948 results for Thesis, UC Research Repository

  • Multi-level voltage and current reinjection ac-dc conversion.

    Liu, Yonghe (2003)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    This thesis describes a new concept of multi-level reinjection ac-dc conversion, its main purpose being a further reduction of the harmonic content, a solution of dynamic voltage balancing for direct series connected switching devices and an improvement of high power converter efficiency and reliability. It is a combination of the multi-level, soft switching and reinjection concepts. A variety of configurations are proposed, based on the new concept, to achieve efficient voltage and current conversion. For each configuration the firing sequences, waveform analysis, steady and dynamic performances and close-loop control strategies are presented, and particular applications suggested. The ideal reinjection waveforms are first derived for perfect harmonic cancellation and then fully symmetrical approximations are made for more practical implementations. This is followed by a description and comparison of the generation circuits required for the implementation of the multi-level symmetrical reinjection waveforms. A three-level voltage reinjection scheme, implemented by adding a reinjection bridge and a reinj ection transformer to the standard twelve-pulse converter, is discussed in great detail, both for the series and parallel connections. This is followed by an investigation into the possible application of these converters to Back to Back VSC HV de interconnection; the analysis is validated by EMTDC simulations. A multi-level voltage reinjection VSC is also proposed, which uses a controllable de voltage divider to distribute the de source voltage to the two main bridges and produces high quality output waveforms. The voltage and current waveforms, the firing sequences and the capacitor voltage balancing are analyzed and verified by EMTDC simulations. In particular, the proposed VSC is shown to be an ideal solution for the STATCOM application. The multi-level reinjection CSC alternative is also described and shown to exhibit an excellent performance in the STATCOM application.

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  • Effects of herbicides on both adaptive and acquired antibiotic resistance

    Hill, Amy M. (2017)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Antibiotic resistance is an increasingly serious global health issue that will not be solved without serious and considered intervention. In order to effectively combat increasingly resistant bacteria, a better understanding of the factors influencing the development of antibiotic resistance is necessary. Previous work from this lab has shown that commercial herbicide formulations can induce adaptive antibiotic resistance in Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (Kurenbach et al., 2015). To investigate the breadth of this response, Staphylococcus aureus was exposed to the same set of commercial herbicide formulations and antibiotics and three additional antibiotics commonly used to treat S. aureus infections. The pattern of herbicide-induced changes in antibiotic tolerance was similar but not identical to those observed for E. coli and S. enterica. The magnitude of changes in minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was often smaller for antibiotics that were used in both sets of experiments, while the largest changes were observed for the new antibiotics. These effects were observed at herbicide concentrations below application rates and, in some cases, at concentrations within the maximum residue limits (MRLs) allowable in animal feed and human food as defined by the Codex Alimentarius Commission (Codex Alimentarius Commision, 2016). Whether the adaptive responses to the herbicides can lead to shifts in the population frequency of acquired antibiotic resistance was also tested. Specific combinations of herbicide and antibiotic that caused either increases or decreases in antibiotic tolerance were investigated in more detail. In two combinations of herbicide and antibiotic, ciprofloxacin + Kamba and ciprofloxacin + Roundup, that caused adaptive resistance to the antibiotic an increased frequency of acquired resistance was observed in S. enterica. When two strains of E. coli with differing antibiotic resistance were exposed to a combination of herbicide and antibiotic, tetracycline + Roundup or streptomycin + Kamba, that caused a decrease in antibiotic tolerance, increased selection in favour of the resistant bacteria was observed.

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  • Exploring Multicultural Education and Culturally Responsive Practices in an International School context: A case study of one school.

    Affagard-Edwards, Tiffany (2016)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    In most educational systems around the world, teaching practices are dominated by the majority culture. This means that often the learning needs of minority groups is not taken into account, which can compromise their educational attainment as indicated by trends in national and international data. International schools are an increasingly popular option in what is fast becoming a globalised education system. These schools have significant student diversity in terms of cultural background and languages. This study investigates how multicultural education and culturally responsive practices are implemented in an international school context. Most research on diversity in education is based in monoculture schools. Therefore, this research study sought to understand what is done in international schools to cater for diverse learners. This study was conducted as an exploratory case study of an international school by engaging with a sample of teachers and key administration members of the school. Interviews, fieldwork and classroom observations were conducted to answer the overarching research question: How are multicultural education and culturally responsive practices being implemented in an international school context? As a teacher in the school, I undertook this study from the role of an ‘insider observer’ where I was immersed within the community and able to participate in their daily life. The findings from the study show that while there is some alignment with multicultural and culturally responsive practices, there is little explicit focus on, or support for, these practices by administrators and teachers. These findings suggest there are both implications for practices in international schools and for furthering research within international schools, such as the need to pay more explicit attention to Professional Development, and Data Recording. There is also a need for more research on international schools that examines school and classroom practices.

