3,474 results for Thesis, 2000

  • Multi-level voltage and current reinjection ac-dc conversion.

    Liu, Yonghe (2003)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    This thesis describes a new concept of multi-level reinjection ac-dc conversion, its main purpose being a further reduction of the harmonic content, a solution of dynamic voltage balancing for direct series connected switching devices and an improvement of high power converter efficiency and reliability. It is a combination of the multi-level, soft switching and reinjection concepts. A variety of configurations are proposed, based on the new concept, to achieve efficient voltage and current conversion. For each configuration the firing sequences, waveform analysis, steady and dynamic performances and close-loop control strategies are presented, and particular applications suggested. The ideal reinjection waveforms are first derived for perfect harmonic cancellation and then fully symmetrical approximations are made for more practical implementations. This is followed by a description and comparison of the generation circuits required for the implementation of the multi-level symmetrical reinjection waveforms. A three-level voltage reinjection scheme, implemented by adding a reinjection bridge and a reinj ection transformer to the standard twelve-pulse converter, is discussed in great detail, both for the series and parallel connections. This is followed by an investigation into the possible application of these converters to Back to Back VSC HV de interconnection; the analysis is validated by EMTDC simulations. A multi-level voltage reinjection VSC is also proposed, which uses a controllable de voltage divider to distribute the de source voltage to the two main bridges and produces high quality output waveforms. The voltage and current waveforms, the firing sequences and the capacitor voltage balancing are analyzed and verified by EMTDC simulations. In particular, the proposed VSC is shown to be an ideal solution for the STATCOM application. The multi-level reinjection CSC alternative is also described and shown to exhibit an excellent performance in the STATCOM application.

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  • Urban Maori art : the third generation of contemporary Maori artists : identity and identification

    Rennie, Kirsten (2001)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Kia u ki tou kawai tupuna, kia matauria ai, i ahu mai !we i hea anga ana koe ko hea Trace out your ancestral stem, so that it may be known where you come from and in which direction you are going. The intention of this thesis is to examine and interpret the artistic careers and practice of University of Auckland Bachelor of Fine Arts graduates Lisa Reihana (1987), Brett Graham (1989), and Michael Parekowhai (1990), and University of Canterbury Bachelor of Fine Arts graduates Shane Cotton (1989) and Peter Robinson (1989). These urban artists are from a third generation of contemporary Maori artists, and they have been selected for this study because they represent a phenomenon within the New Zealand arts establishment. Graduating within three years of one another, they have instantly and successfully mapped out their artistic careers, rapidly rising in status nationally, and internationally, over the past decade. An examination of how contemporary Maori art has been defined by Maori and Pakeha critics and artists, and who is legitimised as Maori artists, presented as the debate between an essentialist and a post-modern, post-colonial argument, frames the context for this survey of identity and identification. The thesis investigates a contemporary Maori art movement: presenting a whanau of artists who form an artistic and educational support network of contemporaries, that whakapapa back to the Tovey generation - the kaumatua artists, influential in the work of Shane Cotton (Ngati Hine, Nga Puhi), Brett Graham (Ngati Koroki Kahukura), Michael Parekowhai (Nga-Ariki/Te Aitanga, Rongowhakaata) Lisa Reihana (Ngati Hine, Nga Puhi, Ngai Tu), and Peter Robinson (Kai Tahu). The artistic whanau now includes Cotton, Graham, Parekowhai, Reihana and Robinson who in turn influence and support their third generation peers, subsequently informing the artistic practice of the fourth generation of contemporary Maori artists, and forming a vital link in the continuation and development of the contemporary Maori art movement. The sesquicentenary of the Treaty of Waitangi in 1990 raised the question, once again, of how we identify as a nation, specifically, is there a New Zealand bicultural identity? The historically familiar focus on forming a partnership between the tangata whenua and Pakeha continued to be of importance for the nation as it approached the end of the millenium. The issue for New Zealand, as a country populated by a diverse range of migrant and locally born peoples, more recently, has become less concerned with 'creating' a bicultural identity and more interested in visually representing a multicultural nation. The last decade of the second millenium (1990 - 2000), is the main focus of this study because each one of the five artists profiled is conscious of speaking between two cultures, and they utilise their artistic works as the vehicle through which to investigate their Maoritanga and their bicultural reality. In a global climate of an increased awareness involving the rights of indigenous peoples, the third generation of contemporary urban Maori artists, the thesis will argue, became cultural ambassadors both nationally and internationally, their work an institutionally acceptable bicultural fusion of Pakeha and Maori concerns. The easy facility with which they negotiate between these two worlds makes them a pivotal generation in any study of contemporary Maori art. This thesis aims to reveal the changing and sometimes controversial face of contemporary Maori art, establishing the necessity for this change, revealing where the artists position themselves as a result of their geographical location within New Zealand, and in terms of their own connection to their Maori heritage and knowledge of their whakapapa, investigating issues of identity and identification.

