291 results for Thesis, 1970

  • The spectra of transition-metal ions in solids

    Johnstone, I.W. (1975)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The results of an investigation of the Raman and infrared spectra of cobaltous ions in cadmium-chloride, cadmium-bromide, and manganese-chloride, and of cobalt-chloride are presented. The cobalt ions substitute for the cation in these crystals and experience a trigonal crystal-field which splits the lowest ⁴T₁g (⁴F) cubic-field term into six Kramers doublets with energies in the range 0-1200 cm⁻¹. The Raman spectra, measured as a function of temperature and of cobalt concentration show all five single ion electronic transitions together with several lines due to cobalt ion pairs. The infrared spectra comprise both magnetic-dipole allowed electronic transitions and electric-dipole allowed vibronic lines and bands. They confirm the identity of the electronic transitions seen by Raman scattering and also yield information concerning the lattice modes of the host and the possible interactions within cobalt ion pairs. The strong field matrices of the trigonal crystal-field and Zeeman interactions are calculated for the d³ (d⁷) configuration and quantitatively explain the experimental data. The crystal-field analysis provides single ion wavefunctions for further calculations which successfully explain the spectra of antiferromagnetic CoCl₂ and exchange coupled colbalt pairs in CdCl₂ (Co²⁺) and CdBr₂ (Co²⁺). A preliminary investigation of the infrared absorption of an oxygen-induced impurity site in CdCl₂-type crystals is also presented.

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  • Upper atmospheric studies using radio meteors

    Wilkinson, Philip James (1973)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The atmospheric motions in the 80-110 km height region, and methods of measuring them are discussed. Wind measurements using radio meteor trails are then considered in greater detail and an account is given of the equipment at the field station of the Physics Department of Canterbury at Rolleston near Christchurch, as well as details of the data reduction methods used. An analysis of the errors associated with the collection of data indicates that approximately half the variance in an average of wind velocities observed in a thirty minute period is due to atmospheric variability. Results from the first year's observations suggest that the solar diurnal and semidiurnal tides are of roughly the same magnitude, this magnitude being in agreement with the latitudinal variations observed at other stations.

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  • The group theory of the harmonic oscillator with applications in physics.

    Haskell, T. G. (1972)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The possibility of the group SU₃ being used in the description of the (d+s)N and (d+s)npm many-electron complexes is examined by symmetrization of the Coulomb Hamiltonian. By dividing the Coulomb interaction into symmetry conserving and symmetry violating terms it is found that while the SU₃ scheme tends to give a better description in the (d+s)N case it shows no improvement over the configurational scheme in the (d+s)npm complex. The scheme is, however, very useful for the calculation of matrix elements of operators normally found in atomic spectroscopy and a complete set of symmetrized , scalar, Hermitian spin-independent two particle operators acting within (d+s)npm configurations is constructed. The radial wavefunctions of the harmonic oscillator are found to form a basis for the representations of the group 0(2,1) in the group scheme Sp(6,R) ⊃ S0(3) x 0(2,1). The operators Tkp = r2k are shown to transform simply under the action of the group generators. The matrix elements of Tkq and a selection rule similar to that of Pasternack and Sternheimer are derived. Finally the rich group structure of the harmonic oscillator is investigated and a dynamical group proposed which contains, as subgroups, the groups Sp(6,R), SU(3), H₄ and the direct product 0(2,1) x S0(3). Some remarks are made about contractions of groups, semidirect and direct products, and the generalization of the method to n-dimensions.

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  • Solid state spectroscopy : rare earth - hybride centres in the alkaline earth fluorides

    Jacobs, I.T. (1971)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Both the optical and infrared spectra of cerium and praseodymium tri-positive ions in the alkaline earth fluorines have been studied. Various charge compensation mechanisms have been employed including negative hydride, deuteride and tritide ions. For the hydride centres the degenerate local mode lines are resolved into more than one component. These splittings are attributed to electron-phonon interaction effects between the low lying rare earth 4f electronic states and the hydride ion local mode phonons. The 4f-5d electronic transitions of the cerium hydride type centres show large isotope shifts up to 50 cm⁻¹. Only the non-degenerate hydride ion vibration appears in the 4f-5d optical spectra and the vibrational interval is increased from absorption to fluorescence by as much as 15%. Both the isotope and vibronic shifts for the tetragonal cerium sites are attributed to electron-phonon interaction effects. Simple models involving point charges and point dipoles account in a semi-quantitative way for several features of the spectra but fail to account for either the sign or magnitude of the isotope and vibronic shifts.

