6,448 results for Scholarly text

  • Fighting a problem with the problematic: Section 98A and its use against organised crime in New Zealand

    McKeefry, Francis (2015)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Since its conception in 1998, an average of just 21% of offenders charged under s 98A have been convicted. This is much lower than the average for all criminal charges (78%). This paper firstly focuses on the difficulties of defining ‘organised crime’ before examining the context in which s 98A was created in 1998 and later amended. This examination highlights that s 98A has mixed conceptual origins. The paper then identifies two factors which may be contributing to s 98A’s low conviction rate. 1) the burden on the prosecution to establish the criminal group’s common prohibited objective is difficult to satisfy, and often requires the prosecution to establish another substantive offence; and 2) s 98A is regarded as a subsidiary offence which is often withdrawn. A number of factors which increase the likelihood of the charges being withdrawn are submitted. The paper concludes that any benefits stemming from s 98A in an evidence gathering and efficiency enhancing capacity do not quell the perception that s 98A is a problematic provision.

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  • Assumptions or accurate justifications? A critical analysis of the Select Committee report on the Manukau City Council (Regulation of Prostitution in Specified Places) Bill 2010

    Sandom, Akane (2015)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

    In 2010 the then Manukau City Council proposed a local Bill to Parliament, the Manukau City Council (Regulation of Prostitution in Specified Places) Bill. This Bill targeted the perceived negative consequences of street-based prostitution that existed within Manukau City. The Bill authorised the Manukau City Council to make bylaws that would specify certain places in the district where street-soliciting of prostitution could not occur. The Bill failed at its Second Reading, following a report by the Local Government and Environment Select Committee recommending that it not be passed. The three main justifications given by the Select Committee to this result are discussed in this paper and are determined as to whether they were accurate and appropriate, or if they were rather mere assumptions. These justifications are that existent laws provided a sufficient solution, the Bill would be an implicit amendment to the Prostitution Reform Act 2003, and that the Bill would face enforcement problems if enacted. This paper finds that while the majority of the justifications given by the Select Committee were accurate, this did not stand true for all their reasoning. Ultimately it is argued that greater scrutiny must be given to Select Committee reports.

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  • The Frankenstein Mortgage: Conceptual inconsistency and the quest for legal coherence in the Torrens system

    Mailer, Constance (2015)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

    The principles of “certainty” and “autonomy” are central to the Torrens system and contract law respectively. Courts seek to resolve conflict between these principles. Systemic incoherence is especially apparent when courts consider the all-obligations mortgage. The mortgage document does not only place a charge on title. It secures personal obligations also. Registration may or may not extend to these obligations. According to the laws of contract, these personal obligations are established by the substance of the relationship between the parties, illustrated by a structure of legal forms via the contract. Registration then purports to "animate” the contract through the legal form of "title/interest by registration”. Hence the title of this paper: the "Frankenstein Mortgage". The Torrens system requires jurisdictions to engage in a perpetual search for coherence. An awareness of the ideological disunion underlying the law of real property enables judges to subduct concepts in a congruent manner and achieve a semblance of a unified legal form. Rather than etiolating the Torrens principle of certainty through policy-based rationales, reforms require an examination of residuary common law principles and conceptual sources of law, combined with a consciousness of the illogical nature of lawmaking that must, to maximize practical efficacy, provide a compromise between the two systems.

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  • Pandora's box? An exploration of s 81 of the Land Transfer Act 1952 and its effect on the indefeasibility of title

    Roberts, Scarlet Rhiannon (2015)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Section 81 of the Land Transfer Act 1952 has a tumultuous past. It has faced various criticisms surrounding its potential for undermining indefeasibility of title, a key concept under our Torrens system of transfer. This paper addresses some of these criticisms, positing first that s 81 does in fact grant the District Land Registrar a wide discretion to correct or cancel titles which have been gained fraudulently or wrongfully, and secondly that this discretion should be exercised if an appropriate case surfaces. Such an exercise is supported by the approach taken in other Torrens jurisdictions and can be regulated through the adoption of a number of simple guidelines, to be considered during any exercise of discretion under s 81. This will reduce the risk of any uncertainty arising from a wide interpretation of s 81 and ensure that the overall justice of the case is the central consideration of any exercise of discretion.

