8,639 results for Thesis, Massey Research Online

  • Viability of commercial depth sensors for the REX medical exoskeleton : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Engineering in Mechatronics at Massey University, Albany, New Zealand

    Lange, Manu F

    Thesis
    Massey University

    Closing the feedback loop of machine control has been a known method for gaining stability. Medical exoskeletons are no exception to this phenomenon. It is proposed that through machine vision, their stability control can be enhanced in a commercially viable manner. Using machines to enhance human’s capabilities has been a concept tried since the 19th century, with a range of successful demonstrations since then such as the REX platform. In parallel, machine vision has progressed similarly, and while applications that could be considered to be synonymous have been researched, using computer vision for traversability analysis in medical exoskeletons still leaves a lot of questions unanswered. These works attempt to understand better this field, in particular, the commercial viability of machine vision system’s ability to enhance medical exoskeletons. The key method to determine this will be through implementation. A system is designed that considers the constraints of working with a commercial product, demonstrating integration into an existing system without significant alterations. It shows using a stereo vision system to gather depth information from the surroundings and amalgamate these. The amalgamation process relies on tracking movement to provide accurate transforms between time-frames in the threedimensional world. Visual odometry and ground plane detection is employed to achieve this, enabling the creation of digital elevation maps, to efficiently capture and present information about the surroundings. Further simplification of this information is accomplished by creating traversability maps; that directly relate the terrain to whether the REX device can safely navigate that location. Ultimately a link is formed between the REX device and these maps, and that enables user movement commands to be intercepted. Once intercepted, a binary decision is computed whether that movement will traverse safe terrain. If however the command is deemed unsafe (for example stepping backwards off a ledge), this will not be permitted, hence increasing patient safety. Results suggest that this end-to-end demonstration is capable of improving patient safety; however, plenty of future work and considerations are discussed. The underlying data quality provided by the stereo sensor is questioned, and the limitations of macro vs. micro applicability to the REX are identified. That is; the works presented are capable of working on a macro level, but in their current state lack the finer detail to improve patient safety when operating a REX medical exoskeleton considerably.

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  • The flavour of New Zealand whole milk powder : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Food Technology at Massey University

    Wilson, Russell Douglas

    Thesis
    Massey University

    Results of this investigation indicate that there are certain fundamental differences in the flavour of New Zealand WMP as opposed to European (Danish) WMP. Sensory analysis has highlighted that this difference is evident in the scores which panellists give for the lactone attribute. This difference in sensory evaluation can be directly linked to differences in the lactone profiles from New Zealand and Danish WMP. Danish WMP consistently contains the two gamma lactones γ-Dodecalactone and γ-Dodec-cis-6-enolactone at levels greater than or equal to their flavour threshold values. While these two lactones are generally absent from New Zealand WMP. The presence of γ-Dodecalactone and γ-Dodec-cis-6-enolactone in WMP has been demonstrated to be related to the diet of the cow. By the addition of a grain concentrate consisting of 85% oats, 10% sunflower seeds and 5% barley it was possible to increase the levels of γ-Dodecalactone and γ-Dodec-cis-6-enolactone to the point where the sensory panel was able to differentiate WMP's in respect to the presence or absence of these compounds. There is the inference that the presence of the gamma lactones in WMP is also a function of dairy breed with Friesian cows showing a greater capacity than Jersey or mixed Jersey/Friesian cows to produce these flavour compounds. Also diet may be an important factor with the lipid content and fatty acid composition having an influencing the level of gamma lactones produced. Analysis of the flavour volatiles from fresh New Zealand milkfat has indicated a possible causative role for terpenoid compounds in the distinctive "green/grassy" flavours often present. In particular such compounds as D-Limonene have been shown to be present in samples of New Zealand milkfat and when added to New Zealand milkfat has a tendency to increase the "green/grassy" flavour score. However this does not discount the contribution of compounds such as hexanal which was also detected in New Zealand milkfat.

