852 results for Thesis, Unitec Research Bank

  • Strength and flexibility of the hip, knee and ankle associated with patellofemoral pain syndrome : a case-control study

    Stuhlmann, Naomi Helen (2014)

    Thesis
    Unitec

    BACKGROUND: Patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS) has been defined as anterior knee pain in the absence of pathology, and a complex multifactorial aetiology. The identification of modifiable intrinsic factors variables which can be measured in a clinical setting would be useful for practitioners who manage people with PFPS. OBJECTIVES: To identify intrinsic variables associated with PFPS using physical examination measures of known reliability. Design: Cross sectional, case-control. Setting: laboratory. PARTICPANTS: Twenty participants (n=10 symptomatic, n=10 asymptomatic). Asymptomatic participants were matched to symptomatic participants by age, gender, height, weight and level of recent physical activity (RPAQ). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Participants were assessed for hip flexion, quadriceps length, iliotibial band length, isometric hip internal and external rotation strength, and the range of ankle dorsiflexion during weight bearing. RESULTS: Isometric strength measures (hip internal and external rotation strength) were significantly different between symptomatic and asymptomatic participants and were associated with 'very large' effects (d>2.5). CONCLUSIONS: The strong association between hip weakness and PFPS, indicates the importance of considering this factor in a clinical setting. Measures used in this research were clinically appropriate and reliable to assess strength and flexibility measures associated with PFPS.

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  • Clinical reasoning in osteopathy : an investigation of diagnostic hypothesis generation for patients with acute low back pain

    Roots, Simon Ashley (2014)

    Thesis
    Unitec

    BACKGROUND: The clinical reasoning strategies employed in healthcare have been well established in a wide range of health professions. Currently, there is little literature pertaining to the diagnostic process of osteopaths and the clinical reasoning strategies utilised in osteopathy. AIM:To investigate the processes of clinical reasoning utilised by osteopaths in the diagnostic hypothesis generation for patients with acute low back pain. METHODS: Two methods were employed: a thematic analysis in conjunction with content analysis which involved a novel ‘consultation mapping’ approach. Three osteopaths were video recorded taking a case history and performing examination procedures. Following conclusion of each consultation, participants viewed a video recording of the consultation, and provided a commentary which was audio recorded. All audio and video recordings were later transcribed for analysis. RESULTS: Three themes were identified from the data which broadly represented three existing clinical reasoning strategies: Implicit cognitive evaluations not apparent to an external observer (pattern recognition); Iterative processing of cues assembled through clinical interactions (hypothetico-deductive reasoning); Collaborative interaction between patient and practitioner (collaborative reasoning). Each consultation was then ‘mapped’, and content analysis showed dynamic transitioning between three levels of pattern recognition (‘light’, ‘moderate’, ‘heavy’) of hypothetico-deductive reasoning. Collaborative reasoning occurred consistently at the commencement and conclusion of each consultation. CONCLUSIONS:The clinical reasoning strategies employed by osteopaths in this study were pattern recognition, hypothetico-deductive reasoning and collaborative reasoning. Each strategy was characterised by a theme which described its meaning.

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  • Hybrid infill : the search for an affordable housing solution

    Taylor, Maria (2014)

    Thesis
    Unitec

    The provision of quality, affordable housing is vital for our communities and country. The current housing shortage, and lack of quality, affordable housing in Auckland provides the foundation for the relevant and significant inquiry. The intensification of land within the city boundaries through infill development, the implementation of prefabricated construction methods for improved construction efficiency and productivity, and the exploration of smaller, more efficiently designed dwellings; are three ways identified and examined as methods to increase the supply of quality, affordable housing. The review and analysis of literature and precedent outlined the many benefits of prefabrication in the provision of quality, affordable housing, and it’s greatest defeat in the limitations that are typically addressed through site-specific design. Recent literature has identified the hybrid, panel + module typology of prefabrication, largely unexplored in New Zealand, to have the greatest potential to incorporate responsive, site- specific design, for better architectural outcome, with the efficiencies that prefabrication has been proven to provide. The development of the hybrid system for application to a unique infill, social housing programme, with diverse and wide-ranging site conditions, provides the constraints and requirements of the inquiry. The design process documented provides a model to the methods and considerations required in the development of a hybrid prefabricated system for quality, site specific, affordable, infill housing in Auckland.