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  • Bleak House and the Demise of Chancery: A Case Study in the Relationship between Fictional Literature and Legal Reform

    Simkiss, Thomas (2015)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

    This paper explores the relationship between fictional literature and law reform through the treatment of the Court of Chancery in Charles Dickens’s 1852-183 novel Bleak House. It offers a reading of the novel as a law reform narrative which presents a coherent picture of the state of the law as it is and an imaginative alternative for its future. The Chancery represented in the novel is mythologised and symbolic rather than strictly historically accurate, and this enables Dickens to reveal its problematic essence as a morally bankrupt and bankrupting institution. The solution the novel puts forward is two-fold: calling for its readers to participate personally in an ethic of equity and for lawmakers to reconfigure the court in a way which encourages such an ethic in its participants. Although the novel did not have a noticeable effect on the historical process of Chancery reform, it did contribute a new and counter-cultural normative vision of reform, and impacted on its readership at an individual level.

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  • The Molecular Forms of GDF9 In A Range of Mammalian Species

    Alhussini, Abdulaziz (2016)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Growth Differentiation Factor (GDF) 9 is a member of the transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) superfamily that is exclusively expressed within and secreted from, the oocyte. This protein has generated much interest as it has been found to play a major role in follicular growth and maturation in mammals, and may be involved in determining litter size. Like most TGFβ family members, it is synthesised as a pre-pro-mature protein and is cleaved at various stages to allow the biologically active mature form to bind its Type II receptor. The aim of this study was to improve our understanding of the different molecular forms of GDF9 that are present within ovarian follicles of a range of mammalian species that differ in litter size. To achieve this aim, Western blotting experiments were performed to illustrate the molecular forms that were present within, and secreted from, the oocytes of rats, pigs, sheep and red deer. The detection of bands that represented the different molecular forms of GDF9 was undertaken using a monoclonal antibody that targeted a conserved region in the mature form of ovine GDF9. The predominant forms of GDF9 found within and secreted from the oocyte across the species were the promature and cleaved mature forms of GDF9. Densitometry analysis of the Western blots revealed that pig, sheep, and red deer had significantly more of the promature, than the mature, form within the oocyte. Conversely, there were no significant differences between the levels of promature and mature forms of GDF9 in the secreted media. Moreover, the levels of the specific molecular forms of GDF9 were not different between pigs, sheep and red deer. The levels of GDF9 in rat samples were low which may be due to a lower affinity of the monoclonal GDF9 antibody due to sequence differences between rat and ovine GDF9. Interestingly, applying a crosslinking reagent to the oocyte lysate and conditioned media samples revealed the appearance of a high molecular size band. The appearance of this band, which was more prominent in the rat and pig, was concomitant with the disappearance of the mature GDF9 band. The differential levels of these presumptive GDF9 multimers in these two species that have large litters may suggest that rat and pig mature GDF9 binds other oocyte secreted factors more readily than GDF9 from mono-ovulatory species. Importantly, no homo- or hetero- mature dimers of GDF9 were detected in any of the species studied. In summary, GDF9 was predominantly present as promature and cleaved mature forms both within the oocyte and in the secretions from the oocyte. Overall, these results indicated that the promature form was present in higher levels than the cleaved mature form. With the exception of the rat, there were no detectable species differences in the levels of the GDF9 forms within or secreted from the oocyte using Western blotting methodologies.

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  • Responses to censorship issues at Auckland Public Library 1920-1940

    Walker, Pauline Jean (2001)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

    This report examines how historical responses to censorship issues have influenced the development of contemporary intellectual freedom ideology through an analysis of censorship challenges and responses at Auckland Public Library during the years 1920-1940. Sociological theories related to the development of public libraries and to the development of librarianship as a profession are considered. The Remarque case of 1929 is identified as a pivotal moment in the development of contemporary intellectual freedom ideology among New Zealand librarians. Three key conclusions are made. Some librarians in New Zealand during the 1920s and 1930s saw censorship as part of their role. There was tension between a public expectation that entertaining fiction should be provided by the public library and the librarian's belief that the public library's primary purpose was education and cultural advancement. Although there was some opposition to librarians as censors, New Zealand librarianship had not yet advanced towards a definite understanding that the public library should be for all. This is evidence that New Zealand librarianship was developing in much the same way as its British and American counterparts, who at this time were also negotiating the librarian's role in selection and censorship issues.