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  • Formulations of New Zealand identity : re reading Man alone, The bone people and Once were warriors.

    Stachurski, Christina (2001)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    John Mulgan's Man Alone (1939), Keri Hulme's the bone people (1983) and Alan Duffs Once Were Warriors (1990) are considered in terms of developments in settler acculturation. These three novels' contents and implications can be thought of as marking distinct stages in the general formulation and experience of collective Pakeha identity through cultural discourse: the late colonial disregard and distancing of Maori; the anti-colonial embrace of the Maori as a means of claiming indigeneity; and the stage of internal de-colonisation in which Maori are once again cast as other and scapegoated. My study focuses upon personal identity in tandem with collective identity, as representations of race and/or ethnicity are commonly enmeshed with constructions of sex, gender and sexuality (as well as what can loosely be called geography) in these novels. As a part of this process, I test in particular the thesis that the various versions of Maoriness represented in Man Alone, the bone people and Once Were Warriors are a crucial factor in these novels' cultural significance for Pakeha. At the same time, I focus upon the ways in which these various versions of Maoriness signify both the concept "Pakeha" - or otherwise - and complexities within Pakeha.

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  • Hollow-core floor slab performance following a severe earthquake.

    Matthews, Jeffrey (2004)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Hollow-core floor slabs are the dominant flooring systems used in New Zealand since the 1980's. This study experimentally investigates the seismic performance of precast hollow-core floors including three-dimensional effects of an entire floor system within a two-way moment resisting frame. In order to experimentally assess the seismic perfo1mance of a large super-assemblage a new type of self-equilibrating loading frame was designed and built. A full-scale super-assemblage based on a multi-storey prototype was constructed and tested under quasi-static cyclic loading. The capacity designed precast concrete frame perf01med very well but the performance of the floor itself was quite poor. Incipient failure of the precast floor occurred at an interstorey drift of 1.9 percent, while complete collapse of the floor occurred at a drift of 2.5 percent. A rainflow counting method is developed to enable the amount of beam elongation to be predicted during an earthquake. This is particularly impmiant in determining the required seating length for the precast hollow-core flooring units. Based on the results of this investigation new connection (seating) details are proposed for attaching the hollow-core units to the supporting beams to try to improve the performance of the hollow-core units.

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  • Engineering geological investigation of the Lake Coleridge rock avalanche deposits, inland Canterbury

