sharing systems at the University of Auckland - Identification of differences in researcher and academic librarian perceptions

    Simons, Joanne Leigh (2016)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Research Problem: To identify the differences in researcher and academic librarian perception of barriers to the uptake of data sharing systems by researchers at the University of Auckland in order to address all possible barriers during implementation and improve researcher use of new systems. Methodology: This study has a cross-sectional research design, using a mixed methods research strategy, in particular a sequential exploratory design where preliminary interviews with researchers and academic librarians informed the construction of an online survey tool distributed more widely to researchers and academic librarians within the University of Auckland. Statistical significance testing was performed using the Mann-Whitney U test. Results: 103 survey responses were received from researchers, and 18 from academic librarians. There were observable differences in the relative impact assigned by researchers and librarians to the various factors that influence researcher decisions to share data. There are also significant differences in the perceptions of barriers to data-sharing between research disciplines. Implications: There may be a need to improve communications between the library and researchers with regards to the tools and services that they can offer. Library staff may need additional training in support of University researchers, as a proportion did not feel confident answering questions about researcher data-sharing. The research discipline differences in perceptions of barriers to data-sharing mean that a “one-size fits all” strategy for education in and marketing of these services will not be the most effective strategy to address concerns and increase researcher engagement.

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  • Fads, Façade and Face of Building: A proposal for an urban university campus expansion

    Kuepper, Ann-Kathrin (2016)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    “Transparency means a simultaneous perception of different spatial locations. Space not only recedes but fluctuates in a continuous activity” (Kepes). Universities in New Zealand are increasingly under scrutiny as sites of public investment. This presents a socio-political necessity for academic transparency, and visibility inevitably becomes a matter of architecture through the universities’ physical presence; the façade. Preoccupations with the aesthetics of a building’s envelope, and the pursuit of technological advancement, has led to a singular understanding of the façade as a mechanical boundary. This research challenges the hermetic nature of the contemporary façade and its legitimacy as a subject matter of architectural design within the overall architectural discourse. Drivers for this project include the need to revisit historical precedents, the ambivalence of the label ‘façade’, and a speculative siting as a campus expansion of Victoria University of Wellington, New Zealand. The design response to the site’s topography via the theory-charged, re-oriented, and as a heterogeneous space, and threshold redefined, façade enables a novel way of projecting a building’s image without depleting the façade’s autonomy. This is achieved through a rigorous iterative modelling methodology. That in turn provokes an ambitious urban campus complex scaling the site between Wellington city and Kelburn Campus. The architectural outcome provides a sophisticated symbolism of the meaning of University when moving through the campus expansion: one transitions from experiencing the visual indication of how learning occurs to the personal experience of it. A constant transparent process of reciprocal visibility, legibility, communication and understanding.

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  • Revitalising the Heart: Addressing the vacant CBD of Rotorua

    Dittmer, Zakary (2016)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    The issue of abandoned retail stores is one that is evident throughout the country and at different scales throughout the world. The appearance leaves main streets and central business districts’ looking tired and run down and does little to benefit the local economy. The rise and demand of international retail corporations in provincial cities, has transformed inner city infrastructure. This combined with suburban sprawl has resulted in high building vacancies and poor community moral. Looking to new theories around Urban Interior Architecture, this research explores the boundary between internal and external design methods and pushes for a merger of the design disciplines to create a coherent spatial context. In order to repopulate the city, human focused design methods are explored to encourage social interactions, commercial activity and habitation of the many vacant sites. Through the use of site-specific design, Rotorua will be investigated to understand the reasoning for the abandoned stores and will look to the urban context to identify potential remedies to solve the neglect. The identity of Rotorua its Placemaking and Cultural Heritage of its people will inform the design response to bring the community back into the heart of the central city.