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  • A short note on discrimination and favoritism in the labor market

    Salamanca, Nicolas; Feld, Jan (2016)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

    We extend Becker’s model of discrimination by allowing firms to have discriminatory and favoring preferences simultaneously. We draw the two-preference parallel for the marginal firm, illustrate the implications for wage differentials, and consider the implied long-run equilibrium. In the short-run, wage differentials depend on relative preferences. However, in the long-run, market forces drive out discriminatory but not favoring firms.

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  • Proceed, with caution: Law reform, judicial review and the judicature modernisation bill

    Watkins, Morgan David (2015)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

    The Judicature Modernisation Bill 2013 re-enacts the operative provisions of the Judicature Amendment Act 1972. This paper analyses the re-enacted provisions, concluding that the reform will be largely successful relative to a goal of “non-substantive reform”. However, this paper argues that there were significant defects in the legislative process leading to reform, especially in terms of parliamentary scrutiny of judicial review. In a context of a fused executive-legislative branch of government, it is highly inappropriate to legislate for judicial review without adequate consideration of the effects on judicial review powers and processes. This paper argues that judicial review procedure should not be contained in statute in order to prevent undue legislative interference.

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  • Criminalising "revenge porn": Did the Harmful Digital Communications Act get it right?

    Upperton, Theresa Jacqueline (2015)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

    This essay examines the problem of revenge pornography (“revenge porn”) in New Zealand. It argues that the Harmful Digital Communications Act 2015 provides an insufficient remedy due to its broad wording, and that the intention and harm requirements of the offence are problematic. This essay advocates for the introduction of a specific revenge porn offence to be inserted into the New Zealand Crimes Act 1961. It begins by exploring revenge porn’s impact on victims, and discusses the current legal remedies available here and in comparative jurisdictions. It then proposes a new offence that would focus on the elements of the revenge porn act itself, rather than requiring that the perpetrator intends to cause harm and that the victim actually suffers harm. This essay argues that the introduction of such an offence would provide an effective deterrent for initial and subsequent disclosers of revenge porn alike, and clarify the scope of revenge porn in New Zealand for victims, perpetrators, and the courts. Further, such an offence would place a reasonable limit on freedom of expression and send a clear social message as to revenge porn’s criminal nature.

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  • In defence of direct democracy: The case for binding citizens initiated referenda in New Zealand

    Stallmann, Finn (2015)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

    I argue that citizens initiated referenda (CIR) should be legally binding. While referenda are an established part of New Zealand’s constitutional framework, ordinary citizens only have the power to initiate nonbinding CIR. A system of binding CIR (BCIR) would be an improvement. Firstly, BCIR would give greater respect to individual citizens’ rationality, freedom and equality. Secondly, BCIR would make New Zealand more democratic. Thirdly, BCIR would have a number of instrumental benefits. Various arguments can be advanced in defence of the current representative democratic paradigm. They include common arguments such as those regarding voter incompetence, tyranny of the majority, and incompatibility with current governing arrangements. They are all flawed. In short, the people can be trusted to govern themselves. I finish my argument by providing an example of how the process of direct democratic lawmaking might work in New Zealand. It differs significantly from the current CIR process, but I do not mean to set it in stone. I use it to show how proper institutional design can refute some counterarguments. The final form will be decided upon by the people and their representatives.

