545 results for Thesis, Postgraduate Certificate

  • My White Infinity: Constructions of post-heroic Antarctica in a selection of first-hand narratives by women.

    Glenny, Alison (2017)

    Postgraduate Certificate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The 'Heroic Era' of Antarctic exploration is usually situated in the first quarter of the 20th century, or from around 1895 until the First World War. During this period the economic focus of exploration shifted to one of 'geographic and scientific discovery'�, typically by 'national land based exploring expeditions'� (Ferguson 1995: 5). For women, however, it could be argued that their 'Heroic Era' did not begin until the end of the 1940s, and continued into the 1970s. This is the era of female 'firsts': the first women to work in Antartica, to visit the South Pole, to traverse the continent on foot, and to travel as tourists. Unlike the first 'Heroic Era', this one is characterised less by the physical challenges posed by the natural environment than by the man-made barriers of masculine and institutional resistance to women's presence. Beginning with Jennie Darlington's 1957 account of her year on the Antarctic Peninsula with the Ronne Antarctic Research Expedition, and ending with the 2015 The Antarctic Book of Cooking and Cleaning, this review discusses the ways in which the selected narratives both unmake and remake the legacy of the Heroic Era as they represent Antarctica's changing human landscape, and the authors' presence within it.

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  • The effectiveness of the Environmental Impact Assessment process in Antarctica

    Robinson, Emily (2016)

    Postgraduate Certificate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Environmental Impact Assessment in Antarctica is outlined within the Madrid Protocol of 1991 and stipulates that all activities which are conducted South of 60 degrees must undergo an Environmental Impact Assessment before proceeding. This report will deal with the effectiveness of the EIA processes which are in place under the Madrid Protocol and the issues which are outstanding within the processes that take place.

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  • Effectiveness of accreditation as a tool for the regulation of mainstream Antarctic tourism

    Dolder, Chris (2005)

    Postgraduate Certificate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Minimisation of cumulative impact resulting from tourism activities in Antarctica is a key issue and currently subject of debate. This paper assesses the strategic and mechanistic components of various accreditation scenarios to determine the effectiveness of accreditation as a tool for the regulation of mainstream Antarctic tourism. Perspectives of stakeholders from government, National Antarctic Programmes, non-governmental organisations, and tour operators are presented in balanced discussion. This study concludes that the most effective scenario describes the implementation of a voluntary accreditation scheme, strongly endorsed by the Antarctic Treaty Consultative Meeting (ATCM) and managed by IAATO.

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  • Antarctic poetry: theme, criticism and analysis

    Sima, Ellen (2016)

    Postgraduate Certificate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    For over two hundred years, Antarctica and the Southern Ocean have been a source of inspiration for poets, and today the number of pieces in the Antarctic poetry canon numbers in hundreds. Yet despite the significance of this group of texts, there is a dearth of critical literature focusing specifically on Antarctic poetry. This review will analyse criticism from a range of Antarctic literary fields, namely narrative fiction, non-fiction, and poetry, by a number of authors, collating perspectives and opinions on canonical themes and motifs. These will explore notions of Antarctica as: a wide, white expanse and blank slate for writers to attempt their mark; a transformational landscape, one that fundamentaly changes the people who visit it; a place of stark contrasts; a space where heroic era history acts as both narrative and metaphor; and a contemporary, lived environment, where the natural environment and daily goingson provide inspiration. Using these thematic categories as a framework, a selection of poems by Chris Orsman, Bill Manhire, Bernadette Hall and Owen Marshall will be analysed, and recommendations made for future research in Antarctic poetry.

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  • 10 Year Analysis of Environmental Footprint Photo Monitoring at Scott Base, Antarctica

    Jackson, Nicola (2005)

    Postgraduate Certificate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Since 1994 Antarctica New Zealand has conducted fixed point photo monitoring at Scott Base as a part of their overall monitoring programme. This has been carried out in an attempt to monitor anthropogenic change within the environment and specifically to help determine whether the footprint of activities at Scott Base has been changing. This study is an analysis of these monitoring photos, which has shown that in general the footprint has not changed since 1994. It has been shown that characteristics and the intensity of the footprint have altered with time, such as through the development of new buildings and a general tidying up of the base. The study has also highlighted some of the limits of current photo monitoring, which have meant that in some cases less than 1,4 of a photo has been used in the analysis due to photographers using different photographing techniques.