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  • Upper atmospheric studies : some observations of the south tropical OI airglow phenomenon

    Malcolm, Roger K. (1972)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    An account is presented of a series of observations of the dynamic behaviour of a region of the south tropical airglow·arcs made from Rarotonga (Lat. 21.2° south, long. 159.8° west) with the aid of a large aperture (90 cms), high resolution (½° beamwidth) scanning photometer. The night airglow is found to be strongly disturbed on many nights, characteristically by elliptical areas of lower than normal intensity drifting in an easterly direction. It was possible to associate their passage with the occurrence of 'spread-F' as observed by the Rarotongan ionosonde. An attempt is made to account for the airglow processes; suggestions are made concerning the possible origin of the disturbances; and their presence is examined in the light of the trans-equatorial propagation of V.H.F. signals from Hawaii, as recorded at Rarotonga.

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  • Solid state spectroscopy : the electron paramagnetic resonance spectra of gadolinium anderbium ions in hydrogenated alkaline earth fluoride crystals

    Edgar, A. (1974)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The Electron Paramagnetic Resonance technique has been used to study alkaline earth fluoride crystals doped with both hydride and gadolinium (or erbium) ions, and the spin Hamiltonian parameters have been determined for the various kinds of charge-compensated rare earth ion site which occur. In particular, two sites of tetragonal symmetry with the structures RE³⁺-FI⁻, RE³⁺-HI⁻ have been examined, and small shifts in the EPR spectra of the latter site have been measured when a deuteride or tritiide ion replaces the hydride ion. A crystal lattice model of point charges and point dipoles at distorted lattice sites predicts a value of the crystal field parameter B₀² for the tetraqonal sites which is only one half of that estimated from the observed spectra, but the model successfully accounts for the larger value of B₀² for the RE³⁺-HI⁻ site compared with the RE³⁺-FI⁻ site on the basis of the larger polarisability of the H⁻ ion. Isotope shifts are interpreted by the electron phonon interaction between the 4f electrons of the rare earth ion and the localised mode of vibration of the light anion. The magnitudes of the shifts, calculated on a point charge/point dipole model, are in good agreement with experiment. The reorientation of the tetragonal Gd³⁺-HI⁻ sites has been examined by EPR line broadening and dielectric loss techniques. No distinct dielectric loss peak corresponding to this site was observed, and it is proposed that it cannot be distinguished from that for Gd³⁺-FI⁻ sites. An interstitialcy model for the reorientation has been investigated and is found to be consistent with this explanation and with the observation of a metastable Gd³⁺-HS⁻-FI⁻ site in u.v. irradiated calcium fluoride.

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  • Some studies of the theory and application of continuous groups in atomic spectroscopy

    Cunningham, M.J. (1971)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    This thesis is concerned with the representation theory of continuous groups both compact and non-compact and its application to atomic spectroscopy. In Chapter I some atomic wavefunctions for equivalent electrons in the group scheme SU2 x (U2l+1 R2l+1 R3) are constructed in terms of electron fermion creation and annihilation operators. The concept of semiconjugacy is defined and shown to reduce the number of states that must be explicitly calculated. The states of the d shell are calculated and tabulated. In Chapter II it is shown how to extract n-body cfp's associated with arbitrary auxiliary quantum numbers from the n-body generalisation of Redmond's formula. The method is applied to give explicit formulae for the squares of one body cfp's of the atomic d-shell. Group theory is applied in Chapter III to extend the quasiparticle formalism developed by Armstrong and Judd to expose the complete group structure of the eigenfunctions of the equivalent electron l shell. A simple method for relating quasiparticle states to determinantal states and for calculating quasiparticle matrix elements is developed. The need for fractional parentage coefficients in calculating these matrix elements is eliminated. In Chapter IV the technique and formalism is extended to describe general mixed configurations. The hydrogen atom is factorised according to the scheme 0(4,2) 0(2,1) x 0(3) in Chapter V and the radial group 0(2,1) studied. It is shown that rkD n/(n+q) , where Da is a dilatation operator, is proportional to a tensor operator in this scheme, allowing a group theoretical study of the radial matrix element rk, including an explanation of the Pasternack and Sternheimer selection rule. The technique is extended in Chapter VI to solve a differential equation directly related to the generalised Kepler equation of Infeld and Hull in an 0(2,1) x 0(3) group scheme. This equation contains as special cases the Schrodinger, Klein-Gordan, and Dirac (two forms) hydrogen atoms. A generalised Pasternack and Sternheimer selection rule exists and some matrix elements can be evaluated group theoretically.