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  • Woe unto them that lay field to field: Closer settlement in the early Liberal era

    van Alphen Fyfe, Monique (2015)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

    This paper undertakes a re-examination of the origins, construction and application of the Land for Settlements legislation in the early Liberal era. The Liberal’s commitment to closer settlement reveals part of the story of highly contested land policy in colonial New Zealand. Land for Settlements legislation of the 1890s, aimed at “bursting up” the great estates, was predominantly the product of settlers’ ideological aspirations and two determined politicians: John Ballance and John McKenzie. When measured against the rhetoric used to promote it, however, the policy was not necessarily effective: it was complicated by practical realities and a narrow vision of New Zealand as a vigorous Arcadian paradise. When contrasted with the treatment of Māori land, yet more of the complexity of the land issue and the frailties of the actors facing it are revealed. The paper concludes by proposing that Liberal policy, while flawed in execution, may have nevertheless contributed something to the consolidation of the concept of New Zealand as an agrarian ideal, a concept that remains largely intact today.

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  • Renewal of the Abject; Manure-facturing in the Horowhenua District

    Rofe, Rebecca (2016)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Two prominent issues are affecting the vitality of regional settlements in the New Zealand context. Firstly, urbanisation has meant the migration of young workers and professionals to creative and economic urban centres, leaving demographic gaps in the regions and a dwindling population. Secondly, the exploitation of regional landscapes by cities has led to severe degradation of extensive wetland ecosystems. Wetlands drained for farming, large-scale deforestation and industrial settlements established to support agriculture and forestry contribute to the artificial landscape morphology. New Zealand’s waterways and lakes now suffer from eutrophication; an enrichment of nutrients caused by dairy run-off and increased sediments, characterised by a build-up of organic matter producing toxic algae bloom. Titled ‘Renewal of the Abject’, this project is a speculative design that aims to reconcile the problematic relationship between the dairy industry and the environment. Architectural infrastructure and landscape renewal present an opportunity to challenge current urban planning tendencies in the Horowhenua District. The project proposes to reinvigorate small towns with a self-sufficient and forward planning urban framework. Levin, a prominent industrial town at the centre of the Horowhenua District, clings to the vital transport connection between Wellington and Auckland, feeding off the economic lifeline of passing traffic. With the proposed changes by NZTA to create a State Highway One Bypass east of Levin, the CBD may suffer economically leading to population decline. Lake Horowhenua, west of the town centre, was once the heart of the District with an abundance of food and natural resources. It is now considered one of the worst lakes in New Zealand based on its poor condition. Integrating infrastructure and megastructure challenges modernist attempts to zone cities by function and aims to build clean infrastructure integrated into compact urban areas. Architecture as infrastructure challenges the public understanding of production and manufacturing and their natural consequences. A redefinition of industry for the twenty-first century could improve its detrimental relationship with the environment. Clean infrastructure eliminates the need to build industries on remote brown sites, focusing on the prevention of adverse effects on the landscape and the population’s health and wellbeing. The concept of using manure-loam composite as a structural building material provides new opportunities for cost-effective architecture for towns that are economically struggling. The material is renewable and easily accessed in New Zealand, while rammed earth construction enables future growth and expansion. Using an artistic approach in constructing manure-loam buildings has the potential to produce an aesthetic distinctive of rural New Zealand. ‘Renewal of the Abject’ proposes a Megastructure to enforce a powerful urban connection between the hills and the lake with a self-sufficient spine making use of dairy waste and sewage as a building material. The reimagining of this abject materiality forms a critical discourse throughout the project influencing additional design explorations. This thesis explores current thinking around urban planning, Material production and reuse, and architectural detailing through design-led research. Perhaps, presenting an issue of scope where design exploration entered different academic fields, touching upon charged lines of research, rather than solely interrogating the architectural discipline. Proposing a megastructure in the Horowhenua district would seem counterproductive in this degraded landscape. However, compacting urban sprawl into a dense core along the eastwest axis sets out a development framework that conserves land and maximises public activity at the centre of a currently sleepy town. The megastructure can expand along this line, servicing the functions of Levin in a self-sufficient manner, unlike a typical New Zealand strip town that feeds off services along the main highway. Integrating infrastructure and megastructure challenges modernist attempts to zone cities by function and aims to build clean infrastructure integrated into compact urban areas. Architecture as infrastructure challenges the public understanding of production and manufacturing and their natural consequences. A redefinition of industry for the twenty-first century could improve its detrimental relationship with the environment. Clean infrastructure eliminates the need to build industries on remote brown sites, focusing on the prevention of adverse effects on the landscape and the population’s health and wellbeing. The concept of using manure-loam composite as a structural building material provides new opportunities for cost-effective architecture for towns that are economically struggling. The material is renewable and easily accessed in New Zealand, while rammed earth construction enables future growth and expansion. Using an artistic approach in constructing manure-loam buildings has the potential to produce an aesthetic distinctive of rural New Zealand.