    Lee, Jenny Alice (2004)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The Lake Coleridge Rock Avalanche Deposits (LCRADs) are located on Ryton Station in the middle Rakaia Valley, approximately 80 km west of Christchurch. Torlesse Supergroup greywacke is the basement material and has been significantly influenced by both active tectonics and glaciation. Both glacial and post-glacial processes have produced large volumes of material which blanket the bedrock on slopes and in the valley floors. The LCRADs were part of a regional study of rock avalanches by WHITEHOUSE (1981, 1983) and WHITEHOUSE and GRIFFITHS (1983), and a single rock avalanche event was recognised with a weathering rind age of 120 years B.P. that was later modified to 150 ± 40 years B.P. The present study has refined details of both the age and the sequence of events at the site, by identifying three separate rock avalanche deposits (termed the LCRA1, LCRA2 and LCRA3 deposits), which are all sourced from near the summit of Carriage Drive. The LCRA1 deposit is lobate in shape and had an estimated original deposit volume of 12.5 x 10⁶ m³, although erosion by the Ryton River has reduced the present day debris volume to 5.1 x 10⁶ m³. An optically stimulated luminescence date taken from sandy loess immediately beneath the LCRA1 deposit provided a maximum age for the rock avalanche event of 9,720 ± 750 years B.P., which is believed to be realistic given that this is shortly after the retreat of Acheron 3 ice from this part of the valley. Emplacement of rock avalanche material into an ancestral Ryton riverbed created a natural dam with a ~17 M m³ lake upstream. The river is thought to have created a natural spillway over the dam structure at ~557 m (a.s.l), and to have existed for a number of years before any significant downcutting occurred. Although a triggering mechanism for the LCRA1 deposit was poorly constrained, it is thought that stress rebound after glacial ice removal may have initiated failure. Due to the event occurring c.10,000 years ago, there was a lack of definition for a possible earthquake trigger, though the possibility is obvious. The LCRA₂ event had an original deposit volume of 0.66 x 10⁶ m³, and was constrained to the low-lying area adjacent to the Ryton River that had been created by river erosion of the LCRA1 deposit. Further erosion by the Ryton River has reduced the deposit volume to 0.4 x 10⁶ m³. A radiocarbon date from a piece of mānuka found within the LCRA2 deposit provided an age of 668 ± 36 years B.P., and this is thought to reliably date the event. The LCRA2 event also dammed the Ryton River, and the preservation of dam-break outwash terraces downstream from the deposit provides clear evidence of rapid dam erosion and flooding after overtopping, and breaching by the Ryton River. Based on the mean annual flow of the Ryton River, the LCRA2 lake would have taken approximately two weeks to fill assuming that there were no preferred breach paths and the material was relatively impermeable. The LCRA2 event is thought to have been coseismic with a fault rupture along the western segment of the PPAFZ, which has been dated at 600 ± 100 years B.P. by SMITH (2003). The small LCRA3 event was not able to be dated, but it is believed to have failed shortly after the LCRA2 event and it may in fact be a lag deposit of the second rock avalanche event possibly triggered by an aftershock. The deposit is only visible at one locality within the cliffs that line the Ryton River, and its lack of geomorphic expression is attributed to it occurring closely after the LCRA2 event, while the Ryton River was still dammed from the second rock avalanche event. A wedge-block of some 35,000 m³ of source material for a future rock avalanche was identified at the summit of Carriage Drive. The dilation of the rock mass, combined with unfavourably oriented sub-vertical bedding in the Torlesse Supergroup bedrock, has allowed toppling-style failure on both of the main ridge lines around the source area for the LCRADs. In the event of a future rock avalanche occurring within the Ryton riverbed an emergency response plan has been developed to provide a staged response, especially in relation to the camping ground located at the mouth of the Ryton River. A long-term management plan has also been developed for mitigation measures for the Ryton riverbed and adjacent floodplain areas downstream of a future rock avalanche at the LCRAD site.

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  • The politics of privatizing water services : in theory and practice.

    Treliving, Victoria (2000)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Since the early 1980s, the phenomenon of privatization has quickly spread worldwide, changing the balance between the state and the market in favour of the latter. Its adoption questions and replaces the traditional roie of the state in providing and controlling certain public services. One formerly predominantly public service to be affected by privatization is piped water services, as it is commonly argued that private suppliers stimulate greater efficiencies and innovations than public suppliers. Most of those writing on this subject tend to focus narrowly on comparisons of public and private water companies in an attempt to argue that one or the other is best. Alternatively, some concentrate on the policy process through which privatization found favour. However, the thesis takes a very different approach to the analysis of privatizing water supplies, contributing to an area that has attracted little attention: its theoretical context and its implications for democratic politics. The aim of the thesis is to concentrate on, and extend, the types of assumptions - efficiency and innovation - inherent in arguments for privatization, thus providing a wide-ranging theoretical context in which to locate the privatization of water services. After discussing at some length exactly what comprises privatization, the thesis examines the theoretical foundations from which the policy originates. With reference to two case studies of privatization - Britain and Wales, which privatized water services in 1989, and New Zealand, which has not fully privatized its water, but is increasingly favouring more commercial practices - the thesis then illustrates how the theories have informed privatization in practice. The thesis concludes that privatizing water supplies . is an inappropriate extension of these theories because, first, they do not recognize the inherently non-commercial nature of water services and, second, because their implications for citizenship, and therefore democratic politics, are potentially very damaging.

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  • Knowledge and falling in Milton's Paradise lost and Imre Madách's The tragedy of man