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  • Erwin Strittmatter in reference to the agarian novel of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries

    Gebbie, Ian William (1978)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    This study deals with two aspects of German literature: the agrarian novel from the early nineteenth century to National Socialism, and a comparison of capitalist and socialist ideology, using the works of the DDR author Erwin Strittmatter. In the first part of the thesis, chosen works are analysed with the aim of establishing a pattern of bourgeois idealism and of tracing its development in reference to the changing historical background. The political implications of the nationalist transformation and radicalisation of the conservative agrarian ideology, which grew up as a middle-class reaction to the emergence of modern industrial Germany, are illustrated by the combination of the heroic and the idyllic in fascist literature. The second part deals with the socialist agrarian novel, which is discussed, in the light of Marxist theory, as a departure from the conservative model, and in relation to different political ideals and objectives. Three agrarian novels of Erwin Strittmatter Ochsenkutscher, Tinko and Ole Bienkopp - are examined in detail as the basis for contrast with capitalist doctrine and for observations on the role of literature in the DDR. The concluding chapter illustrates how, in the established East German state of the 1960's, the disregard for the demands of authority, which is a feature of Strittmatter's Ole Bienkopp, indicates a return to the traditional pattern of bourgeois idealism within the confines of socialist morality.

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  • Atmospheric physics : electron density variations in the mesosphere

    Wratt, D.S. (1974)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The theory of the differential absorption and differential phase experiments is examined, and it is found that the differences in predicted electron densities due to different hypothetical reflection processes are in general no larger than experimental uncertainties. Results of differential absorption and differential phase measurements are compared. It is found that electron densities in the mesosphere above Christchurch can be affected by energetic particle precipitation. Evidence is also found for increases in electron concentration associated with a stratospheric warming, but apart from this there is no clear evidence for stratosphere-ionosphere coupling above Christchurch. Model studies show that much of the variation over time scales of four days or more above Christchurch could be accounted for by vertical transport of nitric oxide. However, other results make it likely that other processes, such as variations in loss rate, are also important.

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  • A study of winds and waves

    Cherry, N.J. (1971)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The project involved an observational program to study the lee waves produced over Canterbury due to the Southern Alps over the year 1970 using superpressure balloons and radar-wind/radiosonde balloons. The characteristics and performance of balloons (tetroons) and balloon systems were studied in detail. The data from the balloons was used to obtain a wave classification which may be used to predict the scale of wave motion from the radar-wind profile. It was also compared with solutions of two-, three- and exponential layer models to evaluate their applicability in predicting the wave motion. It was found that they gave a good correlation with observations when the atmosphere was approximated by layers but generally the airflow profiles were more complex and the layer theories at best predicted the scale of the wavelengths observed. The amplitudes of the waves were found to be mainly dependent on the resonance between the forcing periodicities of the mountains and the natural oscillations of the airflow.

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  • The theory of S-functions and applications in quantum mechanics

    Butler, P.H. (1970)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    S-functions, as developed by D.E. Littlewood, are reviewed and their properties developed and extended. A computer programme has been written to perform most S-function operations. In particular, S-function division is defined, which produces many simplifications, and general methods for calculating both inner and outer plethysm are derived. The properties of matrix groups are similarly discussed using the theory of S-functions and programmes written to produce branching rules and Kronecker products. This required some new work on spin characters and on the difference characters of even dimensional rotation groups. Generalized Racah tensors are used to study the group properties of general mixed configurations of electrons. Some properties of factorized general coupling and recoupling coefficients are also derived. These properties are used to calculate part of general two body fractional parentage coefficients. The above methods are used to investigate the usefulness of the group R4 as an approximate symmetry for the first row atoms. It is found that the interaction with the underlying ls2 shell completely breaks this symmetry.