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  • Laser applications to analytical ultracentrifugation : a thesis presented to Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand in partial fulfilment of the requirements of Doctor of Philosophy

    Lewis, James Anthony

    Thesis
    Massey University

    The work of Svedberg and his collaborators in the early 1920's heralded the use of centrifugal fields for the study of macromolecular systems. Following this work the developments in both theoretical and experimental aspects have been dramatic, so much so that the majority of current researchers take the use of the analytical ultracentrifuge for granted as a basic tool for the determination of molecular weights of macromolecules. The latter is justified in view of the theoretical and experimental evidence to date, and reviews citing original references and covering the state of the art from its inception to the present day are available.

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  • Rotordynamics in alternative energy power generation : a thesis presented in fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Engineering in Mechatronics at Massey University, Albany, Auckland, New Zealand

    Cortes-Zambrano, Ivan

    Thesis
    Massey University

    This thesis analyses and discusses the main alternative energy systems that work with rotordynamics machines to generate power. Hydropower systems, wave and ocean energy, geothermal, gas turbines, wind power, tidal energy and biofuels are the most important systems that use rotating shafts to generate power. Descriptions of the principles of vibration follow with analysis of rotordynamics. The Jeff rotor, fluid film bearings and magnetic bearings are explained. The protection of the environment is one of the most important features of renewable energy and biofuel is a crucial area. Fossil fuels are a limited resource and burning them contributes to carbon dioxide levels with catastrophic effects for the atmosphere. This thesis analyses the biofuels process in electricity generation and overviews the topic of biofuels for transport. The undesirable effects of pollution from burning fossil fuels, an increase in international petroleum prices as well as the risk of using nuclear power have combined effects that illustrate the importance of research in this area.

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  • What are the drivers of rural land fragmentation in the Tasman district and what have been the planning responses? : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Resource and Environmental Planning, Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand

    Watson, Helen Frances

    Thesis
    Massey University

    Rural land use in the Tasman District of New Zealand is characterised by fragmentation of farming land, driven by a mix of historical land use patterns, global influences, and political decision-­‐making. Colonial farmers developed subsistence farming on small allotments of mixed productivity. Pockets of highly fertile land supported the development of small-­‐scale horticultural industries and the region’s good climate and high amenity value have made it a desirable destination for urban-­‐employed migrants seeking lifestyle opportunities. The fragmentation of rural land occurs via subdivision, a process that is administered by the local district council, regulated by a district plan framework and land-­‐use consent mechanisms. Analysis of Tasman District plans and policy, case law, and subdivision data, reveals a regulatory process that is failing to limit ongoing land fragmentation with increasing numbers of subdivision applications and new allotments and dwellings developed on the most productive land.

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  • The effect of poplar (Populus spp.) and willow (Salix spp.) supplementation on the reproductive performance of ewes grazing low quality drought pasture during mating : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Animal Science in the Institute of Veterinary Animal and Biomedical Science, Massey University