    Liebert, Elisabeth (2003)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Milton's Paradise Lost and Imre Madách's Az ember tragédiája [The Tragedy of Man] were written in different centuries, in different languages. Yet as reworkings of the story of the Fall of Man both attempt to explicate the phenomenon of human selfawareness. A comparison of their treatment of knowledge and its relationship to the Fall discloses this similarity of intent, as well as the fundamental difference that underlies the philosophical position of the two authors. The thesis is divided into chapters that examine prelapsarian knowledge, the Fall itself, and postlapsarian knowledge in Paradise Lost and The Tragedy of Man respectively, with occasional reference to the Biblical story and literary analogues in order to illustrate the development of central themes. As elements of the story are considered - Adam's conversation with God in Eden, the injunction against the Tree of Knowledge, the role of Satan or Lucifer, Eve's otherness, the consequences of the Fall, expulsion from the garden, and Adam's postlapsarian [re]discovery of knowledge - it becomes clear that Milton and Madách deploy them differently to different ends: for Milton self-knowledge is only possible within the context of a relationship with God, while for Madách selfknowledge begins when man has abandoned God and, although the final stage of selfunderstanding can only be achieved by returning to a relationship with the divine, certain knowledge is never possible. The comparison of Paradise Lost and The Tragedy of Man illustrates the fact that the desire to know remains a constant through the vagaries of human development, but the approach to knowledge taken by different generations shifts, drawing the story of the Fall away from its original context of religious mythology into the realms of anthropocentric philosophy.

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  • Effectiveness of accreditation as a tool for the regulation of mainstream Antarctic tourism

    Dolder, Chris (2005)

    Postgraduate Certificate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Minimisation of cumulative impact resulting from tourism activities in Antarctica is a key issue and currently subject of debate. This paper assesses the strategic and mechanistic components of various accreditation scenarios to determine the effectiveness of accreditation as a tool for the regulation of mainstream Antarctic tourism. Perspectives of stakeholders from government, National Antarctic Programmes, non-governmental organisations, and tour operators are presented in balanced discussion. This study concludes that the most effective scenario describes the implementation of a voluntary accreditation scheme, strongly endorsed by the Antarctic Treaty Consultative Meeting (ATCM) and managed by IAATO.

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  • 10 Year Analysis of Environmental Footprint Photo Monitoring at Scott Base, Antarctica

    Jackson, Nicola (2005)

    Postgraduate Certificate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Since 1994 Antarctica New Zealand has conducted fixed point photo monitoring at Scott Base as a part of their overall monitoring programme. This has been carried out in an attempt to monitor anthropogenic change within the environment and specifically to help determine whether the footprint of activities at Scott Base has been changing. This study is an analysis of these monitoring photos, which has shown that in general the footprint has not changed since 1994. It has been shown that characteristics and the intensity of the footprint have altered with time, such as through the development of new buildings and a general tidying up of the base. The study has also highlighted some of the limits of current photo monitoring, which have meant that in some cases less than 1,4 of a photo has been used in the analysis due to photographers using different photographing techniques.

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  • Tropospheric ozone depletion events and air mass origin at Arrival Heights (Antarctica)

    Riedel, Katja (2005)

    Postgraduate Certificate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Surface ozone (03) measurements made between 1997 and 2003 at Arrival Heights, Antarctica (77.8°S, 166.7°E), show sudden decreases in 0 3 mixing ratios during Antarctic springtime. These low 0 3 events are often correlated with elevated concentrations of bromine oxide (BrO). The air mass origin during these 0 3 depletion events was investigated by calculating 5-day back trajectories. Trajectory analysis revealed that air masses had either contact with sea-ice, which was correlated with enhanced BrO columns, or were transported across the Antarctic continent, which led to 0 3 depletion events without elevated BrO concentrations. In 1997-1998 less frequent high BrO events were observed at Arrival Heights probably due to increased sea ice coverage in the Ross Sea during these El Nino years.

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  • The Branding of Antarctica

    Wilson, Brent (2005)

    Postgraduate Certificate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    This report examines Antarctica New Zealand's attempt to raise public awareness of Antarctica. It focuses on marketing Antarctica as a brand- Brand-Antarctica. It found that Brand-Antarctica currently has a poor image and needs to be rebranded. Background literature on country-of-origin theory has been applied to the new brand theory of Lovemarks. From this application, a marketing framework has been developed on which any Brand-Antarctica marketing campaign can be based.

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  • Exclusive Economic Zones: Should they be allowed in Antarctic waters?

    Lawlor, Stephanie; Rae, Andrew; Ross, Emily; Strinemann, Ingrid (2003)