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  • The Kopon: life and death on the fringes of the New Guinea Highlands

    Jackson, Graham (1975)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    This thesis describes the Kopon of the lower Kaironk Valley, between the Bismarck and Schrader Ranges in Papua New Guinea. I compare the lower Kopon in certain respects with the upper Kopon, living further up the Kaironk Valley, and with the Kalam, living further up still. There are predominantly ethnographic chapters on the economy; groups; kinship; marriage, vital statistics, and migration; social control; supernaturalism; ritual; and taboo. The penultimate chapter discusses ritual, supernaturalism, and taboo, concentrating heavily on the latter, and the final chapter interrelates important aspects of material covered in the body of the thesis. The Kopon garden for the bulk of their food, but hunting and gathering contribute essential protein to the diet. The pig and the dog are domesticated. Settlement is dispersed, with houses handy to garden sites. Households are the largest moderately stable groups, but show some overlapping, and a degree of flux greater than would result from the demands of life cycle changes alone. Gardening groups, which range in size up to the equivalent of three or four households, show a high degree of overlapping and flux. The lower Kopon have a lower population density and a lower incidence of homicide than the upper Kopon or the Kalam, and there is a considerable down valley migration from upper to lower Kopon. Social control is on the basis of equivalence, self interest, and self help, and the only specialist role is that of curer. A higher mortality rate and richer natural resources in the lower than the upper Kaironk Valley plausibly explain much of the above. The high mortality keeps the population density relatively low, and encourages flux and overlapping of groups, both to guard against isolation should death occur, and to adjust to death when it does occur. This militates against the relatively clear-cut boundaries and undivided allegiance which would be to some extent necessary conditions for the existence of larger corporate groups. Superimposed on local flux in the lower Kopon is the down valley migration from the upper Kopon. This is a movement to an area of lower population density, richer resources, and attributable to these, lower rates of killing. Moving down valley to die may be a feature of populations on the fringes of the Highlands. Riebe (1974) has independently related the frequency of Kalam killings to population growth, these having increased in parallel from the mid-19th to the mid-20th century. In the relative absence of other indices of discrimination, the use of taboo as a marker has been developed to a high degree. Beliefs in the supernatural account for the processes of life, growth, healing, illness, and death, and the choice of a supernatural to which to attribute a natural death justifies either repaying the death with a killing, or letting it pass.

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  • Studies on the projections of the superior cerebellar peduncle and the rubrothalamic and nigrothalamic projections in the rat, and their relevance to the homologies of the anterior parts of the ventral nucleus of the thalamus in the mammalian brain

    Faull, Richard Lewis Maxwell (1975)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Since there has been no detailed study of the projections of the superior cerebellar peduncle (S.C.P.) with the most recently developed silver impregnation technique - the Fink-Heimer method - such a study has been carried out in the albino rat following complete unilateral destruction of the S.C.P. In order to assist with the interpretation of the thalamic terminations of the S.C.P., studies have also been made of the thalamic projections of the red nucleus and substantia nigra. The results are based on experiments in 56 animals: 22 for the investigation of the Projections of the S.C.P., 12 for the investigation of the rubrothalamic projections, and 22 for the investigation of the nigrothalamic projections. Oblique electrode approaches were devised which enabled the placement of discrete peduncular, rubral or nigral lesions with only the minimum of incidental damage to the surrounding Structures. The rubrothalamic projections were studied by the method of successive degeneration. The animals were generally killed after a survival period of 5 to 7 days and the axon degeneration was demonstrated with the Fink-Heimer silver impregnation technique. To analyse and record the experimental results, the patterns of degeneration were identified with the light microscope and meticulously plotted on diagrams of the brain using a projection system. To gain the fullest possible picture of the fibre projections, experimental material was analysed in coronal, sagittal and horizontal planes. The principal results of this investigation in the rat are as follows: (i) The confirmation of Ramon y Cajal’s (1903) original description that the fibres in the S.C.P. project caudally via ipsilateral and contralateral descending pathways to the pons and medulla and rostrally via a contralateral ascending pathway to the midbrain and diencephalon. (ii) The demonstration: (a) that the ipsilateral descending pathway terminates in the parvocellular reticular formation of the pons and medulla; (b) that the contralateral descending pathway terminates topically in the nucleus reticularis tegmenti pontis, the pontine nuclei and the inferior olive, and also in the magnocellular nuclei of the reticular formation and the nucleus reticularis paramedianus;(c) that the contralateral ascending pathway terminates mainly in the red nucleus in the midbrain and throughout the Vm-V1 complex of the thalamus, and also in various other midbrain, subthalamic and thalamic nuclei. (iii) The demonstration: (a) that the cells of the red nucleus project to the Vm-Vl complex; (b) that the substantia nigra projects by a dorsal tegmental route to Vm and to adjacent parts of the V1 complex in the thalamus, and that the pars compacta of the substantia nigra projects to the striatum. (iv) The identification of the Vm-V1 complex as the homologue in the rat thalamus of the nuclei ventralis lateralis et anterior thalami of the higher primates on the basis of the distribution of cerebellar, rubral and nigral afferents to these nuclei.