    McWilliam, Eileen Lee Hafner

    Thesis
    Massey University

    A series of grazing experiments was conducted, in the summer/autumn of 2001, 2002 and 2003, to investigate the effects of poplar (Populus spp.) and/or willow (Salix spp.) supplementation, during mating, on ewe production and reproduction when grazing drought pasture. Each experiment involved a rotational grazing system with 300 mixed-age Romney ewes, divided into three groups of 100 ewes each. In each year, all ewes were offered low quality simulated drought pasture, containing more than 60% dead matter, at an allowance sufficient to provide a potential desired intake of 0.70 kg dry matter (DM)/day, for periods of 9 to 12 weeks, including two mating cycles. Mean pre-and post-grazing pasture masses averaged over the three years were 1100 and 600 kg DM/ha. The pasture consumed in all years was typical of pasture available to grazing livestock in a drought; it was high in neutral detergent fibre (NDF; approximately 600 g/kg DM), low in organic matter digestibility (OMD, approximately 0.52) and metabolisable energy (ME; approximately 7.5 MJ/kg DM) and contained approximately 20 g nitrogen (N)/kg DM. The supplementary poplar and willow diets were always superior to drought pasture consumed by the ewes, being higher in OMD (approximately 0.67), ME (approximately 10 MJ/kg DM) and total N (approximately 26 g/kg DM) and lower in NDF (approximately 383 g/kg DM). Tree fodder diets also contained substantial concentrations of the secondary compounds condensed tannin (CT; range 7 to 52 g/kg DM), salicin (approximately 2 g/kg DM) and other phenolic glycosides (approximately 21 g/kg DM), with willow (27 to 52 g/kg DM) containing greater concentrations of CT compared with poplar (7 to 19 g/kg DM). Mean diameter of the tree fodder stem consumed during the series of experiments was approximately 7 mm for poplar and 4 mm for willow with the diameter increasing over the experimental periods in four cases out of live (P. However, based on evidence from dosing experiments, it is unlikely that the quantities of NIV and DON present in pasture in Experiment 3 accounted for all of the greater LW loss seen in this experiment. This suggests that these toxins are likely to be indicators of other more potent fungal toxins, which have a much bigger impact on livestock health and production. It is likely that fungal toxins contribute more to reduced reproduction in breeding ewes and to ill thrift in young stock grazing dry autumn pastures in East Coast regions than is currently acknowledged

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  • Endogenous protein flow in the gut of the simple-stomached mammal : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Animal Physiology at Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand

    Hodgkinson, Suzanne Marie

    Thesis
    Massey University

    The set of studies was undertaken to examine different aspects of the measurement of endogenous ileal nitrogen and amino acid loss in simple-stomached mammals and specifically to investigate the effect of the concentration of protein and peptides in the diet on endogenous ileal amino acid flows. Seven separate studies were conducted using rats and pigs. 1. The aim of the first study was to determine whether endogenous nitrogen (N) and amino acid flows at the terminal ileum change over time in the growing pig fed a protein-free diet. Male pigs (n=7, mean bodyweight 82 kg) with surgically implanted post-valve T-caecum (PVTC) cannulas received a casein-based diet for 8 days after which food was withheld from the pigs for 24 hours. The pigs then received a protein-free diet for a further 8 days during which time ileal digesta were collected continuously via the cannulas from 1300h to 1800h on each day. Endogenous ileal N and amino acid flows were determined on the digesta. There were no significant (P>0.05) effects of the duration of feeding of the protein-free diet on endogenous ileal total N or amino acid flows except for the amino acids glycine and cysteine, the mean flows of which significantly decreased over the 8-day experimental period (P0.05) differences from 1200h - 0800h. The ratio of endogenous N to chromium at the terminal ileum was also relatively constant with no statistically significant (P>0.05) differences from 1300h -0800h. The net outcome of endogenous protein secretion and reabsorption in the small intestine appears to be relatively constant over time in the meal-fed animal. 6. The aim of experiment 6 was to determine whether dietary peptide concentration affects endogenous ileal N and amino acid flows in the growing pig. Entire male pigs (n=8, mean bodyweight 33 kg) had PVTC cannulas surgically implanted. The pigs received the diets (0, 5, 10 and 20% EHC) for 8-day periods in a Latin Square design with a basal casein-based diet given to the pigs for 6-day periods in between the experimental diets. Digesta were collected continuously for 24 hours on each of the fifth and eighth days. The endogenous ileal N and amino acid flows were determined directly for pigs receiving the protein-free diet or after centrifugation and ultrafiltration (10,000 Da MW cut-off) for pigs on the EHC-based diets. Mean endogenous ileal N flows were 1753, 1948, 2851 and 5743 μg/g DMI when the pigs received diets containing 0, 5, 10 and 20% EHC, respectively. There was a significant (P<0.0001) increase in endogenous lysine flow through the terminal ileum.