    Postgraduate Certificate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    In the first half Of the twentieth Century, seven states made claims, in some instances conflicting claims, to parts of Antarctica. Political, practical and scientific factors during this time led to the 1959 Antarctic Treaty being agreed upon. This accord placed all existing claims to Antarctic territory in abeyance and prevented new claims from being asserted. Concurrently, the intemational "law Of the sea" was being negotiated. Several versions were elaborated, with the final document, the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS), entering into force in 1994. UNCLOS provides for and defines the delimitation of maritime zones, which includes exclusive economic zones (EEZs). Recently, some Antarctic claimant states have indicated that they intend to establish an EEZ which would extend into the Southern Ocean from their Antarctic territory. This paper considers the international law applicable to establishing an EEZ in Antarctic waters and concludes: The declaration of an EEZ is a declaration of sovereignty and is therefore a breach of Article IV of the Antarctic Treaty; the recognition Of an Antarctic EEZ would not lend credence to any Of the terrestrial claims held in abeyance under the Antarctic Treaty; the issue of EEZs in Antarctic waters is unlikely to destabilize the Antarctic Treaty System; and, the present-day application of exclusive economic zones in the Antarctic is inoperable until the Antarctic Treaty dissolves and territorial sovereignty on the continent is resolved. This scenario is undesirable and arguably unworkable as there is a strong case for Antarctica and the Southern Ocean being preserved as the common heritage Of mankind. In the first half Of the twentieth Century, seven states made claims, in some instances conflicting claims, to parts of Antarctica. Political, practical and scientific factors during this time led to the 1959 Antarctic Treaty being agreed upon. This accord placed all existing claims to Antarctic territory in abeyance and prevented new claims from being asserted. Concurrently, the intemational "law Of the sea" was being negotiated. Several versions were elaborated, with the final document, the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS), entering into force in 1994. UNCLOS provides for and defines the delimitation of maritime zones, which includes exclusive economic zones (EEZs). Recently, some Antarctic claimant states have indicated that they intend to establish an EEZ which would extend into the Southern Ocean from their Antarctic territory. This paper considers the international law applicable to establishing an EEZ in Antarctic waters and concludes: The declaration of an EEZ is a declaration of sovereignty and is therefore a breach of Article IV of the Antarctic Treaty; the recognition Of an Antarctic EEZ would not lend credence to any Of the terrestrial claims held in abeyance under the Antarctic Treaty; the issue of EEZs in Antarctic waters is unlikely to destabilize the Antarctic Treaty System; and, the present-day application of exclusive economic zones in the Antarctic is inoperable until the Antarctic Treaty dissolves and territorial sovereignty on the continent is resolved. This scenario is undesirable and arguably unworkable as there is a strong case for Antarctica and the Southern Ocean being preserved as the common heritage Of mankind.

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  • Antarctica in the Year 2105: What Physical Changes Might We Expect?

    Kowalewski, Stefan; Mason, Anna; Newton, Nadine (2006)

    Postgraduate Certificate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    This report investigates possible changes to the Antarctic environment due to climate change over the next one hundred years. Three scenarios have been developed in order to assess the response of the Antarctic to different rates of climate change resulting from anthropogenic influences. According to the predictions made in this report, there are no significant differences between the pessimistic scenario (which assumes a further increase in greenhouse gas emissions) and the realistic scenario (which assumes no strengthening in greenhouse gas emission rates). The optimistic scenario (which assumes global effort in reducing greenhouse gas emissions) results in slower and more gradual changes to the physical environment. However, due to the slow response of the Earth’s climate system, a significant global warming is still expected by the year 2105. All scenarios predict dramatic changes over the Antarctic Peninsula in 2105. The West Antarctic Ice Sheet is not expected to collapse, and the East Antarctic Ice Sheet will remain relatively unaffected.

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  • How do we reduce the human footprint on Antarctica? How do we reduce the human footprint on Antarctica?

    Baker, Narelle; Cameron, Anna; Dolder, Chris; Jackson, Nicky; Tisch, Catherine (2005)