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  • Identifying the existence of the glass ceiling and examining the impact on the participation of female executives in the Vietnamese banking sector

    Tran, Thi Thu Thao (2014)

    Thesis
    Unitec

    Glass ceiling refers to both visible and invisible barriers that stop women from advancing to the top positions. As the glass ceiling exists in most contexts, should it be assumed that the low participation of female executives in the boardrooms in the Vietnamese banking sector is the effect of glass ceiling? Are female executives fully aware of the multiple layers of the glass ceiling in their organizations? Do they choose to confront it, or are they happy with the current situations? Therefore, an empirical research in the context of Vietnam is needed to provide more empirical findings to the literature. In addition, research should be conducted from various perspectives to have a more comprehensive understanding of the degree of the glass ceiling and its effect on leadership effectiveness and organizational performance. The literature review in the research puts the focus on the glass ceiling and its multiple layers, the differences in the leadership styles between male and female managers/leaders and the relationship between gender and leadership effectiveness/organizational performance. Both qualitative and quantitative methods were employed to conduct the research. The self administered questionnaires were responded by sixty eight participants, who came from three of the largest banks in Vietnam. The interviews were carried out subsequently with the participation of ten interviewees in supervisory and middle managerial positions. The results of the data analysis revealed that the glass ceiling effect did exist in the Vietnamese banking sector. The obstacles originated from various sources including social stereotypes, corporate practices, family-work conflict and women themselves. The findings also supported the differences in the leadership styles between male and female managers/leaders and showed greater preference for male executives in the Vietnamese banking sector. However, following the study’s results, there were benefits of removing the glass ceiling to organizational success. Finally, it was recommended that both banks and women themselves should take action in enhancing women’s career development. More research is needed concerning the relationship between glass ceiling and organizational culture or differences between higher and lower level of leaders/managers in leadership/management styles and their effectiveness. These variables are important to provide a more thorough understanding about the glass ceiling issue and its effects.

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  • The efficacy of a ‘novel mobilisation technique’ on thoracic, lumbar, hip and knee range of motion

    Woolley, Sarah (2014)

    Thesis
    Unitec

    INTRODUCTION TO THESIS Low back pain (LBP) is one of the most common complaints addressed by manual therapists (Slater, Davies, Parsons, Quitner, & Schug, 2012), and there is an extensive literature regarding aetiology, classification, methods of diagnosis and effective treatments for LBP. Low back pain has a substantial financial cost to the healthcare system and employers due to decreased productivity and lost days from work (Wynne-Jones et al., 2014). A wide range of different forms of manual and manipulative therapy have been investigated for the treatment of LBP (Hidalgo, Detrembleur, Hall, Mahaudens, & Nielens, 2014; Tsertsvadze et al., 2014) One form of therapy popular amongst manual therapy practitioners is the ‘Mulligan concept’ (Hing, Bigelow, & Bremner, 2008).BACKGROUND: Low back pain is a common problem affecting most people at some stage in their lives. Manual therapy is commonly used as a form of treatment in the presence of lower back pain. ABSTRACT AIM:The aim of the study was to investigate the concepts of regional interdependence with Mulligan’s mobilisation with movement and the effect of a novel mobilisation technique (Mulligan’s traction SLR combined with a post-isometric relaxation). STUDY DESIGN The present study was a controlled pre-post experimental research design. METHOD: Twelve, healthy and physically active male participants (mean age 28.1 ± 3.5 years), with perceived ‘tight hamstrings’ were recruited for the study. Participants were randomised to receive the novel mobilisation technique to the left (n=6) or right (n=6) leg, using the contralateral limb as the control. Outcome measures included; SLR, KE, modified Schober’s (Tsp, Lsp) and sit and reach tests, which were taken before, immediately and 1 hour post intervention. RESULTS The main statistically significant and clinically meaningful result included immediate changes in the modified Schober’s Tsp (mean difference = -0.40 ± SD 0.48, 95% CI -0.70 to -0.10, t = -2.9, p = 0.014, d = 0.435) and changes in the sit and reach test immediately post (mean difference = -2.20cm ± 1.56, 95% CI -3.30 to -1.20cm, t = -4.869, p<0.001, d= 0.325, “small”) and at 1-hour post (mean difference = -2.62 ± 2.89, 95% CI -4.5 to -0.78cm, t = -3.1, p = 0.009, d = 0.39 “small”) . There were no significant changes in the SLR, KE active or passive and modified Schober’s Lsp tests, immediately or 1-hour post intervention. CONCLUSION The novel mobilisation technique applied to the hip demonstrated statistically significant changes in the modified Schober’s Tsp and sit and reach tests. The main limitations to the present study included a potential ‘ceiling’ effect with the baseline SLR values, short technique duration (‘time under tension’) and no warm up.