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  • Architecture as a Catalyst for Activity

    Tungatt, Rory (2016)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Many of New Zealand’s smaller town centres struggle to remain viable. A common issue for these declining public realms is the hollowing out of their city centres. Numerous factors may contribute to this problem. Issues such as a lack of access, connectivity and identity within the urban fabric, or instances of privatisation, where forums that were once public have now shifted to a digital interface. One of the challenges facing cities is the diminishing number of “civic” buildings and activity located in the town centre. The Indoor Community Sports Centre (ICSC) offers a partial remedy for this problem. Even with the merging and downsizing of Council’s and their funding, Territorial Authorities continue to invest in ICSCs. This thesis investigates whether these buildings can make a positive contribution to the public domain of town centres. New Zealand ICSC’s, more often than not, are simple shed-like buildings on the periphery of cities or town centres, predominantly occupying or adjacent to large park areas, sports fields or schools. This thesis examines whether the building type can be adapted to become an “urban” building, where it will have the opportunity contribute to a revitalised town centre. A design case study based on Upper Hutt identifies three key design criteria established from initial research of Sports Centres and best-practice Urban Design. These three criteria – breaking up mass, active edges from the outside and creating a dynamic connection – allow the ICSC to become part of the civic realm. The research concludes that an ICSC can be successfully integrated into an “urban” context. In the Upper Hutt case study, success depends on two broader design strategies. First, the ICSC should be located in an area where walkability, functionality and visual and physical connectivity will benefit the public domain. Second, the ICSC should be part of a mixed-use development, which exploits the building type’s inherent flexibility. This is achieved through combining a transport hub, another essential civic amenity, as well as other commercial programmes that provide occupancy during periods of disuse. The thesis shows how a carefully adapted ICSC can turn a somewhat disconnected, hollowed out town into a functional, integrated and walkable one. The redesigned facility does so by linking existing amenities, feeding city-fringe activity back into the city centre and projecting a consciousness of place.

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  • Retrofitting Memory: Retrofitting a Non-Physical Architecture

    Low, Soon Yie (2016)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    This project looks at how destroyed architecture, although physically lost, fundamentally continues to exist within human memories as a non-physical entity. The site chosen is Avonside Girls’ High School in Christchurch, New Zealand, a school heavily damaged during the February 22nd earthquake in 2011. The project focuses on the Main Block, a 1930s masonry building which had always been a symbol for the school and its alumni. The key theories relevant to this are studies on non-material architecture and memory as these subjects investigate the relationship between conceptual idea and the triggering of it. This research aims to study how to fortify a thought-based architecture against neglect, similar to the retrofitting of physical structures. In doing so, the importance of the emotive realm of architecture and the idea behind a building (as opposed to the built component itself) is further validated, promoting more broadminded stances regarding the significance of the idea over the object. A new method for disaster recovery and addressing trauma from lost architecture is also acquired. Factors regarding advanced structural systems and programmes are not covered within the scope of this research because the project instead explores issues regarding the boundaries between the immaterial and material. The project methodology involves communicating a narrative derived from the memories alumni and staff members have of the old school block. The approach for portraying the narrative is based on a list of strategies obtained from case studies. The final product of the research is a new design for the high school, conveyed through a set of atmospheric drawings that cross-examines the boundaries between the physical and non-physical realms by representing the version of the school that exists solely within memories.

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  • The Three Pathways to Happiness: How Orientations to Pleasure, Engagement, and Meaning Relate to Grit and Well-Being in a Longitudinal, International Sample

    Ross, Catherine (2016)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Orientations to happiness (OTH)--to what extent people endorse pleasure, engagement, and meaning--and Grit--perseverance and passion for long term goals--have not been studied together longitudinally before. Further, grit and OTH have not been investigated together along with a measure of psychological well-being before. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the links between and among OTH, grit, and well-being through a number of longitudinal mediation analyses. Data from the International Well-Being Study was used, in which 755 participants completed surveys at five time points over one year. The results illustrated that all of the variables were positively related to each other over time, except for a negative relationship found between grit and pleasure OTH. Pleasure, meaning and engagement were all found to be significant predictors and outcomes of the longitudinal mediations of grit to well-being and of well-being to grit. Additionally, engagement was found to be the only OTH pathway that was a marginally significant mediator of the relationship between grit and well-being. Future research should further investigate the relationships between OTH, grit and well-being. This research also has implications for devising and implementing interventions that increase grit and OTH, which also in turn are likely to improve well-being, decrease mental illness, and improve levels of success.