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  • See you on Wall St. Sept 17. Bring Tent: Occupy Wall Street, Framing, and Mobilisation

    Bigwood, Sam (2016)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    The phenomenon of Occupy Wall Street (OWS) has been widely discussed in the academic and popular discourse. Of its many contributions, the language of the Occupy Movement has had a profound influence on contemporary discussions about inequality – contrasting the ‘99%’ with the ‘1%’ is now a permanent part of the conversation. However, despite this discursive shift, the literature has yet to seriously consider how the ideational elements of OWS influenced its mobilisation. While changing the dominant discourse is an important achievement, mobilising collective action around a cause remains an essential task for social movements. To explain social movement mobilisation, this thesis utilises the framing perspective, which seeks to understand why and how certain ideas are able to inspire or inhibit collective action. By using qualitative analysis of movement texts over time, this thesis has constructed the key frames articulated in selected OWS documents over the course of its serious efforts to mobilise. More specifically, it has examined whether changes in the movement’s use of diagnostic, prognostic, motivational, and identity frames can explain the trajectory of mobilisation. The central argument is that the framing perspective can offer a plausible explanation for the mobilisation of OWS; a correlation between changes in framing and expected changes in mobilisation can be observed. However, while the findings of this thesis fill one important part of the puzzle, in order to corroborate the arguments put forward here future research must consider the way the frames proffered by OWS were actually received and acted (or not acted) upon by potential participants. By doing so, we can not only gain a more perceptive insight into this topical phenomenon, but also improve our understanding of the nature and dynamics of contemporary social movements.

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  • International student engagement in academic library instruction classes in New Zealand

    Paniora, Riki-Lee (2015)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Research Problem: The purpose of this study is to ascertain if New Zealand tertiary libraries are meeting the information literacy needs of international students’ specifically through engagement in library instruction classes. Methodology: A qualitative research design influenced by grounded theory was employed. Three international students’ participated in a semi structured focus group interview designed to explore their learning experiences in information literacy classes at their designated institute. Data collected was then analysed thematically. Results: Students had limited previous experience using a similar library to their current institute one therefore students valued library instruction. Communication difficulties were identified as the biggest barrier to engagement in library instruction and with library staff in general. Other campus wide environmental issues such as computer, Wi-Fi and internet access problems were also identified as barriers to their learning as international students’. Implications: In order to enhance the academic success of International students’, education providers must facilitate their acculturation into both New Zealand academic and social cultural milieu (Mackay, Harding, Jurlina, Scobie, & Khan, 2011). The findings from this study provide a snapshot of factors influencing the international student experience which currently is of strong significance as overseas student recruitment has become an important component of strategic planning at most tertiary institutions as increased enrolments contribute considerably to the New Zealand economy (New Zealand Ministry of Education, 2009). Further research into the topic of improving the International student experience in New Zealand should be undertaken to discover how to better support both tertiary institution goals and students’ learning experience.

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  • Oocyte-derived forms of ruminant BMP15 and GDF9 and a theoretical model to explain their synergistic response

    Heath, Derek (2016)