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  • What lies within? : an exploration of Asset Based Community Development (ABCD)

    Winther, Tracy (2015)

    Thesis
    Unitec

    Asset Based Community Development (ABCD) has in recent times been gaining visibility in community development practice. Practice is asset based, internally focused and relationship driven. Dimensions of community development are explored including the specific values, principles and processes that characterise ABCD as an approach, a strategy and a methodology. Critical success factors and principles of effective community development practice. These findings are consolidated in a framework of praxis indicators which is used to specifically examine ABCD practice application in current community development practice. Three community projects are explored using an integrated methodology which explores practice through questioning of key informants and examination of relevant project artefacts. Through this approach it was possible to demonstrate how ABCD is mobilised in practical application demonstrating the positive impact on community led participation and enhanced local social capital within localised community. Particular strengths of ABCD practice can be seen in the identification and mobilisation of local community resources through bonding, bridging and linking across sector networks which through its processes enhances social capital within defined local neighbourhoods. The impacts of practice are explored through the application of a community capitals framework which additionally highlights mobilisation of natural, built, human, cultural, financial and political capital. Specific enablers identified include the necessity for a catalyst to both ignite and sustain community led ABCD initiatives and consideration of scale in its effectiveness. Potentially ABCD practice could be further enhanced through intentional application of a community capitals framework and social network analysis and further research into its intentional application in these ways would be beneficial. ABCD is shown to be a particularly powerful approach, strategy and methodology in its application to activating the local physical environment such as local food security initiatives and also as a mechanism to enable the localised sharing of knowledge and resources within a defined geographic neighbourhoods. Innovative financial models were developed including community resource banks, time banks and diverse alternative economy potential. Project location: Lyttelton, Banks Peninsula, Christchurch. Project Lyttelton - the soul of a sustainable community.

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  • Fluctuation space : how might a mega-event venue be programmed more intensively for long-term viability and social sustainability?

    Wyatt, Matthew (2014)

    Thesis
    Unitec

    With the growth in complexity of global sporting events, the priority driving the design of dwelling places for such festivals is shifting from an aesthetic focus driven by programmatics to a legacy focus driven by pragmatics. Designing for legacy concerns place marking, where the history of an event is retained, as well as place making where the future usage of an event structure provides a positive outcome for the host region, towards all matters of context. The project investigates an alternative strategy for dealing with the master planning of major event venue layouts, and the possibilities of its transition into proactive future usage. The design process is used to demonstrate the interactions between minor buildings and large complexes where both individuality and unity are equally important.

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  • Water wharf : rediscovering the natural processes that support urban life

    Geary, Whitney (2012)

    Thesis
    Unitec

    There is an urgency to find intelligent solutions for supplanting and diversifying water treatment to stop polluted water reaching our oceans. In New Zealand, soil run-off is the largest threat to our marine ecosystem and urban landscapes contribute litter, sediment, harmful chemicals, heavy metals and nutrients to the mix. Auckland City has very little infrastructure in place to treat its urban run-off, thus it was suggested as a pilot location for this project. This project envisions an environmentally friendly and aesthetically compelling urban run-off treatment facility that will enhance the development of urban communities. A proportion of the city’s stormwater pipes are intercepted and redirected to a treatment facility in the Viaduct Harbour; a location chosen for its conspicuity, its predisposition for receiving gravitational water flow, and for its established pedestrian accessibility. The process of water purification acts as a connective tissue through an environment that provokes a renewed relationship to water. As the water reaches its final stages of treatment, it becomes an interactive element in the form of fresh water streams, remediation wetlands, recreational estuarine pools and habitats for marine life. The water treatment facility supplies clean water to a freshwater habitat, with the aim of recovering whitebait populations; as well as returning purified water to the harbour. The mechanistic infrastructure of waterworks is transformed into an interactive and sensory series of purification strategies. Combined with platforms, piers, water tanks, restaurants, recreational pools and channels; water-based landscapes become organisational moments for community awareness. The proposed site is the area of Auckland City’s Viaduct Harbour intended for the extension of Halsey Wharf. It lies between the original Freemans Bay and Commercial Bay.