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  • How does a music therapy student work to facilitate reminiscence and memory in dementia patients

    Sun, I-Chen (2016)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    This study was prompted in response to increased interest in, and demand for, music therapy provision in improving quality of care for dementia patients. It is an exploration of the strategies to facilitate memory and reminiscence in persons with dementia, and considers the need for those preparing for end of life to recall identities, connect with family and others, and express feelings. This research is a qualitative study involving secondary analysis of clinical data from my clinical practice and identifies the strategies, techniques and procedures that I applied in my clinical work to stimulate preserved memory ‘islands’. The findings show that familiarity is central in enabling a remembering process, and music can have unique ways of accessing memory in people with limited cognitive and social abilities. Eight core categories of music therapy strategies were found to be helpful in enabling memory and reminiscence. This study includes examples of both individual and group music therapy. The objective of this study was to examine my music therapy practice, and potentially provide some beneficial ideas and insights to other music therapists working on memory and reminiscence with dementia patients.

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  • Data for Surf's Sake - Illustrating a subculture through interactive data visualisation and action sports trackers

    Everitt, Matthew (2016)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Over the last two years action sports trackers have emerged for those seeking thrills in risk-taking sports (Mitchell, 2014). The data generated by these trackers is creating digitised representations of communities participating in action sports such as surfing. The surfing database comprises of activity all over the globe, and due to its size and complexity it can be categorised as big data. Understanding this complex database requires specific data visualisation methods which visually map relationships and patterns. This research asked: can an interactive data visualisation illustrate hierarchical, nomadic, and experiential aspects of the surfing subculture? This thesis is based on ethnographic research which focuses on exploring qualitative visualisations of the quantitative databases generated by action sports trackers for surfing. The research focused on the design of data visualisations which explored contemporary methods and principles of data visualisation and their applicability to communicate aspects of the surfing subculture. This manifested in the design of an interactive web application, Gone Surfing, which focused on global, local, and personal views which communicate Stranger’s (2011) substructure model of the surfing subculture. The hierarchical, nomadic, and experiential aspects of the surfing subculture are only known from long term immersion in the subculture itself. This design made these aspects explicit through the visualisation of the database. For example, pilgrimage’s to revered surfing locations and hierarchy within local communities, and a surfer’s relationship with the waves are forms of implicit knowledge which were made explicit. The final creative output, Gone Surfing, visualises these aspects in an interactive web application consisting of global, local, and personal views to each communicate an aspect effectively. The interactive visualisation allows non-surfers to explore the subculture while enhancing a surfer’s understanding of their position within the surfing nation.

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  • Going all the way: The implications of life history and phenotype on reproductive success of the common triplefin, Forsterygion lapillum