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  • Synthetic studies in reduction and rearrangement

    Rewcastle, Gordon William (1978)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    PART ONE SYNTHESIS AND ACID-CATALYSED REARRANGEMENT OF CYCLOPROPANE-1,2-DIOLS A number of cyclopropane-1,2-diyl diacetates have been synthesized by the anhydrous Clemmensen reduction [Zn(Hg)-HCl-organic solvent] of β-diketones and β-ketoaldehydes, and this reaction was found to be a general one for those substrates that did not exist mainly in the enol form. Cyclopropanediol formation does occur with some highly enolized compounds under aqueous conditions but, with the anhydrous system, enol acetate formation or enolic reduction was found to compete with reduction of the diketo form. Acid-catalysed rearrangement of the free diols generally gave α-hydroxy-ketones, or their corresponding αβ-unsaturated enones, with β-hydroxy-ketone formation only being observed with one substrate. A strong preference for methyl ketone formation was observed in all cases and this phenomenon was rationalized by consideration of the apparent relative thermodynamic stabilities of the α-ketol conjugate acids. PART TWO AROMATIZATION OF 2α-HYDROXY[4-13C]CHOLEST-4-EN-3-ONE The aromatization of 2α-hydroxy[4-13C]cholest-4-en-3-one has been found to occur with migration of the labelled carbon to C-10, thereby lending support to previous mechanistic proposals. The aromatization of [4-13C]cholesta-1,4-dien-3-one similarly gave a product with the label at C-10, in agreement with earlier work involving carbon-14 labelling studies. The ease with which these rearrangements could be studied is in marked contrast to earlier work, and the combination of carbon-13 labelling and 13C n.m.r. spectroscopy offers many advantages over the degradative techniques required with carbon-14 labelling. PART THREE CLEMMENSEN REDUCTION OF (5R)-5-HYDROXYHEXAN-2-ONE Previous work in this department suggested that the Clemmensen reduction of γ-substituted ketones involved an intramolecular displacement of the γ-substituent by the carbonyl oxygen atom. However, the reduction of (5R)-5-hydroxyhexan-2-one had given a mixture of hexan-2-ol and cis- and trans-hex-4-en-2-ol, with no inversion of stereochemistry occurring with the saturated isomer. The opposite signs of rotation for the two geometrically isomeric alkenols suggested the possibility of different chiralities, but this was disproved when the 2R-configuration was determined for each alcohol by analysis of the 1H n.m.r. spectra of the esters with (-)-(S)-α-methoxy-α-trifluoromethyl-phenylacetic acid. This result thus invalidates the earlier hypothesis.

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  • Exploitation of geothermal reservoirs

    Krol, Dexter E. (1979)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    This work presents a numerical model for simulating the response of a geothermal reservoir to exploitation. The techniques developed are more efficient and in many ways superior to those of previous investigators. The model is capable of yielding a description of transient mass and heat flow in either a one- or two-dimensional reservoir defined by Cartesian or cylindrical coordinates. The techniques enable simulation of a geothermal flow in all three thermodynamic states – compressed water, two-phase and superheated steam regions – and transitions between these states. The model is able to simulate a geothermal system where the presence of carbon dioxide as a second component influences exploitation response. Results are presented for a range of reservoir states. The effects of different physical parameters are considered. The usefulness of the model for looking at real systems is demonstrated by simulating the development of Wairakei and Broadlands geothermal areas in New Zealand.