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  • Comparing syntactic persistence in written and spoken monologue

    Middendorf, Jennifer (2017)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Syntactic persistence, the tendency for speakers to repeat recently-used syntactic structures, has been well demonstrated in dialogue and in single-sentence monologue primed by reading aloud pre-prepared material. Models advanced to explain syntactic persistence assume that priming will also occur in extended monologue, but there is no clear evidence that this is so. This thesis examines within-speaker syntactic persistence of the genitive alternation in spoken and written monologue from the QuakeBox corpus and the Press database, two New Zealand corpora selected for their close match of time period, geographic location, and topic. Two research questions are considered: is priming present in extended monologue, and does priming differ between speech and writing? In order to address these questions, I use binomial mixed-effect models to find the relative contribution of factors predicted to affect genitive choice and priming, and compare the relative impact of these factors, and the overall effect of priming, on the two corpora. The findings of my research indicate that syntactic priming is present in extended monologue, and that this priming occurs more frequently in speech than in writing. My results also support observations in the existing literature that genitive choice is affected by animacy, the presence of a sibilant sound, and the semantic relationship between possessor and possessum. While this study was not able to offer conclusive insights into the differences between α- and β-priming, and the issue of priming in nested structures, my findings indicate that these would be promising areas for further research.

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  • Hydrothermal alteration and rare earth element mineralisation in the French Creek Granite, Westland, New Zealand

    Morgenstern, Regine (2016)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Alkaline igneous complexes are one of two primary sources of rare earth elements (REEs), which are unique metals crucial for the economic growth of a country. Understanding REE metallogenesis in these systems is often complicated, with evidence of both magmatic and hydrothermal processes present. The A-type French Creek Granite (FCG), located on the West Coast of New Zealand, is a poorly-studied example of such a complex system in which anomalous REEs have previously been reported. The purpose of this thesis was to undertake a comprehensive field, petrological and geochemical study of the FCG, its hydrothermal alteration and, to a lesser extent, the cogenetic Hohonu Dyke Swarm (HDS), in order to better understand the type, style and location of REE mineralisation. Whole rock geochemical analyses of 54 samples using XRF and ICP-MS/AES established that the ca. 82 Ma FCG is a composite granitoid dominated by a ferroan, peraluminous biotite granite that was emplaced into a high-level (ca. 3 km) syn-tectonic setting. A syenite shell and genetically related basaltic–rhyolitic dykes are present, and trace element content, and disequilibrium textures in phenocrysts in dykes, are evidence of magma mixing. Maximum ƩREE+Y content are higher in the felsic FCG (847 ppm) relative to the mafic HDS (431 ppm). Primary REE-Zr-Y enrichment in the FCG is a function of partial melting of an enriched mantle source and subsequent extensive differentiation. Primary REE mineralisation was identified via SEM-EDS and is defined by modal allanite, zircon, apatite, fergusonite, monazite, perrierite and loparite, which typically occur with interstitial biotite. This association, and LA-ICP-MS analyses of REE-bearing giant (500 μm) zircon, indicate REE enrichment in the residual melt was likely due to high magmatic fluorine and late-stage water saturation, in addition to differentiation. Extensive sericitisation, chloritisation, hematisation, carbonate alteration and kaolinisation were identified in the altered FCG using field observations, microscopy and XRD. A zone of propylitic alteration in the Little Hohonu River and a smaller, phyllic alteration assemblage in the Eastern Hohonu River are defined, both of which generally correlate with higher REE anomalies than fresh FCG. Quartz protuberances, microscopic fractures and dyke emplacement indicate the phyllic alteration is structurally controlled, and REEs are hosted in bastnäsite group minerals, zircon, monazite and xenotime. This zone is consistently enriched (607 ppm average ƩREE+Y), indicating remobilisation and secondary REE-Zr-Y enrichment by hydrothermal fluids. Stable 13C and 18O isotopes from secondary carbonates indicate low temperature (~250°C) magmatic-hydrothermal fluids sourced from the cooling FCG, which were likely part of a late-stage porphyry-type system operating during the same mantle degassing and extension episode that was associated with initial Tasman Sea spreading.

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  • An evaluation of the New Zealand Advance Pricing Agreement process

    Abu-Hijleh, Mohammed (2016)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Transfer pricing (the pricing of cross border transactions between controlled or related parties) is an important tax issue faced by multinational enterprises (MNEs). The Inland Revenue Department (IRD) initiated the Advance Pricing Agreement (APA) program in 1999/2000 as a more co-operative approach for MNEs to addressing transfer pricing compliance. An APA is an agreement negotiated in advance between a taxpayer and a tax authority that sets the price of cross border intra-firm transactions between related parties over a fixed period of time. This study evaluates the New Zealand APA process with a main focus of gaining an insight of how the program operates. Eight interviews comprising three participants from the IRD and five tax practitioners from the ‘Big 4’ accounting firms were conducted, in order to gain an insight into the New Zealand APA process. This was supplemented beforehand by documentary analysis of the New Zealand APA process and other sources of data. Further, the study reviews the APA processes of other tax jurisdictions, namely Australia, the United Kingdom, and the United States. A comparative case study analysis approach is utilised to see how these tax jurisdictions’ APA processes compare to New Zealand’s APA process. The findings of this research reveal that New Zealand has maintained an informal APA process, where all MNE applicants are welcome to apply regardless of complexity, size or degree of risk involved in any of their transactions proposed to be covered under the APA. This was also seen as a key difference in the approach the IRD maintains towards APAs compared to the APA processes of other comparative tax jurisdictions’ considered in this study. All interviewees perceived the New Zealand APA process well in terms of how it works and what it achieves. It was believed to be an attractive solution for all MNEs operating in New Zealand wanting to gain certainty around their transfer pricing tax affairs. An opportunity for New Zealand Customs to incorporate APAs as an acceptable valuation method for MNEs to price their imports is also identified in this study. However, many obstacles are identified as to why this may prove to be a challenge for New Zealand Customs to implement. All information mentioned in this thesis is up-to-date as at August 2016.