    Moginie, Benjamin (2016)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Identifying sources of variation in individual reproductive success is crucial to our understanding of population dynamics and evolutionary ecology. In many systems, the determinants of success are not well known. Where species have parental care, for example, determinants of success can be particularly challenging to partition between parents and offspring. In this thesis I investigate drivers and consequences of variable life histories, for a small reef fish that exhibits male parental care (the common triplefin Forsterygion lapillum). I examined the influence of individual life history, phenotype and behaviour on (1) the performance of recently settled juveniles, and (2) the reproductive success adult males. I made field-based observations of adult males during the breeding season, measured their phenotypic traits (body size and condition) and used their otoliths to reconstruct life history characteristics (hatch dates and mean growth rates). My life history trait reconstructions suggested two alternate pathways to ’success’ for adult males. Successful males hatched earlier and therefore had a developmental ’head start’ over less successful males (i.e., males with eggs > male territory holders without eggs > floaters). Alternatively, males can apparently achieve success by growing faster: for males born in the same month, those with eggs grew faster than those with territories and no eggs, and both groups grew faster than floaters. These results suggest that accelerated growth rate may mediate the effects of a later hatch date, and that both hatch dates and growth rates influence the success of adult males, likely through proximate effects on individual phenotypes. Identifying sources of variation in individual reproductive success is crucial to our understanding of population dynamics and evolutionary ecology. In many systems, the determinants of success are not well known. Where species have parental care, for example, determinants of success can be particularly challenging to partition between parents and offspring. Male parental care is common among fishes, where resources such as high quality territories and mates often may be limiting. In such systems, individual success of offspring may result from distinct life history pathways that are influenced by both parental effects (e.g., timing of reproduction) and by the offspring themselves (e.g., ’personalities’). These pathways, in turn, can induce phenotypic variation and affect success later in life. The drivers and consequences of variable life histories are not well understood in the context of reproductive success. In this thesis I investigate drivers and consequences of variable life histories, for a small reef fish that exhibits male parental care (the common triplefin Forsterygion lapillum). I examined the influence of individual life history, phenotype and behaviour on (1) the performance of recently settled juveniles, and (2) the reproductive success adult males. I made field-based observations of adult males during the breeding season, measured their phenotypic traits (body size and condition) and used their otoliths to reconstruct life history characteristics (hatch dates and mean growth rates). Some males showed no evidence of territorial defence and were defined as ’floaters’; others defended territories, and a subset of these also had nests with eggs present. Adult male body size was significantly higher for males that defended breeding territories, and body condition was significantly higher for the males that had eggs (i.e., had successfully courted females). My otolith-based reconstructions of life history traits suggested two alternate pathways to ’success’ for adult males. Successful males hatched earlier and therefore had a developmental ’head start’ over less successful males (i.e., males with eggs > male territory holders without eggs > floaters). Alternatively, males can apparently achieve success by growing faster: for males born in the same month, those with eggs grew faster than those with territories and no eggs, and both groups grew faster than floaters. These results suggest that accelerated growth rate may mediate the effects of a later hatch date, and that both hatch dates and growth rates influence the success of adult males, likely through proximate effects on individual phenotypes. I evaluated the effects of variable life history in a complimentary lab-based study. Specifically, I manipulated the developmental environments (feeding regime and temperature) for young fish and evaluated the direct effects on life history traits and phenotypes. Then, I conducted an assay to quantify the indirect effects of developmental environment, life history traits, and phenotypes on aggression and performance of young fish. These developmental environments did not have a clear, overall effect on juvenile phenotype or performance (i.e. behavioural aggression and the ability to dominate a resource). Instead, individuals (irrespective of developmental environment) that grew faster and/or longer pelagic larval durations had increased odds of dominating a limited resource. I attributed the non-significant direct effect of developmental environment to within-treatment mortality and variation among individuals in terms of their realised access to food (i.e., dominance hierarchies were apparent in rearing chambers, suggesting a non-uniform access to food). Fish that were more likely to dominate a resource were also more aggressive (i.e., more likely to engage in chasing behaviours). Fish that were larger and more aggressive established territories that were deemed to be of higher ’quality’ (inferred from percent cover of cobble resources). Overall, this study suggests a complex interplay between social systems, phenotype and life history. Developmental environments may influence phenotypes, although behavioural differences among individuals may moderate that effect, contributing to additional variation in phenotypes and life history traits which, in turn, shape the success of individuals. Collectively, my thesis emphasises the consequences of life history variability on success at multiple life stages. These results may be relevant to other species that exhibit male parental care or undergo intense competition for space during early life stages. In addition, my results highlight interactions between life history, phenotype and behaviour that can have important implications for population dynamics and evolutionary ecology.

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  • Improving Clustering Methods By Exploiting Richness Of Text Data

    Wahid, Abdul (2016)