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  • The immediate effects of dry needling levator scapulae on neck rotation range of motion

    Tan, YewJin (2013)

    Thesis
    Unitec

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the immediate effect of dry needling levator scapulae on neck rotation. DESIGN: Within subject pre-post intervention design. PARTICIPANTS: 31 participants (n=19 males; n=12 females; mean age 31.7 ± 9.96 y) recruited from a general population completed the study. METHODS: Participants received a single session of dry needling to levator scapulae on one side only. Prior to needling, each participant reported current pain intensity on a visual analogue scale. Pre-test and post-test measurements of neck range of motion in rotation were taken using an electrogoniometer to both left and right sides independently. A laser pointer was used to relocate neck rotation back to a participant defined neutral. Dry needling involved insertion of a single acupuncture needle into a taut band in levator scapulae and manipulated until no muscle twitch response was able to be further elicited and there was a palpable difference in levator scapulae with respect to the taut band. RESULTS Neck rotation relative to the side needled revealed a mean difference on the ipsilateral side of 2.71o (95% CI = 1.12o to 4.29o; t = -3.49; df = 30; p= 0.002) and no significant change in mean difference to the contralateral side of 0.99o (95% CI = 0.29 to 2.27o; t = -1.58; df = 30; p= 0.13). No significant difference was found after subcategorising by pain or dysfunction. CONCLUSION: Dry needling of levator scapulae improves neck rotation to the same side as needling, however the clinical relevance of this increase is unclear. An approach to analysis that involves categorisation of participants by dysfunction and pain status may be useful in determining responsiveness to dry needling for functional changes, however, this requires further investigation.

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  • The move to modern learning environments in New Zealand secondary schools : step forward or smokescreen?

    Bisset, Jo-Anne (2014)

    Thesis
    Unitec

    To prepare 21st century learners for what has become known as the ‘knowledge age’ the New Zealand government is recognising the need to provide the flexibility of modern learning environments (MLEs), rather than investing in older school buildings (Ministry of Education, 2014b). In conjunction with the tangible elements of buildings, furniture and technology, there is also a major shift in educational practices and pedagogy integral to MLEs (Ministry of Education, 2007). Despite this major change to New Zealand schools, there is a paucity of literature into the perceived benefits, or otherwise, of the introduction of MLEs to secondary schools in the New Zealand context. This study examines the shift towards MLEs in three secondary schools and the changes in pedagogy that are occurring as a result of this change. A qualitative methodology was employed for this research, focusing on three New Zealand secondary schools, all MLEs. Across the three research sites, semi-structured interviews were undertaken with seven senior leaders and focus group discussions were carried out with three focus groups. The major findings from this study indicate that a MLE is primarily concerned with intangible changes, enabled by the tangible shift to new, open, spacious buildings with on-going access to technology. The tangible changes alone do not define a MLE. The effectiveness of the MLE is largely determined by the ability of the staff and community to support and enact the intangible, pedagogical changes that are needed to establish their vision. This research emphasises the monumental change that is occurring in education and highlights the need for further research pertaining to New Zealand secondary school contexts. It also reveals the need for professional development of school leaders and staff so that they can manage, understand and implement such a significant change in their school communities.