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  • Teachers’ experiences of including children and families from Asian cultural backgrounds in early childhood education.

    Youn, Jung Yoon (2016)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    This thesis investigates New Zealand early childhood teachers’ understanding and experiences of teaching and including children from Asian backgrounds, in particular, Korean, Chinese and Japanese cultures. In Aotearoa New Zealand, participation in early childhood education of diverse ethnic groups is growing every year. Since 2004, the largest growth in enrolments has been among Asian ethnic groups, with an increase of 90%. The New Zealand Early Childhood Curriculum, Te Whāriki, states “there are many migrants in New Zealand, and, as in any country with a multicultural heritage, there is a diversity of beliefs about childrearing practices, kinship roles, obligations, codes of behaviour, and what kinds of knowledge are valuable” (Ministry of Education, 1996, p. 18). It is therefore important that teachers in the early childhood education service sector are able to effectively respond to the holistic learning needs and well-being of children and families from different ethnicities. This research explores what culturally inclusive and responsive teaching means in the New Zealand early childhood setting and looks at some of the barriers to and facilitators of creating learning environments that meet the needs of children from Asian cultural backgrounds. Data was collected through interviews and questionnaires from teachers working in different early childhood centres in Christchurch. The information gathered was reviewed and evaluated using thematic analysis and the findings were considered in the context of a number of themes – from the teachers’ perceptions of Asian parents and families as influenced by their own experience, to their ideas about progressing inclusive education for children and families from Asian cultural backgrounds. This work highlights some strategies that may help progress cultural inclusion. It also outlines current research and identifies the need for more exemplars for teachers and for further research in this area.

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  • Stratigraphy, structure and geological history of mid-Cretaceous sedimentary rocks across the Torlesse-like/non Torlesse boundary in the Sawtooth Range-Coverham area, Marlborough.

    Ritchie, D. D. (1986)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    This thesis describes the geology of an approximately 100km2 area lying between the Clarence River and Kekerengu. The objectives were to determine the relationship of the "Torlesse-like" sawtooth Group to the late Early Cretaceous Coverham Group; to determine the relationship between the coeval Split Rock and Burnt Creek Formations within the Coverham Group; and to investigate the nature of Cretaceous events which led to the traditional differentiation into older Torlesse type "basement" and younger Cretaceous "cover". Geological mapping indicates the presence of three packets (Glencoe, Pikes and Coverham Blocks) of sedimentary rocks separated by the major Ouse and Pikes Faults. These packets comprise probable submarine fan flysch, massivE? sandstone, massive siltstone, acid tuffs and conglomerate of Sawtooth Group (Torlesse-like Urutawan - Motuan) unconformably overlain by probable slope basin flysch, massive siltstone, Inoceramus shellbed, and conglomerate of Coverham Group (non-Torlesse). The unconformity is most commonly angular but in a few places is a more subtle paraconformity. A further minor unconformity occurs at the base of the Ouse Member within the Split Rock Formation of the Coverham Group and is thought to reflect the presence of the growing Ouse Anticline. The Coverham Group rocks have similar Motuan - Teratan ages on each side of the Ouse Fault. The Split Rock Formation, previously used only for rocks in the middle Clarence Valley, has been extended to the Coverham area and used for rocks west of the Ouse Fault. The partly coeval Burnt Creek Formation east of the Ouse Fault was probably deposited some distance from the Split Rock Formation in a different basin separated by a structural high. They were juxtaposed by low angle reverse movement on the Fault in the Late Cretaceous. structural/deformation characteristics cannot be used as criteria for separating the Torlesse-like rocks from non-Torlesse rocks in the study area. It is dangerous to assume that 'Torlesseness' is a certain and particular state of deformation. Both the Torlesse (Sawtooth) and Coverham Group rocks exhibit a whole spectrum of deformation from 'broken formation' to more or less undisturbed beds. The pattern of deposition and deformation suggests an accretionary prism setting for these rocks. Sawtooth Group rocks are likely to represent 'younger' Pahau Terrane rocks which were deformed by a single intra-Motuan event either tectonic or perhaps a huge submarine slide, creating widespread unconformity between them and the Coverham Group slope deposits. Continuing instability is likely to have led to growing folds and further minor unconformities. The termination of the Rangitata Orogeny occurred in a progressive and evolutionary way representing a mid-Late Cretaceous change from a compressional subduction regime to a tensional rifting regime. Andesitic-rhyolitic volcanism was common in the late Early Cretaceous.