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  • The effect of condensed tannin upon the protein nutritional value of solvent extracted cottonseed meal for ruminant and monogastric animals : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Animal Science at Massey University

    Yu, Feng

    Thesis
    Massey University

    A series of indoor experiments were conducted at Massey University and AgResearch Grasslands, Palmerston North, New Zealand, to study the effect of cottonseed condensed tannin (CT) upon the nutritional value of solvent extracted cottonseed meal (CSM) for ruminant and monogastric livestock. Ruminant nutrition experiments were conducted using samples suspended in situ in the rumen of fistulated sheep and by incubating samples with rumen fluid in vitro, to study effects upon solubility and degradability of cottonseed proteins. Monogastric nutrition experiments were done initially with laboratory rats as a model for production animals such as the pig, and then with pigs. In all cases half of the animals were supplemented with polyethylene glycol (PEG; MW 3500). PEG specifically binds and inactivates CT and can be used to deduce the effects of CT by comparing control animals (CT acting) with PEG supplemented animals (CT inactivated). 1. Experimental varieties of cottonseed and of industrial CSM were analysed for extractable and bound CT and free gossypol, crude protein, oil and fibre. CT was present in the hulls of all varieties, with higher concentrations recorded for high tannin and glandless selections (55 g kg-1 and 58 g kg-1 DM) than for the multiple host plant resistant and high gossypol selections (38 g kg-1 DM). CT was present in trace amounts in the kernels of high tannin selections, but was not detected in the kernels of all other selections. On average for the hulls of all varieties, approximately 22, 60 and 18% of total CT was present in the extractable, protein-bound and fibre-bound forms, respectively. Free gossypol was mainly found in the kernels, with negligible amounts being found in the hulls of the experimental varieties. Kernels of high gossypol selections contained higher concentrations of free gossypol (18 g kg-1 DM) than kernels of multiple host plant resistant, high tannin and commercial selections (10-12 g kg-1 DM), with free gossypol concentration being very low (0.8 g kg-1 DM) in the kernels of glandless cottonseed. A negative correlation (r = -0.50, P 10,000) fraction affords an estimate of endogenous loss. Inclusion of hulls in the EHC based diet increased ileal flow of total N (1387 vs. 1623 mg kg-1 dry matter intake; p is due to their content of CT and the cause of the other 50% is unknown. As there is no CT in cottonseed kernels, this explains the lack of response to PEG when the diet does not contain cottonseed hulls. The study has also shown that the large amount of heat applied during normal commercial CSM processing reduces the digestion of amino acids by monogastric animals. A combination of heat and CT from hulls is especially damaging for lowing ileal amino acid digestion in monogastric species, particularly for the limiting essential amino acids lysine and threonine.

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  • Endophytic perennial ryegrass and reproductive performance of the ewe : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Animal Science at Massey University

    Watson, Richard Hart

    Thesis
    Massey University

    A series of grazing and indoor trials were conducted to investigate the effects of perennial ryegrass infected with Neotyphodium lolii and its toxins on the reproductive performance of the ewe. Comparisons made were in ovulation rate, conception rate, lambs carried at scanning and lambs born per ewe, milk production and lamb growth rate between groups of ewes grazing either endophyte-infected (E+) or endophyte-free (E-) perennial ryegrass. Differences in ewe liveweight and its relationship with feed intake were also determined. More intensive trials were conducted to examine the effects of endophyte toxins on the endocrine systems that regulate the oestrous cycle and lactation. In a 4-year grazing trial in the Manawatu there were no significant differences in ovulation rate, conception rate, scanning % or lambing % between the E+ and E- groups in any year of the trial. Mean mating date was 1.8 days later (P<0.001) in the Ev+ ewes than in the Ev- ewes in Trial land in the high temperature treatment in Trial 2. A grazing trial in which slow release chromium oxide tracer was administered to ewes and lambs grazing either E+ or E- ryegrass pasture showed that feed intakes were significantly lower in the ewes and lambs grazing E+ ryegrass compared with ewes and lambs grazing E-ryegrass. Differences in feed intake between the E+ and E- groups were related to liveweight and liveweight change. There were also differences in grazing behaviour between the E+ and E- groups. Ryegrass components of the pasture, and especially the leaf-sheath, were less acceptable to ewes and lambs grazing E+ than E- pastures. It is concluded that the toxins produced by the endophyte, N. lolii, commonly found in perennial ryegrass, have the potential to reduce fertility, milk production, lamb growth rate and the liveweight of ewes. The range of toxin levels normally associated with E+ ryegrass pastures appears to be too low to cause large negative effects on reproductive performance. However, some small effects were observed such as a delay in mating, a reduction in milk production, and a higher incidence of dry ewes in ewes grazing E+ ryegrass pasture. Ewes and lambs grazing E+ ryegrass pasture have lower liveweight gains, which is associated with lower voluntary feed intakes. Chronically lower liveweight in ewes associated with grazing E+ ryegrass is likely to reduce life-time performance of the ewes.