    Doctoral thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Bone morphogenetic factor 15 (BMP15) and growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF9) are two oocyte-secreted factors with well documented effects on ovarian follicular development and ovulation-rate. The aims of these studies were to: (i) identify the molecular forms of BMP15 and GDF9 that are produced and secreted by both the ovine and bovine oocyte using highly specific monclonal antibodies; (ii) assess the biological activity of some recombinant molecular forms of BMP15 and GDF9; (iii) visualise the various molecular forms using protein modelling techniques and; (iv) provide a hypothetical model of how oocyte-secreted form(s) of BMP15, GDF9 and their cell surface receptors may interact. Using genetic modifications and transformations of HEK293 cells, recombinant forms of ovine (o) BMP15, including a BMP15 (S356C) mutant capable of forming covalent dimers, and oGDF9 were produced. The bioactivity of these proteins was established using a rat granulosa cell proliferation bioassay. The specificity of the monoclonal antibodies MN2-61A (anti-BMP15) and 37A (anti-GDF9) used in these studies, and determination of the forms they recognise, was examined by Western blotting. The recombinant forms of oBMP15 were further interrogated by purification using both immobilised metal affinity chromatography (IMAC) and reverse phase HPLC. The BMP15 and GDF9 proteins produced and/or secreted by ovine and bovine oocytes, before and after in vitro incubation, were identified and compared with the molecular forms(s) of recombinant oBMP15 or oGDF9 using Western blotting under non-reducing, reducing and cross-linking conditions. The molecular forms of recombinant oBMP15 and oGDF9 comprise mainly mature monomers with a lesser amount of the uncleaved pro-mature form. Mature domains, in the dimeric mature form, were detected for oGDF9 and oBMP15 (S356C), but not oBMP15. These mature domains were almost entirely located within high molecular weight multimeric complexes, which likely also contain the pro-region. In contrast, BMP15 and GDF9 secreted from ruminant oocytes under in vitro conditions were found mainly in an unprocessed promature form, along with some fully processed mature domains that did not interact to form detectable mature homodimers or heterodimers. Throughout ovarian follicular development, BMP15 and GDF9 are co-expressed and it has been established that these two factors have synergistic effects on granulosa cell proliferation both in vitro and in vivo and also on follicular maturation and ovulation-rate in vivo. Moreover, the recombinant proteins oBMP15 and oGDF9 generated for this study, when added together, also demonstrated a synergistic effect in the granulosa cell proliferation assay but this was not observed for oBMP15 (S356C) and oGDF9. Currently, no adequate model has been proposed to explain how interactions between the cell membrane and forms of oocyte-derived BMP15 and GDF9 achieve their synergistic effects. To investigate this, two homology models of the promature BMP15 and GDF9 proteins were generated using promature porcine TGFB1 and human BMP9 as templates. These models, together with the previously determined forms of GDF9 and BMP15 produced by the ruminant oocyte, were used to visualise their potential interactions, both with each other and with their receptors. This report describes a model showing the possible interactions involved in a synergistic response. In this model, the mature domain is presented to the type II receptor by the proregion and heterodimers form at the level of the receptor. Differences, following heterodimerisation in the conformation and orientation between GDF9 and its type I receptor, as well as between type I and type II receptors, relative to that in homodimers, could explain how heterodimerisation leads to increased Smad3 phosphorylation and subsequent down-stream somatic cell responses.

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  • Apple and the human costs of production

    Bridgman, T. (2016-10-19)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Apple is the world’s most valuable company. Based on market capitalisation value, it was worth over US$539 billion in early 2012, which makes it worth more than Google and Microsoft combined1. At the start of 2013, its shares were trading around US$500 per share, having started 2012 at $424. In February 2012 it reported a quarterly profit of $13.06 billion on sales of $46.3 billion, which according to the New York Times was “one of the most lucrative quarters of any corporation in history”2. Its products are ubiquitous – the iPhone, the iPad, the iPod – symbols of coolness and chic. Many of its customers see these products as not just electronic gadgets, but as extensions of their personalities. When new models of the iPhone and iPad are released there are queues outside Apple stores in cities all over the globe. And yet, despite this remarkable success, Apple has been in the news lately for all the wrong reasons, its brand tarnished by growing criticisms over inhumane working conditions in the factories in China that make these products.

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  • Developing teamwork at New Zealand cricket

    Bridgman, T. (2016-10-19)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

    A programme to improve team working in the New Zealand men’s cricket team, the BlackCaps, hit the headlines in 2008 following the resignation of coach John Bracewell. Leading Teams New Zealand was an organisation which aimed to improve team performance through a range of teamwork and leadership programmes. In addition to working with New Zealand Cricket, Leading Teams had worked with Super 14 rugby teams the Hurricanes and Chiefs, as well as the New Zealand Breakers basketball team. Leading Teams was hired by John Bracewell, who stood down in November 2008 and was replaced by Northern Districts coach Andy Moles. Immediately following his appointment, Moles announced that the role of Leading Teams had been placed “under review” and would be “diluted”.