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  • Urban Maori art : the third generation of contemporary Maori artists : identity and identification

    Rennie, Kirsten (2001)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Kia u ki tou kawai tupuna, kia matauria ai, i ahu mai !we i hea anga ana koe ko hea Trace out your ancestral stem, so that it may be known where you come from and in which direction you are going. The intention of this thesis is to examine and interpret the artistic careers and practice of University of Auckland Bachelor of Fine Arts graduates Lisa Reihana (1987), Brett Graham (1989), and Michael Parekowhai (1990), and University of Canterbury Bachelor of Fine Arts graduates Shane Cotton (1989) and Peter Robinson (1989). These urban artists are from a third generation of contemporary Maori artists, and they have been selected for this study because they represent a phenomenon within the New Zealand arts establishment. Graduating within three years of one another, they have instantly and successfully mapped out their artistic careers, rapidly rising in status nationally, and internationally, over the past decade. An examination of how contemporary Maori art has been defined by Maori and Pakeha critics and artists, and who is legitimised as Maori artists, presented as the debate between an essentialist and a post-modern, post-colonial argument, frames the context for this survey of identity and identification. The thesis investigates a contemporary Maori art movement: presenting a whanau of artists who form an artistic and educational support network of contemporaries, that whakapapa back to the Tovey generation - the kaumatua artists, influential in the work of Shane Cotton (Ngati Hine, Nga Puhi), Brett Graham (Ngati Koroki Kahukura), Michael Parekowhai (Nga-Ariki/Te Aitanga, Rongowhakaata) Lisa Reihana (Ngati Hine, Nga Puhi, Ngai Tu), and Peter Robinson (Kai Tahu). The artistic whanau now includes Cotton, Graham, Parekowhai, Reihana and Robinson who in turn influence and support their third generation peers, subsequently informing the artistic practice of the fourth generation of contemporary Maori artists, and forming a vital link in the continuation and development of the contemporary Maori art movement. The sesquicentenary of the Treaty of Waitangi in 1990 raised the question, once again, of how we identify as a nation, specifically, is there a New Zealand bicultural identity? The historically familiar focus on forming a partnership between the tangata whenua and Pakeha continued to be of importance for the nation as it approached the end of the millenium. The issue for New Zealand, as a country populated by a diverse range of migrant and locally born peoples, more recently, has become less concerned with 'creating' a bicultural identity and more interested in visually representing a multicultural nation. The last decade of the second millenium (1990 - 2000), is the main focus of this study because each one of the five artists profiled is conscious of speaking between two cultures, and they utilise their artistic works as the vehicle through which to investigate their Maoritanga and their bicultural reality. In a global climate of an increased awareness involving the rights of indigenous peoples, the third generation of contemporary urban Maori artists, the thesis will argue, became cultural ambassadors both nationally and internationally, their work an institutionally acceptable bicultural fusion of Pakeha and Maori concerns. The easy facility with which they negotiate between these two worlds makes them a pivotal generation in any study of contemporary Maori art. This thesis aims to reveal the changing and sometimes controversial face of contemporary Maori art, establishing the necessity for this change, revealing where the artists position themselves as a result of their geographical location within New Zealand, and in terms of their own connection to their Maori heritage and knowledge of their whakapapa, investigating issues of identity and identification.

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  • Associations between language, false belief understanding and children's social competence

    Buehler, Daniela (2016)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The current longitudinal study explores associations between language and social competence. Specifically, I examine whether language variables, such as using and hearing mental state words and specific aspects of communication, are linked to social competence through the social skill of perspective-taking and the ability to understand that other people might hold a false belief. A cohort of 67 children were assessed at three time points. The initial assessment took place at ages of 24–30 months; and the first follow-up assessment occurred at ages of 41–49 months, and the outcome assessment took place when the children were aged 52–60 months. Data were collected through standardised tests of language and cognition, coded spontaneous play-based language samples, a nonverbal false-belief task and parental questionnaires that represent aspects of Cavell's (1990) social competence model. The findings indicated that mothers' connected communication played a role in their children's social development. Mothers who more often referred to their 2-year-old child's utterances, reformulated, elaborated or answered to them in an appropriate manner described their children as socially more advanced later in development compared to mothers who were less connected in communication with their child. However, mothers' connectedness in communication with their children was no longer a significant predictor once the children's expressive and receptive language abilities were added to the regression model. Children's expressive vocabulary including words to refer to mental states at the age of two years was a predictor of their social competence at five years. Children who produced more words in general and more often used words to refer to their own and others’ mental states such as emotions, desires or cognition at two years had fewer social difficulties at five years than children who produced fewer words and made fewer references to mental states. No relationship was found among mental-state talk, communication connectedness and false-belief understanding and between false-belief understanding and social competence. These findings indicate that being able to express oneself and to refer to mental states helps young children to interact more effectively in the social world. Therefore, considering the impact that early language competency has on social development identification of children with language difficulties becomes even more important.

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  • Making the most of work resources: the moderating effect of regulatory focus on resilience development

    Connell, P. K. (2016)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The ever changing, volatile business world calls for resilient organisations and resilient employees. While past research suggests the need to identify factors that contribute to employee resilience development, there is limited empirical research that clarifies these factors. Drawing from Conservation of Resources (COR) theory, the purpose of the present study was to examine the relationship between social- and feedback-related resources, and resilient employee behaviours, and to explore the moderating role of regulatory foci (prevention and promotion) in this relationship. A survey was conducted among 162 participants from four organisations. Moderated multiple regressions, considering 3-way interactions, were conducted to test the theoretical assumptions. Findings from this study suggest that: 1) individuals with a high promotion and high prevention focus display higher levels of employee resilience, irrespective of resource levels, 2) the resilience of employees with a low promotion and low prevention profile is impacted by resource availability, and 3) mismatch in regulatory foci (i.e., individuals exhibiting high levels of one regulatory focus and low levels of the other) accounts for unique relationships between resources and resilient behaviours. This is the first study to examine the interaction between promotion and prevention, and to assess the prevalence and role of regulatory foci in workplace factors.