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  • Formal confusion: virtuality and utopian space : an exegesis presented with exhibition as fulfillment of the requirements for thesis, Master of Fine Arts at Massey University, Wellington, New Zealand

    Trevelyan, Peter Ross

    Thesis
    Massey University

    This exegesis details an investigation into the history and evolution of certain technologies, (binary coding, Platonic cosmology, and the linear perspective system) and the extent to which these technologies have distorted or appropriated our perceptions of reality. Special attention is paid to logical inconsistencies in apparently logical systems. The investigation focuses on the purportedly utopian applications of these technologies and the discrepancies that inevitably occurred whenever these ordered systems confronted the chaotic ‘real’ world. Information gleaned from this research then informs an analysis of methods for incorporating these concepts into the author’s installation practice. An explication of recent drawing practice and its reconciliation with installation work will account for and inform a recounting of practical experimentation dealing with form and materials.

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  • Cross-cultural collaboration in New Zealand : a Chicano in Kiwi land

    Franco, William

    Thesis
    Massey University

    In my exegesis, I will explore the different social, political, cultural and artistic themes, influences and methods that direct my art practice. I will dissect my current work, outlining these transformations and how they impact my work here at Massey, as well as how they will continue to inspire my art practice in the future.

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  • Understandings of being Pakeha : exploring the perspectives of six Pakeha who have studied in Maori cultural learning contexts : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Management, Communication Management, at Massey University, Turitea Campus, Aotearoa-New Zealand

    Mitcalfe, Margaret Ann

    Thesis
    Massey University

    This research studies Pakeha who have engaged with Maori cultural learning contexts. Within a social constructionist theoretical framework, and with a combination of the critical and communicative approaches to cultural identity, the research explores the meaning these Pakeha bring to being Pakeha. Discourse analysis tools of interpretative repertoires and linguistic resources are used to analyse data from semi-structured interviews with six Paheha participants. Participants have experienced Maori cultural learning contexts before or during the research, through learning te reo, tikanga Maori and about nga ao o nga iwi Maori. The research found that, largely, meanings participants brought to being Pakeha were in contrast to stereotypical notions of what it means to be Pakeha. Participants demonstrated that for them being Pakeha meant being connected to nga ao o nga iwi Maori; being aware of Pakeha privilege; mediating and negotiating being Pakeha with dominant notions of Pakehaness; valuing the history of Aotearoa-New Zealand, along with valuing te reo me ona tikanga. Furthermore, the research also found that the consistently postcolonial identity participants brought to being Pakeha shifted according to context, troubling the meanings of Pakeha also.

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  • Identification and characterization of Dothistromin biosynthetic genes in the peanut pathogen Passalora arachidicola : a thesis presented in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Biochemistry at Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand

    Guo, Yanan

    Thesis
    Massey University

    Dothistromin (DOTH) is a secondary metabolite produced by the fungal peanut pathogen Passalora arachidicola and pine needle pathogen Dothistroma septosporum. The chemical structure of DOTH is similar to a precursor of aflatoxin (AF) and sterigmatocystin (ST), which are secondary metabolites produced by Aspergillus species. A size fractionated genomic library was made and 11 putative DOTH genes were identified in P. arachidicola. The DOTH genes in P. arachidicola were compared to DOTH genes in D. septosporum as well as to AF and ST genes in Aspergillus species. The DOTH gene products in P. arachidicola showed 73 - 96% amino acid identity to DOTH genes in D. septosporum and 50 - 69% amino acid identity to AF/ST genes in Aspergillus. The DOTH biosynthesis genes in P. arachidicola had similar gene organization and direction of transcription to DOTH biosynthesis genes in D. septosporum and is similar in that 11 putative DOTH genes are separated into three mini-clusters. This differs from the AF/ST clusters in which 25 AF/ST genes are tightly clustered in a 70 kb region. Identification of transcription factor binding sites upstream of DOTH genes in P. arachidicola and D. septosporum suggested similar co-regulation of DOTH gene expression in P. arachidicola and D. septosporum. Tandem and inverted repeat sequences were identified in intergenic regions in the P. arachidicola DOTH gene cluster, but the distribution of those repeats appears to be random. This suggests that the fragmentation of the DOTH biosynthesis gene cluster is not due to retrotransposon activity or recombination between repeat sequences. The DOTH biosynthesis gene clusters in P. arachidicola and D. septosporum could be ancestral to AF/ST biosynthesis clusters in Aspergillus species.

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  • Efficient web-based application development tools on XML-enabled databases : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Information Sciences

    Chen, Yi

    Thesis
    Massey University

    No abstract provided

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  • Two generator discrete groups of isometries and their representation : a thesis presented in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Mathematics at Massey University, Albany, New Zealand

    Cooper, Haydn

    Thesis
    Massey University

    Let M Φ and Mψ be elements of PSL(2,C) representing orientation preserving isometries on the upper half-space model of hyperbolic 3-space Φ and ψ respectively. The parameters β = tr2(M Φ) - 4, β1 = tr2(Mψ) - 4, γ = tr[M Φ,Mψ] - 2, determine the discrete group (Φ ,ψ) uniquely up to conjugacy whenever γ ≠ 0. This thesis is concerned with explicitly lifting this parameterisation of (Φ , ψ) to PSO(1, 3) realised as a discrete 2 generator subgroup of orientation preserving isometries on the hyperboloid model of hyperbolic 3-space. We particularly focus on the case where both Φ and ψ are elliptic.

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  • A new model of students' perceptions of the primary school classroom emotional environment : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in Psychology at Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand

    Andersen, Rachel Joy

    Thesis
    Massey University

    94 items was developed that encapsulate what children notice in their classrooms as affecting the emotional environment and the language they use to describe it. Study 3 had 63 adults use a modified decision task to sort the 94 items into groups of their selection of similarity and dissimilarity. The analysis of these data revealed 11 clusters of items and 3 underlying dimensions - Teacher Affect, Teacher Expectations and Style, and Classroom Dynamics. Each dimension has two opposing ends, and each of the 94 items can be viewed on a three dimensional map showing their relationship to each of the other 93 items along these 3 underlying dimensions. The visual graphic makes these dimensions easy to interpret for those who are likely to be organising classroom environments. This research shows that when given a chance to talk about their experiences in classrooms, students can explain what they value in a classroom, what they will remember about school, and what influences them and their learning.

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  • An analysis of the interval of observation and the risk in stocks : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Business Studies in Finance at Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand

    Anderson, Luke William

    Thesis
    Massey University

    This research examines how the interval of observation affects the assessment of risk in stocks. I do this by analysing the economic and statistical significance of the worst returns on stocks, and by analysing the relationship between the interval of observation and factors which are thought to affect the return on stocks. This research shows the interval of observation used to assess the risk in stocks is important and the conclusions change considerably depending on how the data is drawn. In addition, the results indicate an investor’s time horizon is important in deciding their asset allocation and the style of investment should be suitable for the time horizon selected.