    Postgraduate Certificate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Antarctica is a fragile continent where people are not meant to exist. However, we do go there, and through technological innovation, we thrive, leaving our footprint on this continent through science, commercial activities and through our mere presence. It is now recognised that this human presence may directly threaten the stability Of Antarctica and may also alter the environment through activities conducted on national and global scales. Therefore, it is also on such scales that decision-makers must consider how to reduce impacts that are found to be more than minor. This report identifies how the capacity to create impact and effect change is collective. The global community, national governments and Antarctic programmes, and individuals all have the capacity to impact upon Antarctica, directly and indirectly. The actions of these groups should be defined by decision-making criteria, used by national govemments to form rules and guidelines that aim to reduce any major human footprint in Antarctica. At present there is a gap between high-level policy and ground-level management. The Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) used to access activities in Antarctica is limited, as it does not fully consider cumulative impacts and fails to recognise qualitative value judgements, such as the intrinsic value Of Antarctica. A more strategic approach is warranted, where a vision for the future of Antarctica is used as the basis for decision-making. This provides a target to work towards and does not allow cumulative effects to threaten future stability. Ultimately, with global endeavour, an overall Antarctic-wide vision and collaborative decision-making framework on how to reduce the human footprint may be developed. The international cooperation that exists through the Antarctic Treaty System provides a better opportunity of achieving such a goal in Antarctica than on any other continent on Earth. Antarctica is a fragile continent where people are not meant to exist. However, we do go there, and through technological innovation, we thrive, leaving our footprint on this continent through science, commercial activities and through our mere presence. It is now recognised that this human presence may directly threaten the stability Of Antarctica and may also alter the environment through activities conducted on national and global scales. Therefore, it is also on such scales that decision-makers must consider how to reduce impacts that are found to be more than minor. This report identifies how the capacity to create impact and effect change is collective. The global community, national governments and Antarctic programmes, and individuals all have the capacity to impact upon Antarctica, directly and indirectly. The actions of these groups should be defined by decision-making criteria, used by national govemments to form rules and guidelines that aim to reduce any major human footprint in Antarctica. At present there is a gap between high-level policy and ground-level management. The Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) used to access activities in Antarctica is limited, as it does not fully consider cumulative impacts and fails to recognise qualitative value judgements, such as the intrinsic value Of Antarctica. A more strategic approach is warranted, where a vision for the future of Antarctica is used as the basis for decision-making. This provides a target to work towards and does not allow cumulative effects to threaten future stability. Ultimately, with global endeavour, an overall Antarctic-wide vision and collaborative decision-making framework on how to reduce the human footprint may be developed. The international cooperation that exists through the Antarctic Treaty System provides a better opportunity of achieving such a goal in Antarctica than on any other continent on Earth.

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  • Human Impact on the Antarctic Environment: Minimising the Risk to the Unique Environment of Sub-glacial Lakes

    Newman, Jana; Henshaw, Jenny; Seo, Jessica; Hyde, Peter; Turvey, Richard (2002)

    Postgraduate Certificate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The Representatives, Recalling Article II of the Antarctic Treaty and Recommendations VIII-13, X-7, XII-3 and XIV-3; Recognizing the knowledge of the tectonic, geochemical, climatic, glacial and biological evolution of the Antarctic region that can be obtained from exploration of sub-glacial lakes; Bearing in mind the potential irreparable risk to the unique environment of these lakes should biological or other contaminants be introduced through or as an unintended result of such exploration; Conscious of the need for wider international and interdisciplinary discussion and adequate prior research, preparation and planning of such exploration to ensure the best possible scientific results and to minimise any associated risks to the sub-glacial environment; Conscious also that planning such exploration will, in most cases, require preparation of a Comprehensive Environmental Impact Evaluation as provided for in Recommendation XIV-2 Recommend to their Governments as follows: 1 . That a moratorium be declared on any attempt at direct intrusion into sub-glacial lakes 2. That during the moratorium, they promote further research into: understanding sub-glacial lakes systems, technologies for researching the lakes without intrusion, intrusion methods which minimise real and potential risks of contamination, and investigation of alternative sites which provide information about sub-glacial lake systems and methods for their exploration 3. That during the moratorium, they encourage public education and debate on the issue The Representatives, Recalling Article II of the Antarctic Treaty and Recommendations VIII-13, X-7, XII-3 and XIV-3; Recognizing the knowledge of the tectonic, geochemical, climatic, glacial and biological evolution of the Antarctic region that can be obtained from exploration of sub-glacial lakes; Bearing in mind the potential irreparable risk to the unique environment of these lakes should biological or other contaminants be introduced through or as an unintended result of such exploration; Conscious of the need for wider international and interdisciplinary discussion and adequate prior research, preparation and planning of such exploration to ensure the best possible scientific results and to minimise any associated risks to the sub-glacial environment; Conscious also that planning such exploration will, in most cases, require preparation of a Comprehensive Environmental Impact Evaluation as provided for in Recommendation XIV-2 Recommend to their Governments as follows: 1 . That a moratorium be declared on any attempt at direct intrusion into sub-glacial lakes 2. That during the moratorium, they promote further research into: understanding sub-glacial lakes systems, technologies for researching the lakes without intrusion, intrusion methods which minimise real and potential risks of contamination, and investigation of alternative sites which provide information about sub-glacial lake systems and methods for their exploration 3. That during the moratorium, they encourage public education and debate on the issue

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  • Minerals Under Ice How far do we go to utilize Antarctic resources? Minerals Under Ice How far do we go to utilize Antarctic resources?