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  • Characterising landscape and sea level dynamics to predict shoreline responses over the next 100+ years in a high energy tectonic setting, Kaikoura, New Zealand

    Berger, Hannah Victoria (2017)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    This thesis examines local scale landscape dynamics and coastal responses to climate change along the tectonically active, high energy Kaikoura coastline, South Island, New Zealand. In New Zealand, the majority of urban infrastructure is built along low-lying coastal plains. As a result, expanding coastal communities face increasing exposure to coastal hazards, which will potentially be exacerbated by climate change-induced adjustments in sediment supply, wave climates and sea levels, amongst other factors. Sea level around New Zealand has been predicted to rise between 0.8 m and 1.0 m by 2115 as a response to increasing global temperatures. In Kaikoura, local relative sea levels may vary from regional projections based on local sediment dynamics in response to; local tectonic uplift and co-seismic sediment delivery, increased rainfall and storm intensity, ocean climate and tides. Local sediment dynamics are important to consider when managing relative sea-level variations, in terms of assessing erosion response affected by sediment supply. New Zealand Coastal Policy Statement (NZCPS, 2010) Policy 24 states that the effects of climate change on coastal sediment dynamics should be factored into 100 year hazard risk assessments. To this date there has been no combined assessment on tectonic, climatic, and anthropogenic controls on local sediment dynamics, to predict mixed sand and gravel morphology response to future climate change and sea level variation along the Kaikoura coastline. The main objective of the research is to predict how coastal geomorphology in Kaikoura is likely to respond to local tectonic and climate change- induced adjustments in landscape and sea level dynamics over the next 100+ years. In order to fulfil the research objective, the primary focus of this research was developing a conceptual framework for the preliminary assessment of local sediment dynamics as part of a sea-level rise response matrix. The methodology was developed using a Kaikoura area case study, including the coast between the Hapuku and Kahutara Rivers, Kaikoura Peninsula and the adjacent coastal progradation plain, and Seaward Kaikoura Ranges. This area encompasses key coastal sediment processes and controls in a small well-constrained region that produced findings that can be scalable to other areas in New Zealand and elsewhere. Tectonics, climate, and human interventions were identified as the main controls on local sediment dynamics in Kaikoura. Key physical (faults, watersheds, landforms) and anthropogenic (hard/soft engineering structures, regulatory frameworks) factors influencing the sediment dynamics were assessed at different temporal and spatial scales. Various climate, river gauge, and beach survey data alongside local tectonic assessments were used to characterise and assess each control. Determining how each control influences local scale sediment dynamics proved challenging in a relatively sparse data context. Rainfall, ocean climate, and beach profile data analyses provided sufficient information to construct a conceptual model for the preliminary assessment of local sediment dynamics, how tectonic and climate change-induced adjustments could affect sediment supply and how future relative sea level may manifest in the Kaikoura region.

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  • Test-retest reliability of the SSQ-12 questionnaire: for hearing-aid wearers using pen-and-paper administration method

    Cox, Bethany (2016)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The aim of this study was to determine if the SSQ-12 (Speech, Spatial, and Qualities of Hearing Scale – Short form) is a reliable questionnaire to assess hearingaid benefit for experienced hearing-aid wearers using the pen-and-paper administration method. Twenty-eight experienced hearing-aid wearers were recruited from the University of Canterbury’s audiology clinic database and from the general public. Participants were sent the SSQ-12 questionnaire 3 times at 6-week intervals. The participants’ responses across the three different administration times (T0, T1, and T2) were compared using a repeated measures ANOVA to determine if their answers remained stable over time, when no intervention was occurring. The results showed there were no significant differences between the SSQ-12 total or sub-scale scores for each participant’s T0, T1, and T2 data. Critical change scores were calculated for total, and sub-scale scores, to facilitate clinicians identifying whether a change in score is clinically significant. In conclusion, the results of this study indicate the SSQ-12 has good test-retest reliability for experienced hearing-aid wearers using the pen-and-paper administration method.

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  • Self-care in the age of neoliberalism : an auto-ethnographic exploration by a counsellor.

    Multhaup, Michael (2016)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    This thesis explores the self-care of a counsellor, myself, in the age of neo-liberalism. The underpinning structure is Dewey’s developmental spiral (1933) that enables me to use the writing of this thesis as a reflective process. This practice consists of reflecting on past experience, exploring and critiquing the influence of neoliberalism as a significant hindrance in maintaining effective self-care. I also deconstruct relevant discursive formations by employing the theoretical approaches that are positioned in the social constructionist arena, and consult the writings of Foucault, De Certeau, Wittgenstein, and other theorists. I revisit personal historical occurrences linking them to societal settings. For this I use auto-ethnography as the methodology, exploring my adoption of early discursive formations and in particular the way I used work as a coping mechanism. For the conceptualisation that describes new constructive ways of being, I use the solution-focused therapeutic approach to overcome the problems of being enmeshed with the discussed hegemonic discourses. The last part of the Dewey’s developmental spiral explores new experiences that have been influenced by the reflective process described earlier. The aim of this thesis is to develop a framework of understanding to advance self-care practices that may also serve as an inspirational tool for others to use in their own unique situations.