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  • Un i form "consisting of one" : a written component presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Design at Massey University, Wellington, New Zealand

    Clement, Julie

    Thesis
    Massey University

    Uni form is an exploration into the act of getting dressed. The act of dressing or assemblage of dress is negotiated and explores how personal identity is constructed. My design research contributes to a current understanding of self, dress and social identity. I begin with an analysis of wardrobe as a personal collection and I propose that, in our everyday dress, much of what we choose to wear constitutes a uni form of one sort or another. Focusing on the shirt dress as an ‘ordinary’ everyday style of generic dress, I set out to experience the wearing of a personal uniform. What emerges from this research is a proposal that a uni form – a metaphoric garment – can meet the needs of everyday life in the postmodern urban metropolis.

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  • Elder care, self-employed women and work-family balance: an exploration using work-family border theory : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Business Studies in Human Resource Management at Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand

    Bourke, Josephine Emily

    Thesis
    Massey University

    Despite work-life balance being an area of interest to many researchers, there is little reference to any effects related specifically to elder care. Current demographics indicate that the proportion of elderly in the community is increasing, and with greater workforce participation (particularly among women workers) the availability of family caregivers is less guaranteed. Women are more likely to be responsible for elder care, and as they seek to manage their work and life, are also more likely to seek workplace flexibility, sometimes through self-employment. The effect that elder care may be having on the work-life balance of self-employed women is the focus of this research project. Using work-family border theory as a lens, this research documented the effect that elder care had on the lives of a group of self-employed women who also had elder care responsibilities. Eight women from the Wellington region participated in this research, which was carried out from a broadly phenomenological perspective. Each participant shared information, using a case study approach, about their business and elder care responsibilities. The results of this research indicate the profound effect of emotions in the elder care situation, and also the effect of expectations from others whose influences affected the ability of the participants to achieve work-life balance.

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  • Feed enzymes and whole wheat in poultry diets : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirement for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Animal Science at Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand

    Wu, Yuben

    Thesis
    Massey University

    Seven studies were undertaken to examine the effects of microbial phytase, glycanases, and whole wheat feeding in broiler diets. The major focus of this doctoral research was to investigate the effects of a microbial phytase produced by solid state fermentation in broiler diets. 1. The aim of the first study was to examine the effects of microbial phytase on the performance, apparent ileal digestibility of phosphorus (P), phytate P and nitrogen, and utilisation of nutrients in male and female broilers fed wheat-soy diets from 1 to 42 day of age. There were eight dietary treatments. Diets 1 to 4 were supplemented with inorganic phosphorus to contain 0.30, 0.36, 0.42 and 0.48% of non-phytate P (nP), respectively in the starter phase (1-21 day) and 0.20, 0.26, 0.32 and 0.48% in the finisher phase (22-42 day), respectively. Diets 5 to 8 were based on diet 1 and supplemented with phytase to contain 500, 1000, 1500 and 2000 PU/kg diet, respectively. Within sex, each of the eight dietary treatments was assigned to five pens of eight birds each. In both sexes, weight gain (P0.05). A significant interaction (P0.05) on villus height, crypt depth, goblet cell number, epithelium thickness, and ratio of crypt depth to villus height in duodenum, jejunum and ileum. The only exception was that addition of phytase increased (P0.05) on the relative gizzard weights. Post-pelleting inclusion of whole wheat resulted in greater improvements (P0.05) the relative weights and length of the duodenum, jejunum, ileum or total small intestine. 8. The aim of the seventh study was to examine the influence of post-pelleting inclusion of whole wheat and xylanase supplementation on the performance, digestive tract measurements and carcass characteristics of broilers fed wheat-soy diets from 1 to 35 days of age. There were five dietary treatments. Diet 1 was based on corn and soybean meal. Diets 2 and 3 were based on ground wheat (GW) and soybean meal without and with added xylanase at a level of 1000 XU/kg, respectively. Diets 4 and 5 were whole wheat (WW) replacing GW (10 and 20% whole wheat replacing GW during 1-21 and 22-35 day, respectively) without and with added xylanase at a level of 1000 XU/kg, respectively. Post-pelleting inclusion of whole wheat reduced (P0.05) the relative weight and length of the small intestine, carcass recovery and relative weights of breast muscle and abdominal fat pad.

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