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  • Professional development provision for primary teaching assistants : the case of one international school in Laos

    Phommahack, Satitphone (2014)

    Thesis
    Unitec

    There are a growing number of professional development provisions in many educational institutions. This is because professional development is regarded as the key learning opportunity to enhance work performance for teams, individuals and organisations. However, problems arise when professional development may not be adequately provided, despite the awareness of educational institutions and senior leaders about its importance and the benefits it brings. Leaders play a vital role in ensuring that professional development is appropriately provided to meet the needs of everyone in the organisation. Senior leaders have also become a significant force in the professional learning context as their expertise and knowledge are widely utilised as the key elements to build an ongoing development climate and learning community. This research study examines the professional development provision for primary teaching assistants at one international school in Laos. The role of teaching assistants is becoming increasingly important and more complex because today’s classroom is functioning in a more demanding environment than in the past. Teaching assistants, therefore, are the key people who play pastoral and pedagogical roles to assist many stakeholders in achieving teaching and learning outcomes. However, the literature and the study on professional development for teaching assistants are less recognised and targeted. Although teaching assistants are asked to perform multiple roles, there is a lack of clarity around their professional development. This research takes the form of a qualitative case study that employs three research instruments: semi-structured interviews, a focus group interview and an open-ended questionnaire. ... The study shows that there is a need for an investment in professional development provision for teaching assistants if senior leaders want to promote the quality of teaching assistants in teaching and learning.

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  • A museum of New Zealand architecture

    Sayers, Sebastian (2014)

    Thesis
    Unitec

    “A Museum of New Zealand Architecture” explores the possibility of creating a museum that exhibits various examples of New Zealand architecture. New Zealand architecture needs more exposure in the public domain for its significance to be appreciated. Historical architecture in New Zealand is being lost as more and more buildings are being demolished regardless of their importance. Architecture is forever changing and developing new methodologies and is becoming more environmentally aware. It can represent a comparison between past and present examples of the art and some of the countries most interesting buildings demonstrate many different generations of architectural style which affects and enhances the sensual experiences and thus the primary living conditions of the inhabitants. By exploring existing New Zealand architecture, its history and development, an attempt is made to incorporate some of these findings in this project. Sufficient space needs to be created in the form of galleries with suitable viewing ramps and platforms in order that larger exhibits maybe viewed from appropriate angles. Project site: Symonds Street and Khyber Pass intersection.

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  • Perception in the rural designing within the rural New Zealand landscape

    Borsos, Chanelle J. (2010)

    Thesis
    Unitec

    This project explores how perception can be used to facilitate design within the rural landscape of New Zealand. From the earliest days of European settlement, the environmental history of New Zealand's rural landscapes has been a record of confrontation of image and reality. Historically ideas on Landscape have been painted, and through this, societies form landscape taste and values. When European settlers came to New Zealand they used these perceptions when forming their landscapes and this explains how they transformed from wild wilderness to what we see today. The current theory on landscape perception is that it is necessary to gain a better understanding of people's values and landscape tastes when designing in these landscapes . It is not simply a matter of imposing any design on these communities as they will not be embraced. This is the key to sustaining new landscape ideas as scenic perception of landscape is divorced from an understanding of ecological processes. This project reveals that If landscape architects understand what underpins aesthetic preferences in terms of perception and respond with a creative articulation of environmentally sustainable landscape designs, in a way which allows people to maintain a connection with it, the land­ scape will be more resilient. For landscape architecture , it represents a challenge to the popular preferences for the ornamental , groomed and controlled landscapes which reflected the legacy of designers such as Capability Brown and Frederick Law Olmsted. Project site: South Head Kaipara, north of Helensville.

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  • Communication between the New Zealand Qualifications Authority and secondary schools – effective or not?

    Govender, Kamaseelan (2015)

    Thesis
    Unitec

    The introduction of the National Certificate of Educational Achievement required the positions of School Relationship Manager to be created by the New Zealand Qualifications Authority and Principal’s Nominee to be nominated by secondary schools. These designated personnel are responsible for communication between the New Zealand Qualifications Authority and secondary schools. There is an assumption that there is effective communication between people in these roles. This thesis attempts to investigate the validity of this assumption. The aim of this research was to identify, from the perspective of School Relationship Managers, Principal’s Nominees and Heads of Department, the factors that contribute to effective communication between the New Zealand Qualifications Authority and secondary schools. This qualitative research involved a focus group interview with five School Relationship Managers, one- to-one interviews with three Principal’s Nominees from three schools and three focus group interviews with a total of nine Heads of Department from three schools. The findings highlighted that regular face-to-face communication, honesty, trust and collaboration are key ingredients for effective communication. The conclusion drawn from this study is that a symbiotic association exits between relationships and effective communication because they sustain and feed off each other. Appropriate modes of communication are necessary and straightforward language is important. The main recommendation to the New Zealand Qualifications Authority and secondary schools is to continue to create new relationships and nurture existing ones so that effective communication is perpetuated. Another recommendation is to use appropriate methods and clear language to communicate so that the emphasis of the message is conveyed correctly and without ambiguity.