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  • Cross-language phonetic priming in bilinguals.

    Sun, Keyi (2011)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    This thesis looks at cross-language phonetic priming effects on late L1-dominant bilinguals, with different degrees of proficiency within the group. The participants in the study are 14 Chinese-English late bilinguals, whose production of vowels and consonants in different priming language contexts was analysed. The 14 speakers were divided into two groups based on their language proficiency. Information collected from questionnaires in two different languages was used to divide them into the two groups. They were required to participate in the experiment in two different sessions. On one occasion the interviewer spoke English to them and this was followed by their English reading and Chinese reading; whereas on the other occasion the interviewer spoke Chinese and the subjects did the opposite reading order from the first condition. Significant results of the analyses show that non-early, L1-dominant bilinguals do not differ in proficiency across priming conditions. Both groups show significant changes as the result of language priming for exactly the same vowels and the same consonants. Significant changes in the production of the sounds reveal interference between certain L2 sounds and their L1 counterparts. However, near significant results also show an unexpected direction of changes in production in L2, which may have been caused by experimenter identity. Furthermore, transfer effects of L1 on L2 found only among high proficiency speakers suggest that inhibitory control is dependent on L2 proficiency.

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  • Narrating connections and boundaries : constructing relatedness in lesbian known donor familial configurations.

    Surtees, Nicola Jane (2017)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    In a time of unprecedented possibilities for intimate life, lesbian known donor reproduction is an emerging form of kinship practice. While experienced as unique to the biographies of particular lesbian couples, known donors and their partners, practices of relatedness occur against the background of neoliberal discourses, processes of normalisation and legislative frameworks that are increasingly responsive to the rights claims of lesbian parents. This thesis investigates this phenomenon in contemporary New Zealand. Examining the meanings attached to cultural constructs such as ‘kinship’, ‘family’, ‘parenthood’, ‘motherhood’ and ‘fatherhood’, the thesis illustrates how familial boundaries and sets of relations are narratively constructed. The research draws on interviews with 60 women and men across 21 lesbian known donor familial configurations at different stages of forming family through known donor insemination, focusing in depth on nine core family narratives. Participants included lesbian parents and parents to be, gay and heterosexual known donors, and partners of donors. The thesis argues that participants are innovative in conformity and through constraint. Although the participants live amid the same dominant heteronormative public narratives, they are differently normative. They pursue different familial scenarios, which creates different possibilities for lesbian couple and parenting selves and identities relative to donors and their partners. The picture emerging suggests donors and partners remain supplementary to lesbian couples. How their status is expressed is a central theme of the thesis that demonstrates the power of neoliberal agendas of personal responsibility, freedom, agency and choice. Tensions between a sense of empowerment and constraint in family-building activities are closely linked to these agendas. Contributing to debates about the operation of homonormativity in a neoliberal context, this thesis explores the discursive power of heteronormative family models and the implications of this for innovation in the intimate lives of same-sex and heterosexual subjects.

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  • Numerical modelling of groundwater - surface water interactions with the Double-Averaged Navier-Stokes Equations.

    Dark, A. L. (2017)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The ability to model groundwater and surface water flows as two interacting components of a single resource is highly important for robust catchment management. Existing methods for spatially-distributed numerical modelling of flow in connected river-aquifer systems treat rivers and aquifers as separate sub-domains, with different governing equations for the flow in each. Mass-fluxes exchanged between the sub-domains are modelled using one of several coupling methods, which do not accurately represent the physics of the flow across the interface between the surface and subsurface flows. This can be problematic for model stability and mass conservation. This thesis investigates the feasibility of modelling interacting surface water and groundwater flows in a single domain, using a single system of equations. It is shown that the governing equations in existing numerical models for river and aquifer flow can be derived from the Navier-Stokes Equations. A time- and space-averaged form of Navier-Stokes Equations, the Double-Averaged Navier-Stokes (DANS) Equations, can be used to model both groundwater and surface water flows. The volume- averaging process allows the porous medium to be represented as a continuum. A novel two-dimensional numerical model is developed from the DANS Equations to simulate flows in connected groundwater and surface water systems. The DANS equations are solved using the finite-volume method. The model simulates two-dimensional flow in a vertical slice. This allows the horizontal and vertical velocity components and pressure to be modelled over the depth of a stream and the underlying aquifer or hyporheic zone. The model does not require the location of the interface between surface and subsurface flows to be specified explicitly: this is determined by the spatial distribution of hydraulic properties (permeability and porosity). The numerical model handles the transition between laminar and turbulent flows using an adaptive damping approach to modify the terms in a single-equation turbulence model, based on a locally-defined porous Reynolds number, Rep. This approach removes the need to specify a priori whether flows in any part of the domain are laminar or turbu lent. Turbulent porous media flows can be simulated. The model is verified for porous-media and clear-fluid flows separately, before being used to simulate coupled groundwater - surface water flow scenarios. For porous-media flows with low Rep the numerical model results agree exactly with Darcy’s Law. The value of Rep at which the model results begin to deviate from Darcy’s Law is consistent with published values. For turbulent clear-fluid flows the time-averaged velocity and turbu lent kinetic energy (TKE) results from the numerical model are ver ified against a RANS model and published data. A good match is achieved for both velocity and TKE. Energy grade-line slopes for free-surface flows simulated in the numerical model are a reasonably good match to equivalent results to the one-dimensional hydraulic model HEC-RAS. Idealised river-aquifer interaction experiments are conducted in a lab- oratory flume to provide verification data for the numerical model. An innovative combination of optical flow measurement and refractive- index-matched transparent soil is used to measure two-dimensional velocities and turbulent statistics in laboratory flow scenarios that simulate flow in both losing and gaining streams, and the underlying connected porous layer. The “gaining stream” laboratory scenario is replicated using the numerical model. The model simulates the key features of the mean flow well. Turbulent statistics deviate substantially from the laboratory results where vertical velocities across the surface-subsurface interface are high, but are a better match elsewhere. The “losing stream” laboratory results are unable to be reproduced with the numerical model. Results for a similar scenario with lower outflow velocities are presented. These results are qualitatively consistent with the laboratory results. The numerical model is expected to perform better in simulations of field-like conditions that involve less extreme gradients than the laboratory scenarios.