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  • Perfumes related to ambergris. (1970)

    Joblin, Keith Noel (1970)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    2-Oxonanoyl oxide (27) has been converted to the 2-hydroxy ether (65) and the 2-oxo ether (66) both of which Possess ambergris-type odours similar to that of the odiferous compound (1). The route which affords the highest yield is via the intermediates (64), (75), (43) and (36), and this gives 23% of the 2-oxo ether (66) and 17% of the hydroxy ether (65) from 2-oxomanoyl oxide. A two-step transformation of manoyl oxide (26) into the Perfume (1) has been achieved by oxidising manoyl oxide with chromium trioxide in acetic acid, and then reducing the resulting lactone (55) directly to its cyclic ether (1). Attempts were made to synthesise new ambergris-type perfumes, and successful preparation of the internal ketal (108) showed that contrary to expectations this ketal is odourless. Comparison of the mass spectra of the lactones (54), (55), (56), and (145), with those of their c8 epimers (57), (58), (59), and (146) respectively, showed that the trans-fused lactones lose carbon dioxide upon electron-impact while the cis-fused isomers do not.

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  • A finite element for the elastic stability analysis of frameworks.

    Davidson, B. J. (1976)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    The elastic and geometric stiffness matrices are developed from 1st principles for a beam-column element which is to be used in the linear elastic stability analysis of frameworks. The element formulation is extensively tested against classical and experimental results for beams, columns, and frames. A practical application of the element is demonstrated by using it to investigate the lateral stability of a number of rigid jointed trusses. The bracing requirements of these trusses are compared with the requirements of the bracing to pinned columns, which are the same size as the compression chord of the trusses, and have either a constant or stepwise parabolic distribution of axial load. It is found for most bracing cases, that the critical load and the bracing requirements for a truss, can be closely estimated from an analysis of a column with a "parabolic" axial load distribution.

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  • Trade unions and the common law in New Zealand

    Harrison, Rodney (1973)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    The purpose of this thesis is to examine and evaluate the present common law relating to trade unions in New Zealand. It is proposed that this examination and evaluation should not be limited to the “black-letter” law, but should take place in the wider social context of how trade union affairs, and industrial relations, are in fact conducted in this country. Where the common law is weighed in this balance and found wanting, it is intended that the possibility of statutory reform be considered.

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  • Technological law : societal control of technology and the potential of the world standards movement