    Doctoral thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Clustering is an unsupervised machine learning technique, which involves discovering different clusters (groups) of similar objects in unlabeled data and is generally considered to be a NP hard problem. Clustering methods are widely used in a verity of disciplines for analyzing different types of data, and a small improvement in clustering method can cause a ripple effect in advancing research of multiple fields. Clustering any type of data is challenging and there are many open research questions. The clustering problem is exacerbated in the case of text data because of the additional challenges such as issues in capturing semantics of a document, handling rich features of text data and dealing with the well known problem of the curse of dimensionality. In this thesis, we investigate the limitations of existing text clustering methods and address these limitations by providing five new text clustering methods--Query Sense Clustering (QSC), Dirichlet Weighted K-means (DWKM), Multi-View Multi-Objective Evolutionary Algorithm (MMOEA), Multi-objective Document Clustering (MDC) and Multi-Objective Multi-View Ensemble Clustering (MOMVEC). These five new clustering methods showed that the use of rich features in text clustering methods could outperform the existing state-of-the-art text clustering methods. The first new text clustering method QSC exploits user queries (one of the rich features in text data) to generate better quality clusters and cluster labels. The second text clustering method DWKM uses probability based weighting scheme to formulate a semantically weighted distance measure to improve the clustering results. The third text clustering method MMOEA is based on a multi-objective evolutionary algorithm. MMOEA exploits rich features to generate a diverse set of candidate clustering solutions, and forms a better clustering solution using a cluster-oriented approach. The fourth and the fifth text clustering method MDC and MOMVEC address the limitations of MMOEA. MDC and MOMVEC differ in terms of the implementation of their multi-objective evolutionary approaches. All five methods are compared with existing state-of-the-art methods. The results of the comparisons show that the newly developed text clustering methods out-perform existing methods by achieving up to 16\% improvement for some comparisons. In general, almost all newly developed clustering algorithms showed statistically significant improvements over other existing methods. The key ideas of the thesis highlight that exploiting user queries improves Search Result Clustering(SRC); utilizing rich features in weighting schemes and distance measures improves soft subspace clustering; utilizing multiple views and a multi-objective cluster oriented method improves clustering ensemble methods; and better evolutionary operators and objective functions improve multi-objective evolutionary clustering ensemble methods. The new text clustering methods introduced in this thesis can be widely applied in various domains that involve analysis of text data. The contributions of this thesis which include five new text clustering methods, will not only help researchers in the data mining field but also to help a wide range of researchers in other fields.

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  • Evolution of a Normal Fault System, northern Graben, Taranaki Basin, New Zealand

    Cameron, Hamish (2016)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    This study investigates the evolution (from initiation to inactivity) of a normal fault system in proximity to active petroleum systems within the Taranaki Basin, New Zealand. The aim of this research is to understand the evolution, interaction, and in some cases, death of normal faults in a region undergoing progressive regional extension. This research provides insight into the geometry, development, and displacement history of new and reactivated normal fault evolution through interpretation of industry standard seismic reflection data at high spatial and temporal resolution. Insight into normal fault evolution provides information on subsidence rates and potential hydrocarbon migration pathways. Twelve time horizons between 1.2 and 35 Ma have been mapped throughout 1670 square kilometres of the Parihaka and Toro 3D seismic reflection surveys. Fault displacement analysis and backstripping have been used to determine the main phases of fault activity, fault growth patterns, and maximum Displacement/Length ratios. The timing, geometry, and displacement patterns for 110 normal faults with displacements >20 m have been interpreted and analysed using Paradigm SeisEarth and TrapTester 6 seismic interpretation and fault analysis software platforms. Normal faults within the Parihaka and Toro 3D seismic surveys began developing at ˜11 Ma, with the largest faults accruing up to 1500 m of displacement in 1000 m cumulative displacement reach the seafloor and are potentially active at present day. An earthquake on one of these faults could be expected to produce MW 2.2 based on the maximum strike-parallel length of the fault plane.

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  • Life on Parole: Examining how the Quality of Parolees' Experiences after Release from Prison Contributes to Successful Re-entry

    Gwynne, Jessie (2016)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Individuals who have spent time in prison face a multitude of challenges during the transition from prison to the community, including finding suitable accommodation, obtaining stable employment, and establishing prosocial support networks (Bucklen & Zajac, 2009; Kubrin & Stewart, 2006; Zamble & Quinsey, 1997). The cumulative impact of these challenges makes it difficult to achieve successful reintegration to the community, yet some men are able to survive the difficult re-entry process without reoffending. What differentiates men who reoffend after release from those who succeed in remaining conviction-free? The present research went some way towards answering this question by investigating how the quality of an individual’s experiences after release from prison relates to the likelihood that he will achieve successful re-entry. A comprehensive measure, named the Parole Experiences Measure (PEM), was developed to assess the type and quality of high-risk parolees’ experiences during re-entry. The PEM was then used to examine whether experiences in the first two months after release predicted both short-term recidivism (i.e., recidivism in the first two months after release) and slightly longer-term recidivism (i.e., recidivism in the first year after release). Three indices of recidivism were examined, varying in severity from breaching a parole condition to committing an offence that resulted in reimprisonment. Logistic regression analyses revealed that the PEM significantly predicted three indices of short-term recidivism, demonstrating that men who had poorer experiences on parole were more likely to fail quickly after release than those who had better experiences. Further, the PEM significantly predicted reconvictions in the first year following release, after controlling for possible confounding variables. Additional analyses explored the relative contribution of different aspects of an individual’s parole experiences to the prediction of recidivism. In general, factors related to individuals’ external circumstances (e.g., accommodation, finances, personal support) were predictive of recidivism over and above factors related to their subjective wellbeing (e.g., mental health, physical health). The findings of this research demonstrate that men who have better experiences after release from prison, particularly with regard to their external circumstances, are significantly more likely to successfully avoid recidivism within their first year in the community. To our knowledge, this study was one of the first methodologically rigorous studies to explore the relationship between the quality of re-entry experiences and recidivism in a sample of New Zealand men at high risk of reoffending.