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  • Gender, class and modernity : reproductive agency in urban India.

    Kohli, Ambika (2017)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The decreasing female child sex ratio in contemporary India is often linked to the small family norm. However, the decline of sex ratio has raised interesting questions regarding women’s involvement in decision making in the context of female-foeticide and managing family size. Are women victims or actors while making their reproductive choices? What are their reproductive interests, and how do they achieve them? This study investigates how urban-middle class women from Delhi and Haryana make reproductive decisions in regards to family formation in modern urban neoliberal society. Motherhood, abortions, and gender relations are discussed with reference to the main themes of son-preference, increasing social status of daughters, family planning, family building strategies, reproductive health and well-being. Further, because of the prevalence of son-preference it is crucial to understand what kind of status daughters are accorded in contemporary urban Indian society. This study addresses this by looking at participants’ differing perceptions and expectations for their daughters and sons, and in particular how daughters are treated. The status of daughters is documented through an examination of current forms of gender discrimination against them, and also the different kinds of opportunities that they are provided by their parents. These issues are explored through a qualitative study of the reproductive decision making of 45 educated married urban middle-class mothers from Delhi and Yaumuna Nagar (region of Haryana), India. Snowballing was used to recruit participants, and the fieldwork was carried out during two visits to India. I chose Delhi and Haryana because both of these regions have collective and patriarchal family structures. For instance, in these regions joint families are quite common among the middle-class and fathers or a male family member are often the head of the family. Furthermore, Delhi and Haryana have a low female child sex ratio, as recorded in the 2011 census, but have shown slight improvement in comparison to 2001 figures. Therefore, this study will provide insights into how women practice their reproductive agency in highly collective and patriarchal settings of their affinal families. These families are in the process of rapid socio-cultural changes, including change in gender roles and opportunities for daughters. I will examine women’s decision making process, including practices of negotiating and resistance strategies they develop. xvi I will then discuss how women engage with different forms of modern, spiritual and traditional technologies in order to maintain their reproductive health and well-being, and how they attempt to give birth to a son while maintaining the norm of small family size. This will suggest that society and technology are mutually constitutive. Finally, I will explore how social transformation has influenced the gender relationships which are discussed in relation to daughters’ improving status and also the different forms of discrimination currently used against them. However, throughout the research the patriarchal nature of urban neoliberal Indian society and the idea that a man is needed to support a woman and for her protection has been highlighted.

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  • Developing a flood hazard analysis framework in the Cuvelai Basin, Namibia, using a flood model, remote sensing, and GIS.