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  • Everyday liminality

    Blinkhorne, Amy (2014)

    Thesis
    Unitec

    This painting project commenced through the activity of re-examining my previous practice, which prompted the desire to focus on the activity of painting through the plasticity of oil paint. The intention to focus on material was also a way of developing a broader visual language in order to investigate the spatial dynamic within a painting practice. The interest in alternative visual perceptions and Renaissance perspective sparked this projects’ research question; How to create a sense of liminal space through investigating the western notions of perspective. Western one-point perspective is a representation of the common binocular vision, seen from a single view point to depict scenes as though seen through two eyes. Alongside studying the visual language used to employ perspective, this project touches on the main Western points of view through the enlightenment of rationalism that influenced the time. The intention to understand the systems of traditional Western perspective to invert these strategies established the foundations of this painting practice to create a sense of liminal space. An interest in altered perception was sparked by a review about Oliver Sacks book, The Minds Eye, featured in CMAJ, Feburary 21, 2012. It contains examples and case studies looking at the idea of seeing, of patients who experience a diverse range of perceptual conditions. I was particularly interested in exploring different ways of seeing, from the point of view that vision is crucial to my everyday experience and engagement. These case studies written by neurologist and author, Oliver Sacks were used to guide visualisations of various spatial perceptions. In What Hallucination Reveals about our Mind Sacks specifically focuses on Charles Bonnet Syndrome, which generates a form of hallucination that mimics perception due to the sudden hyper stimulation of the brain after the absence of visual or auditory signals. Bonnet referred to it being, “…the theatre of the mind generated by the machinery of the brain.” The differentiation between hallucination and imagination is that imagination is under voluntary control; hallucination is not. ... The concepts of Liminality and Limbo were initially seen as one and the same, an in-between space. While they are both in-between spaces, Limbo is a state of suspension, a waiting place that can’t shift until a decision is made from the outside. It is described by Roman Catholic Theology as a no-man’s land, between heaven and hell where unbaptised infants are suspended between states of belonging. A Liminal space questions the construct of plural or multiple states until it becomes a construct itself by which another liminal space is created, it is therefore a constant state of becoming. Through this clarification liminality was seen as a more interesting field of investigation to build a conceptual framework for this project, interlinking with a visual language that inverts the traditional western systems of perspective.

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  • A meta-analysis of the prevalence of lower limb asymptomatic bone stress injuries in athletes and military personnel

    Mills, Rebecca (2014)

    Thesis
    Unitec

    Bone stress injuries (BSI) appear to be widely accepted throughout the medical and sports world, although the importance of asymptomatic injuries remain unclear and their clinical relevance questionable. OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence of asymptomatic BSI in the lower limb using a systematic review of the published literature, secondly to identify any differences between athletic and military populations in the prevalence of lower limb asymptomatic BSI and finally to highlight the locations in the lower limb with the highest prevalence. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: An electronic database search was conducted using two databases: PubMed and Medline. Two observers independently systematically reviewed these data, assessing the studies against pre-determined criteria. The number of subjects BSI, location and imaging modalities were subsequently extracted from the selected studies. A mixed model analysis with random effect was used to calculate prevalence rates, confidence intervals and p values. RESULTS: The overall prevalence rate of asymptomatic BSI was 27/100 from all studies (military, athletes and civilian). Athletes had a significantly higher prevalence of asymptomatic BSI 75/100 than military personnel 28/100 (p= 0.0065), although the overall rates of BSI were not significantly different between these populations. The tibia was the most prevalent site for both symptomatic and asymptomatic BSI with 9.3 and 7.7 per 100 patients respectively and there was a significant difference between symptomatic (0.3/100) and asymptomatic (28/100) BSI in the tarsal bones (p=0.049) and in the fibula, 2.4/100 symptomatic and 6.8/100 asymptomatic (p=0.024). CONCLUSION: Although a number of studies identified the existence of asymptomatic BSI, most failed to provide adequate follow-up in order for their clinical significance to be properly assessed and thus it is difficult to postulate the clinical significance of the 27/100 prevalence rate given a lack of empirical evidence. The higher prevalence of asymptomatic BSI in athletes is probably multifactorial with training history, motivation, fitness levels and sampling bias all possibly explaining some or all of this higher rate.