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  • Guardians of the Park: Intensifying development along the edge of urban green space within Christchurch.

    Willis, James (2016)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    On February 22 2011 a 6.3 magnitude earthquake struck the Canterbury region causing widespread damage to both Christchurch city and surrounding areas. The quake devastated the city taking lives and causing significant damage to building and land infrastructure both in the inner city and the eastern suburbs. Whilst there has been significant investment and re-development within the central city much of the eastern areas have been neglected. Over 7000 homes have been demolished in the eastern residential red zone leaving a large swathe of land which stretches from the edge of the city centre to New Brighton. With such significant infrastructure being lost much of the city has shifted west with further developments being planned on the outskirts of the city adding to the existing problem of planned urban sprawl that had begun long before 2011. This thesis explores opinions for the eastern residential red zone, building upon existing proposals to turn the area into an urban forest – letting the area return to nature and transforming it into a place where the city celebrates the environment rather than fighting against it. What happens on the edge of this emerging green space will be key to how the eastern suburbs begin to recover post-earthquake and also how successfully this space is integrated into a city with a changing identity. At the urban scale, the proposal explores opinions for the edge of this developing green space through the development of 6 nodes or ‘Guardians of the Park’. These nodes draw from Peter Calthorpe’s theory of the pedestrian pocket, creating a series of interconnected areas of intensification that stretch from the edge of the CBD following the Avon River to New Brighton. Each node is walking distance from significant transport infrastructure and intended to reinforce the city’s connection with the green space through a form of mixed use development with housing, light retail and a number of recreational facilities. Through these nodes the design case study explores the potential for architecture on the edge of this green corridor to be increased in density and stimulate more significant redevelopment in the east though providing access to this new amenity. It explores access to and connection with both open space and recreational activity incorporating theories of increased density housing development and public transport.

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  • Improving the Performance of Cloud-based Scientific Services

    Chard, Ryan (2016)

    Doctoral thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Cloud computing provides access to a large scale set of readily available computing resources at the click of a button. The cloud paradigm has commoditised computing capacity and is often touted as a low-cost model for executing and scaling applications. However, there are significant technical challenges associated with selecting, acquiring, configuring, and managing cloud resources which can restrict the efficient utilisation of cloud capabilities. Scientific computing is increasingly hosted on cloud infrastructure—in which scientific capabilities are delivered to the broad scientific community via Internet-accessible services. This migration from on-premise to on-demand cloud infrastructure is motivated by the sporadic usage patterns of scientific workloads and the associated potential cost savings without the need to purchase, operate, and manage compute infrastructure—a task that few scientific users are trained to perform. However, cloud platforms are not an automatic solution. Their flexibility is derived from an enormous number of services and configuration options, which in turn result in significant complexity for the user. In fact, naïve cloud usage can result in poor performance and excessive costs, which are then directly passed on to researchers. This thesis presents methods for developing efficient cloud-based scientific services. Three real-world scientific services are analysed and a set of common requirements are derived. To address these requirements, this thesis explores automated and scalable methods for inferring network performance, considers various trade-offs (e.g., cost and performance) when provisioning instances, and profiles application performance, all in heterogeneous and dynamic cloud environments. Specifically, network tomography provides the mechanisms to infer network performance in dynamic and opaque cloud networks; cost-aware automated provisioning approaches enable services to consider, in real-time, various trade-offs such as cost, performance, and reliability; and automated application profiling allows a huge search space of applications, instance types, and configurations to be analysed to determine resource requirements and application performance. Finally, these contributions are integrated into an extensible and modular cloud provisioning and resource management service called SCRIMP. Cloud-based scientific applications and services can subscribe to SCRIMP to outsource their provisioning, usage, and management of cloud infrastructures. Collectively, the approaches presented in this thesis are shown to provide order of magnitude cost savings and significant performance improvement when employed by production scientific services.

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