    Persendt, Frans C. (2016)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Worldwide, more than 40% of all natural hazards, and about half of all deaths, are the result of flood disasters. In the Cuvelai River Basin (CRB), northern Namibia, flood disasters have increased dramatically over the past half-century, along with associated economic losses and fatalities. The increase in hydro-meteorological hazards such as floods are mainly attributed to intense urbanisation, changing land-use patterns and a changing climate. These hazards are exacerbated in semi-arid and data-sparse (SADS) regions such as the CBR, because of declining and/or non-existent hydro-meteorological infrastructure. In addition there is a lack of long-term continuous records that is needed to enhance the implementation of traditional flood risk management strategies, whether structural or non-structural, to mitigate hydro- meteorological hazards. This thesis developed a systematic framework that has quantified the uncertainties associated with the hydrological cycle that preclude the development of flood risk management strategies. The framework is based on free-data and open-data and software that is available online. It used remotely sensed data validated against ground-based observational data, where available. The particular components of the hydrological cycle that are assessed are: precipitation, surface runoff (discharge), surface water extent and surface water movement pathways (drainage networks). Hydrologic modelling was used to model the water fluxes in order to derive basin as well as flood characteristics of the study area. The framework can be used as a benchmark for the development of flood risk management policies that will enable SADS regions to mitigate the severe effect hydro-meteorological disasters in the Anthropocene. The flood hazard analysis framework (FHAF) developed for this study consists of two steps: (a) preliminary analysis and (b) hazard estimation. The preliminary analysis enable the development of a hydro-meteorological (floods and droughts) archive using different data sources as well as identifying where more analyses are needed to reduce uncertainty while hazard estimation provide the frequency and magnitude of the hazard. As a result of the growing concern about flood risk, identifying the extreme precipitation events that cause hydro-meteorological disasters is essential. Hence, the preliminary analysis step of FHAF developed a database (a). An up-to-date and broad analysis of the trends of hydro-meteorological events within the CRB was performed. The derived events were also validated against data from other sources. The risk estimation step involved components of the hydrologic cycle that are crucial in determining flood risk and that play an important role in enhancing uncertainty. Precipitation is one of these crucial components, to estimate and validate, especially in the trans-boundary SADS CRB. Four commonly used operational satellite-based rainfall estimation (SBRE) products were rigorously validated and inter-compared on monthly, seasonal, and annual timescales. Rainfall data from gauged stations were compared against SBREs as well as simulated data from a Regional Climate Model (RegCM4) model. Point-to-nearest-pixel and pixel-to-pixel methods were used to validate gauge data against high spatial resolution (0.25o) SBREs data for a period from 2008 to 2014. Validation was performed on a monthly, seasonally, and annual basis as well as taking the long-term mean, whilst error statistics were used to determine the accuracy of the SBREs when compared to the observed rainfall gauge values. Results indicated good statistical relationships between the ground-based gauge stations for some SBREs. Results will help to understand, and ultimately expand, our understanding of the climatologies within this SADS region and will also provide valuable information on the error structures of SBRE products that might be ingested into hydrologic models for water resource management. The results also help to quantify the improvements (bias correction) that are needed for these SBRE products to be useful for water resource and risk management applications. The second component, surface water pathways (drainage networks), is imperative to determine flood inundation extent, which relate to hazards. Also, accurate delineation of drainage networks is crucial for hydrological modelling and hydraulic modelling, and the comprehension of fluvial processes. Channels from topographic maps (blue lines) were compared to those from hydrologically corrected and uncorrected light detection and ranging (LiDAR) DEMs (digital elevation models), heads-up digitised channels from high-resolution digital aerial orthophotographs, field-mapped channels and auxiliary data. The maximum gradient deterministic eight (D8) GIS algorithm was applied to the corrected and uncorrected LiDAR DEMs using two network extraction methods: area threshold support and curvature/drop analysis. Results will aid national mapping agencies in SADS regions to modernise their national hydrography datasets and to account for changing land surface conditions that can affect channel spatial arrangements over time. The third component, deals with the amount, frequency, and magnitude of surface water runoff (discharge). Sustainable management of water resources as well as mitigating hydro- meteorological natural hazards such as flooding and drought requires the precise understanding of the spatio-temporal distribution of water especially in SADS regions where data from various global datasets are used to compensate. Results suggested that input data be ingested in hydrological models especially if the data are to be used especially for water resources estimations and for understanding flood-producing processes. The last component, surface water extent (flood inundation), was also estimated in this study. The mapping of spatial inundation patterns during flood events is important for environmental management and disaster monitoring. This study detected and compared the spatial extent of flood inundation at the peak of three major flood events (2008, 2009, and 2011) in the CRB. The study follows a multi-spectral and multi-sensor approach to identify the flood inundation for each flood event at peak modelled discharge. Results indicated that the quantification of flooding spatial extent can help to provide valuable information to FHAFs and hence potentially improve hydrologic prediction and flood management strategies in ungauged catchments. Furthermore, given the globally availability of satellite- based precipitation and river discharges, this proof-of-concept study can have substantial implications on flood monitoring and forecasting in ungauged basins throughout the globe.

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  • The spectra of transition-metal ions in solids

    Johnstone, I.W. (1975)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The results of an investigation of the Raman and infrared spectra of cobaltous ions in cadmium-chloride, cadmium-bromide, and manganese-chloride, and of cobalt-chloride are presented. The cobalt ions substitute for the cation in these crystals and experience a trigonal crystal-field which splits the lowest ⁴T₁g (⁴F) cubic-field term into six Kramers doublets with energies in the range 0-1200 cm⁻¹. The Raman spectra, measured as a function of temperature and of cobalt concentration show all five single ion electronic transitions together with several lines due to cobalt ion pairs. The infrared spectra comprise both magnetic-dipole allowed electronic transitions and electric-dipole allowed vibronic lines and bands. They confirm the identity of the electronic transitions seen by Raman scattering and also yield information concerning the lattice modes of the host and the possible interactions within cobalt ion pairs. The strong field matrices of the trigonal crystal-field and Zeeman interactions are calculated for the d³ (d⁷) configuration and quantitatively explain the experimental data. The crystal-field analysis provides single ion wavefunctions for further calculations which successfully explain the spectra of antiferromagnetic CoCl₂ and exchange coupled colbalt pairs in CdCl₂ (Co²⁺) and CdBr₂ (Co²⁺). A preliminary investigation of the infrared absorption of an oxygen-induced impurity site in CdCl₂-type crystals is also presented.

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