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  • What are the effects of sitting versus standing on perceptual reasoning performance throughout a simulated working day?

    Leahy, Nicholas James (2016)

    Thesis
    Unitec

    Background Sedentary behaviour has been linked to deleterious health effects. While improved health markers after standing in comparison to sitting conditions have been reported by other studies, the current evidence regarding the effect of these conditions on cognitive performance is incomplete. No studies thus far have attempted to compare the difference between sitting and standing in regards to Perceptual Reasoning performance. Objective To determine the effects of sitting and standing on Perceptual Reasoning performance throughout a simulated working day. Methods A repeated-measures cross-over design was used, with 30 healthy participants between 18 and 50 years who were age and sex matched. Participants were assigned to either standing or sitting conditions while performing a cognitive test battery three times during a 7.5 hour testing day that included three tasks of Perceptual Reasoning (Block Design, Figure Weights and Matrix Reasoning). The two testing days were split into Morning, Midday, and Afternoon testing sessions and were counterbalanced across seated and standing conditions, separated by at least a seven day washout period. Results There were no significant main effects found between sitting and standing conditions in any of the Perceptual Reasoning tasks. Performance across the day, however, did improve significantly in the speed of Block Design performance and the accuracy of the Figure Weights tasks. Performance across the day for the Matrix Reasoning task, however, was variable. In addition, the participants’ perception of their own fatigue increased significantly over each session as the day proceeded. Conclusion This study found no difference in participants’ Perceptual Reasoning performance between sitting and standing, and mixed results in terms of performance across the day (7.5 hours of testing), although fatigue increased as the day proceeded. The results support the use of standing desks in the workplace given no detriment to performance whilst standing was found. Further research into the effects of sit-stand interventions on Perceptual Reasoning, and cognitive performance in general, over longer periods of time are recommended

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  • Solitude in the city : the open cloister

    Gruber, K. (2015)

    Thesis
    Unitec

    This project develops a design for a Trappist monastery to be built within the Auckland central business district (C.B.D) area. This is an investigation into the opportunity of learning from various architectural cultures. Specifically, this project begins to investigate the selected monastic communities and the architectural principles related to them. These relevant principles are obtained and applied to a city context in New Zealand. The Trappist monastic order was selected due to the spiritual requirements and how it follows parallel to the peaceful space required for this project. The monastic typology acts as a precedent in which the architectural principles have the chance to be expended within a typology with which New Zealand is unfamiliar. This project involves the design of a Trappist monastery based upon traditional functions and requirements. The monastic ideal of solitude is used in the design of this project along with the practical approach of a brewery. This is to fulfil the financial requirements of running the monastery along with the integration of the monks and the surrounding community. This function follow past requirements of Trappist monastic orders to help create a revenue stream to function. Auckland City was selected due to the current lack of integration of spiritual and public spaces; this project presents a way to change this. The buildings pliability was be looked at to ensure a result that is suited to the particular factors of Auckland City. The development of design investigation uses various methods to create a cumulative synthesis of research by, for and into the design - providing an architectural resonance with all the required encompassing ideas. This explanatory document describes the formal and theoretical processes taken in response to the research question. There are two main paths of questioning that will be followed in this research. Firstly, what exactly are the architectural characteristics of the monastery, does this architecture relate to the nature of the space within, and if so, how? Secondly, does the relationship between religion and spirituality become evident in the spaces of the urban monastery, and give clues as to ways of designing these spaces? Site: 20 Drake Street (on the corner of Drake and Centre Streets) in the Victoria Quarter Precinct in Auckland’s CBD.