    Temminghoff, Maria; Kruetzmann, Nikolai; Danninger, Matthias; Lawton, Ella; Rynbeck, Sarah (2007)

    Postgraduate Certificate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Speculation about future mining in Antarctica is increasing. This unique, untouched continent is dominated by its severe climate and inaccessibility. Its rich mineral deposits are expected due to its geological history, yet exact amounts and quality of the minerals are unknown. This syndicate report focuses on Current concerns about mining in Antarctica. A fictitious, yet possible scenario Of uranium mining in the future is presented in detail, to underline the feasibility of mining in Antarctica. The report also discusses coal and Oil and a less well known "mineral" in Antarctica, icebergs. The debate about environmental concerns is outlined using current case studies of Arctic mines, and Canadian and Australian uranium mines. Although it has never been ratified, the regulation Of Antarctic mining is covered by CRAMRA and is discussed as a likely outline of legal and political issues. Our predictions about future development of mining on this continent are made, with the focus On how far we should go to utilize Antarctica's minerals. Speculation about future mining in Antarctica is increasing. This unique, untouched continent is dominated by its severe climate and inaccessibility. Its rich mineral deposits are expected due to its geological history, yet exact amounts and quality of the minerals are unknown. This syndicate report focuses on Current concerns about mining in Antarctica. A fictitious, yet possible scenario Of uranium mining in the future is presented in detail, to underline the feasibility of mining in Antarctica. The report also discusses coal and Oil and a less well known "mineral" in Antarctica, icebergs. The debate about environmental concerns is outlined using current case studies of Arctic mines, and Canadian and Australian uranium mines. Although it has never been ratified, the regulation Of Antarctic mining is covered by CRAMRA and is discussed as a likely outline of legal and political issues. Our predictions about future development of mining on this continent are made, with the focus On how far we should go to utilize Antarctica's minerals.

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  • Consensus in the Antarctic Treaty System Does a consensus voting system make good sense today within the Antarctic Treaty System? Consensus in the Antarctic Treaty System Does a consensus voting system make good sense today within the Antarctic Treaty System?

    Brockett, David; Clarke, Linda; Lindsay, Margaret; Scherzer, Jorn; Wilson, Brent (2005)

    Postgraduate Certificate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The Antarctic Treaty System operates primarily through consensus. However, increasing membership and associated problems in finding consensus, have led some to question the merits of the system. Analysis through evaluative criteria shows that consensus decision-making is critical to the stability and functioning Of the Antarctic Treaty System. Intangible benefits inherent with consensus decision-making, such as sense Of unity, political stability, common purpose and commitment, are as imponant to the Antarctic Treaty System as are sensible outcomes. Rather than altering the cunent decision-making mechanism, this analysis shows that in- creased focus on the process of enhancing the effectiveness of consensus decision-making is the preferred approach to mitigating these issues. Consensus remains the most stable and appropriate decision-making model for the Antarc- tic Treaty System today. The Antarctic Treaty System operates primarily through consensus. However, increasing membership and associated problems in finding consensus, have led some to question the merits of the system. Analysis through evaluative criteria shows that consensus decision-making is critical to the stability and functioning Of the Antarctic Treaty System. Intangible benefits inherent with consensus decision-making, such as sense Of unity, political stability, common purpose and commitment, are as imponant to the Antarctic Treaty System as are sensible outcomes. Rather than altering the cunent decision-making mechanism, this analysis shows that in- creased focus on the process of enhancing the effectiveness of consensus decision-making is the preferred approach to mitigating these issues. Consensus remains the most stable and appropriate decision-making model for the Antarc- tic Treaty System today.

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  • A Big Commitment for a Small Country: Is Scott Base Necessary ?

    Thomson, Bex; Fortune, David; Hicks, Stephen (2006)