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  • Dynamic Risk Factors and their Utilisation in Case Formulation: A New Conceptual Framework

    Palmer, Lauren (2016)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    The social pressure on policy makers and clinicians working with sexual offenders to reduce recidivism is extreme. A result of this pressure is the amount of research investigating risk-related features that has surged over the last few decades. Risk assessment has progressed from unstructured clinical judgement to development of risk factors that correlate with recidivism to predict levels of risk, and more recently, to forensic case formulation. This thesis concentrates on two key issues with forensic case formulation that has been largely neglected thus far. First, forensic case formulations rely heavily on the use of dynamic risk factors as causes of offending. The concern is that dynamic risk factors are composite constructs not causal mechanisms. Second, forensic case formulation models do not explain how to use an offender’s information and their risk factors to hypothesise about the cause of their offending leading to issues of reliability. To address these issues, the RECFM consists of five phases that guides clinicians on how to appropriately use forensic case formulation. The Risk Etiology Case Formulation Model (RECFM) aims to incorporate a reconceptualised version of dynamic risk factors using an Agency Model to identify the interaction of agent and context that causes offending behaviour. By using the RECFM, treatment can be targeted to the individual and their specific causes of offending, which will lead to better results in reducing recidivism. The aim of this thesis is to provide a forensic case formulation model is comprehensible for clinicians and that targets the causes of offending.

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  • Development of a career and competency framework for Occupational Health Nurses working in New Zealand using participatory action research

    Howard, Stella Mary (2016)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    This participatory action research (PAR) study was undertaken to review the New Zealand Competencies for Practising as an Occupational and Environmental Health Nurse (2004) document and develop an integrated career and competency framework for nurses working in the field of occupational health. The 2004 competency document needed to be reviewed to ensure Occupational Health Nurses (OHNs) have up-to-date guidelines for the skills and knowledge required by businesses to support and promote the health and wellbeing of the workforce, as well as enabling OHNs to identify their training requirements and career planning. Eight OHNs (including myself) from Christchurch over a 10-month period applied a PAR approach to this qualitative study. The nurses actively engaged in the project from research design to dissemination so linking theory and practice. Achieving the aims and objectives required collaboration, democratic participation, joint decision making, sharing resources, gaining knowledge, and empowerment. The study had six phases. Recruitment of the OHNs occurred during the first phase and in the second phase information was collected through a questionnaire gaining awareness of the OHNs role within the workplace. This information stimulated the first action cycle inquiry. During the third phase data was collected from transcripts of the PAR group meetings. The fourth phase was reflection of the PAR theoretical process of the study. This reflection included understanding what occurred leading to the turning points and what sustained the PAR group. From this phase, evolved phase five, formation of a sub-PAR group, and phase six of the study when the original PAR group reconvened and four subsequent meetings were held concluding the study in May 2015. The study provides contribution to PAR by showing importance of the time commitment of homogenous co-researchers, and role of primary researcher. A number of areas were identified by the nurses as important skills and knowledge areas for occupational health nursing. Areas include fitness for work, health promotion, risk assessment, legislation and standards, leadership and management skills, research and professionalism. These skills and knowledge topics were then expanded and applied into the career framework from competent to expert nurse. The final participatory cycle involved distributing the framework to the New Zealand Occupational Health Nurses Association to complete the review. The outcome of this research is an integrated occupational health nursing competency and career framework which has been disseminated nationally to New Zealand OHNs waiting for feedback. It is expected that the framework will raise the profile of OHNs within New Zealand, and the vital contribution they make to the public health strategy and supporting businesses to apply employment legislation.

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