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  • A longitudinal hermeneutic enquiry into the lived experiences of the wider family of a stroke survivor, at two years post stroke

    Daniels, Raymond (2016)

    Thesis
    Unitec

    AIM: To explore the lived-experience of two family members of a stroke survivor. BACKGROUND: The diverse consequences of a stroke upon the stroke survivor have been established in literature. The effect on the wider family members however has had limited investigation, especially over the two year period post-stroke. The widespread consequences of a stroke are important because they may negatively affect both the caregiver and the wider family. This study explores the lived-experience of two family members of a stroke survivor, over the first two years post-stroke. DESIGN: A qualitative exploratory study using hermeneutic phenomenology. METHODS: Purposive sampling recruited a family with two participants. Data were collected at six weeks, 12 months, 18 months and 2 years post-stroke through face-to-face, open interviews. RESULTS: The lived experience of both participants varied considerably in regards to the effect of the stroke and day to day life. A theme of ‘Hostage to Duty’ was strongly identified with the wife of the stroke survivor, whereas the theme 'Back on Track’ was identified with the daughter. CONCLUSIONS: The lived experience of the family of a stroke survivor is unique for each individual and varies considerably. The findings of this study highlight the difference in each participant’s experience over the two year period, from stroke onset. The spouse of the stroke survivor experienced significant caregiver burden over the two year period. The impact on the daughter however, was considerably less burdensome.

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  • Measuring brand personality in charitable giving in a Laos context

    Vanphavong, Manilay (2014)

    Thesis
    Unitec

    Non-Profit Organisations (NPOs) are often perceived in an abstract manner because the organisations provide intangible products and social ideals. As a result of this abstract perception, a sense of trust, especially with regard to organisational transparency, is very important for organisations in this sector. In response, some NPOs have implemented branding strategies similar to those of larger, for-profit companies. Branding strategy is employed to reduce donors‟ perception of risk associated with their respective organisations. As individual donors generally do not investigate whether the organisation uses donated money effectively, developing a brand that exhibits commitment to deliver high quality goods and services, thus instilling trust in the target donors, is essential for NPOs to increase the perception of organisational transparency. In addition, brand personality strategy techniques are adapted from the commercial to the non-profit sector in order to identify the unique characteristics of their brands or brand personality that match with their target market. Ensuring this cohesion between brand personality and the characteristics desired by their target market(s) is integral for NPOs to garner increased revenue from potential donors. Brand personality strategy for NPOs remains in the developmental stages. To date, only Venable et al. (2005) conducted empirical research on brand personality models in the non-profit sector. In that research, it was found that there are some key similarities and differences between brand personality in the nonprofit and for profit sectors. The models of brand personality that have been studied in German, Spanish, French and Japanese contexts show that cultural differences affect the construct of brand personality models. Thus, the purpose of this study is to collect empirical data, in order to identify and develop NPO brand personality scales in the context of Laos. A mixed method was applied in this study. The primary purpose of this mixed methodology was to develop and identify potential measurement variables to be used in a quantitative questionnaire and to test hypotheses in relation to reliability and validity in the context of Laos. Therefore, this approach does not limit this research in the scope of nonprofit brand personality measurement scales that were developed in a different cultural and socioeconomic context. This began with semi-structured interviews that were conducted with eight participants from the Association for Autism in Laos, which is a NPO operating in Laos. Then, after adapting the results from the semi-structured interviews to questionnaires, the questionnaires were distributed and conducted with 116 donors in Vientiane Capital. The sample size for the initial questionnaire data collection stage was adequate to proceed to the next stage of the research and analyse the data using quantitative methods. The data analysis for this study was divided into three main stages. First, coding and filtering was employed to analyse data that was collected from the interviews. Second, frequencies data analysis techniques helped to study donor behavior. Finally, Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) and Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) were the significant techniques to develop nonprofit brand personality scales in the Laos context and test the research hypotheses. The results of the data analysis revealed three dimensions and eight facets of nonprofit brand personality unique to Laos. The researcher believes that this study will contribute theoretical information and subsequently allow for the development of practical implementation of this research for non-profit brands in Laos, as well as serve as a guide for similar research conducted in other country contexts.

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