    Postgraduate Certificate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    'A Big Commitment for a Small Country — Is Scott Base Necessary?' This is an important and perhaps fundamental question for New Zealand and its role in the Antarctic. The Oxford dictionary defines 'necessary' as follows: 'that which is indispensable, an essential, cannot be done without. 'l We think the question needs to be rephrased or at least explained. We are not trying to decide whether Antarctica matters to New Zealand. Nor are we asking whether New Zealand should be involved in Antarctic matters. What we are concerned with however is whether, or not, New Zealand must have its own 'national base' in order to fulfil its objectives in the Antarctic? We have examined this question from a number Of perspectives and have attempted to produce a fair evaluation of the arguments both 'for' and 'against' the continuation Of Scott Base in its present form. We begin our report with background information about Scott Base. This is followed by a discussion around each Of six dimensions or 'issues' that we believe are most pertinent to the questlon. These dimensions are: 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Sovereignty and the political dimension The dependence Of New Zealand on the United States Science in Antarctica The spirit Of the Antarctic Treaty System The resources that New Zealand has available Costs - What can New Zealand afford? After the dimensions have been discussed we present our conclusions and recommendation. 'A Big Commitment for a Small Country — Is Scott Base Necessary?' This is an important and perhaps fundamental question for New Zealand and its role in the Antarctic. The Oxford dictionary defines 'necessary' as follows: 'that which is indispensable, an essential, cannot be done without. 'l We think the question needs to be rephrased or at least explained. We are not trying to decide whether Antarctica matters to New Zealand. Nor are we asking whether New Zealand should be involved in Antarctic matters. What we are concerned with however is whether, or not, New Zealand must have its own 'national base' in order to fulfil its objectives in the Antarctic? We have examined this question from a number Of perspectives and have attempted to produce a fair evaluation of the arguments both 'for' and 'against' the continuation Of Scott Base in its present form. We begin our report with background information about Scott Base. This is followed by a discussion around each Of six dimensions or 'issues' that we believe are most pertinent to the questlon. These dimensions are: 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Sovereignty and the political dimension The dependence Of New Zealand on the United States Science in Antarctica The spirit Of the Antarctic Treaty System The resources that New Zealand has available Costs - What can New Zealand afford? After the dimensions have been discussed we present our conclusions and recommendation.

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  • Feasibility Study: Adventure Semester in Antarctica, The University of Hong Kong

    Simon, Hing Yeung Lo (2005)

    Postgraduate Certificate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The purpose of this study is to develop a logical and rational discussion on the feasibility assessment of organizing a multidisciplinary educational programme in Antarctica for the University of Hong Kong (HKU). The suggested programme will be a holistic approach of education which consists of both academic elements of Antarctica as well as adventurous elements aiming at personal and social developments. The programme will also make a strong emphasis on the leadership development through a personal interaction with the challenging conditions in this remote continent. This study consists of two parts: First part is a brief overview of the programme with clear explanation on the format of the programme and the key elements and activities that will be carried out during the trip. A suggestion on the schedule and the learning activities of the programme before, during and after the programme will also be listed. Second part of this paper is a feasibility assessment of the programme using the Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats (SWOT) analysis approach. This assessment will be based on the situation of HKU and the current education reform proposed by the Hong Kong Education Department. The current situation of the Hong Kong economy will also be considered as a crucial component of our discussion. It is hope that this assessment will be use as a reference for the future development of the Adventure Education Programme (AEP) of the Institute of Human Performance (IHP) of HKU. It may also be considered as a preliminary investigation on the possibility of putting our leadership education programmes on a higher profile in conjunction to the Education Reform of the Tertiary Education in Hong Kong.

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  • TEAM SELECTION IN ANTARCTICA

    Lindsay, Margaret (2005)

    Postgraduate Certificate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    A number of memoirs about journeys to Antarctica commence with or recall "for as long as I can remember I dreamed of travelling to Antarctica'. Antarctica, Terra Australis Incognita or Antarktikos have held humans captivated as the inhospitable white continent surrounded by deep, dark stormy seas for all of human history. So how do you get to visit Antarctica? And why would you visit? Who and how you want to experience Antarctica will determine how and why you visit. As a tourist, you will part with large quantities of money and be in the hands of your guides and Antarctica. As a modem day explorer or adventurer you will part with really large quantities of money and will be in the hands of sponsors, organisations, politics and Antarctica. Or you can visit Antarctica as a participant of one of the National Antarctic Programmes, either in a paid capacity, as a volunteer or as a participant of an art/education/writers program. In this capacity you will be in the hands of the National Antarctic Program, a scientific base, organisation, politics and Antarctica. Note that any way that you visit Antarctica; you will always be in Antarctica's hand. Antarctica is the highest, driest, windiest and coldest content and those that select to visit and work in Antarctica must exhibit certain characterisations, attitudes and the ability to adapt and survive. This report will introduce the reasons why and who goes to Antarctica and the criteria an Antarctican must fulfil to be selected to work and live in Antarctica. The selection process used by Scott, Shackleton and Mawson from the heroic period and today's selection process for Antarctica New Zealand will be explained. The final section will be a general overview of how the selection process is important in regards to the "assembly effects" and well-being while on the ice.

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