    Hitchcock, Edward (1978)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Over the last three centuries the rapidly increasing influence of technology has come to dominate every aspect of human life. Progressive realization of adverse effects has led to increasing demand for and imposition of control measures. The concept of common law embodied in legal tradition have been found inadequate, and forced a change to "enacted law". The regulatory explosion necessitated delegation from legislative to executive agencies.The resulting techniques of control developed in the United Kingdom, New Zealand, Australia, Canada and the United States are examined. One common factor stands out, the extensive dependence of law-making bodies on independent technical specification material from non-government sources, and the confused, conflicting, and inconsistent methods of utilizing those specifications in law-making. Most of this independent material comes from Standards bodies. Their basic concept, the establishing of acceptable practice by prior agreement, is outlined, and the growth of the movement traced from the original development in Britain to a World-wide movement. Their processes of consultation and consensus represent a practical democratic system of self regulation. Studies of these aspects are rare, but a number of those relevant are reviewed, ranging from the Robens committee in Britain, through Building Code Reform in New Zealand, to a whole series of very recent reports from the United States, including a Presidential Task Force, an attempt to establish a National Standards Policy, a Federally commissioned study by a Professor of Law, and a Presidential Executive Order.From these emerge the pattern of complaint: Regulatory control is excessive, rigid, and liable to cause economic waste. It tends to be ineffective, and fails to achieve primary aims. As technology development exposes society to greater risks, efficiency becomes more vital, and failure to achieve control a serious danger. Problems arise from the failure of traditional legal approaches to adapt to the newer challenge of technology, particularly the legal acceptance of law "as it is" without recognition that the task calls for developing the law-making process to meet the needs of the changed situation. It is contended that many of the problems in regulatory control of technology come from the practice of making technical specification material direct legal command. The various reports reviewed comment on the limitations inherent in negative legislative control, the irrelevance of litigation, Court action and punishment, to the fundamental problem of achieving successful control. There is need for the encouragement of self regulation, and establishment of appropriate links with law.The special characteristics and responsibilities of law controlling technology are brought out, and call for identification as a separate branch of law: "Technological Law". Such law, it is contended, needs to make optimum usage of (a) the factors that have contributed to the dominance of technology, including the scientific approach, and the practice of prior agreement and (b) the essential components of democratic society, including participation, consensus, decentralized control, and self regulation associated with a formal method of determining acceptability.Practical proposals are developed involving the recognition of the practice of legislating by reference to independent technical specifications the encouragement of self-regulation processes through statutory backing, and their linking by recognition of the dyad in law, a separation of fundamental aims and principles appropriate to law from the means of meeting these aims.There is detailed examination of the three themes of reform. Techniques of the reference process, the legal objections, and the range of practices are examined, and acceptable technique suggested. The significance and importance of self-regulation is examined, and the contribution of "Standards" developed. A detailed examination is made of the various examples of two part law found in legislation, or in the studies reviewed. The framing of law in terms of general requirements is considered in relation to the problem of certainty and the idealization of the performance concept. The prerogative of the law-maker to designate certain practices as complying with general requirements is established as fundamental. The objection that this is a function of interpretation which lies exclusively with the Courts is discussed and the principle advanced that the vital Court function should never be called into the routine observance area.Technological law has as its essential aim the achievement of observance. Punishment, and court action is indication of failure. The emphasis must be on understanding and facilitating compliance. The second part of the dyad calls for sets of interrelated, interdependent specifications of acceptable practice, serving equally differing specialized laws, technical practices, commercial practices and education, and clarifying in positive fashion that which complies with law. The existing, established mechanisms of the world Standards movement are seen as providing the sets of technical specifications to fulfill this second function. This industry-developed process of self regulation utilises the techniques of prior agreement and in practical form, the elusive concept of consensus.Studies have emphasised the superior ability of the system to call in technical resources and voluntary effort to the service of law-making, in comparison with the resources of a governmental agency. The desirable aim is partnership, and the utilization of substantial measures of voluntary compliance.The question of recognition and authority for Standards and their producing organizations is seen as essential, and criteria are developed from the examples reviewed, notably from the pioneer New Zealand Act of 1941.The study emphasizes the little recognised function of Standards organizations of identifying acceptable practice, providing what has become an essential component of the machinery of government of a modern state.The mechanism provides a basis of certainty for commercial operations, and, through the strength of consumer or purchaser choice, an effective method of control as an alternative to yet more complex regulatory activity.

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  • Studies on Cell Membrane Ultrastructure, and the use of the Freeze-Fracturing Technique in Electron Microscopy

    Chalcroft, James Paul (1971)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Whole document restricted, but available by request, use the feedback form to request access. 1) The Ultrastructural appearance of frozen-fractured mouse liver cell membranes, and consistent variations in the distribution of membrane-associated particles caused by various pretreatments as described by previous investigators, were confirmed in this study. 2) Freeze fracturing, was evaluated as a method for studying the ultrastructure of single celled microorganisms. Large prokaryotes with previously undescribed morphologies were investigated using freeze fracturing, thin sectioning, and negative staining techniques. 3) Structures thought to represent flagellar attachment sites were demonstrated in frozen fractured bacterial preparations for the first time. 4) A previously undescribed level of cell organization was discovered in a rumen organism classified morphologically as Selenomonas. 5) A technique was devised to retrieve replicas from both sides of the fracture of a single frozen-fractured specimen. The results obtained by its use support the theory that frozen cell membranes fracture along some interior plane rather than at the membrane-cytoplasm boundary. The technique also showed that the particles seen on frozen fractured membranes lie within the thickness of the membrane. 6) For determination of the third dimension in freeze fracture replicas, i.e. the heights of various features, an alternative method to stereoscopy was devised. This method, which can be made semiautomatic in execution, involves microdensitometry of electron micrograph negatives and certain mathematical manipulation of the optical density data.

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