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  • Tropospheric ozone depletion events and air mass origin at Arrival Heights (Antarctica)

    Riedel, Katja (2005)

    Postgraduate Certificate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Surface ozone (03) measurements made between 1997 and 2003 at Arrival Heights, Antarctica (77.8°S, 166.7°E), show sudden decreases in 0 3 mixing ratios during Antarctic springtime. These low 0 3 events are often correlated with elevated concentrations of bromine oxide (BrO). The air mass origin during these 0 3 depletion events was investigated by calculating 5-day back trajectories. Trajectory analysis revealed that air masses had either contact with sea-ice, which was correlated with enhanced BrO columns, or were transported across the Antarctic continent, which led to 0 3 depletion events without elevated BrO concentrations. In 1997-1998 less frequent high BrO events were observed at Arrival Heights probably due to increased sea ice coverage in the Ross Sea during these El Nino years.

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  • Antarctic Lithodids (King Crabs): Climate Change and Threats to Antarctic Marine Ecosystems

    Innes, Rachel (2016)

    Postgraduate Certificate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Anthropogenic climate change resulting in warming of global oceanic temperatures will likely allow the entry of previously temperature-limited taxa onto the Antarctic shelf. Indigenous Antarctic shelf benthos have evolved in isolation for millennia with the absence of durophagous (shell crushing) predators a significant factor in their 'archaic' Paleozoic character. The potential consequences of an invasion by lithodids could have a devastating effect on the Antarctic shelf benthos, homogenising the ecosystem, contributing to the diminished global diversity of marine ecosystems. 14 species of invasive crab have already been recorded in Antarctic waters in previously unknown locations. Polar regions are considered particularly vulnerable in a changing climate and at risk from potential invasive species.

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  • The Evolution Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV), Emerging Policy Challenges and Future UAV Use in Antarctica

    Turner, Jeff (2016)

    Postgraduate Certificate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Abstract: In 2015, the availability and use of UAV's around the world has increased sharply, along with their capabilities and range. This reviews their evolution, users and uses, specific Antarctic considerations and the emerging policy and guidelines regarding their future use in Antarctica.

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  • The Branding of Antarctica

    Wilson, Brent (2005)

    Postgraduate Certificate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    This report examines Antarctica New Zealand's attempt to raise public awareness of Antarctica. It focuses on marketing Antarctica as a brand- Brand-Antarctica. It found that Brand-Antarctica currently has a poor image and needs to be rebranded. Background literature on country-of-origin theory has been applied to the new brand theory of Lovemarks. From this application, a marketing framework has been developed on which any Brand-Antarctica marketing campaign can be based.

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  • Causal Factors of Peace in the Antarctic

    Lord, Tom (2017)

    Postgraduate Certificate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The prevalence of peace in the Antarctic is a significantly under-researched field. It is often either dismissed as being due to the isolation of the continent in the international system, or simply hailed as a success of the Antarctic Treaty System. This critical review draws on Felix Martin's assertions that interstate relations alone do not account for peace in conflict-prone regions, and therefore other causal factors have to be considered. It critically examines three perspectives on causal factors for peace in the Antarctic, including states adhering to unwritten rules within the Antarctic Treaty System, structural factors of the Treaty System, and the common goals of environmental protection. It ultimately views these causal factors through the lens of Johan Galtung's conceptions of positive and negative peace, suggesting that the peace experienced by the Antarctic can be considered negative. More work must be done on building mechanisms that promote a robust and stable positive peace to ensure the continent remains free from violence in the coming years.

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  • What do the results from the IceCube Neutrino Detector teach us about Dark Matter?

    Grayson, Stuart (2017)

    Postgraduate Certificate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Cosmological measurements have revealed that matter familiar to us makes up only approximately 5% of the energy density of our universe. The remainder has been labelled Dark Matter (about 26%) and Dark Energy (the rest). This paper summarises how the IceCube Neutrino Observatory situated at the South Pole is being used to search for direct evidence of Dark Matter. Supersymmetry (SUSY) models are regarded as the most promising extensions of the Standard Model, and the paper describes the tests of SUSY predictions for the annihilation of Dark Matter in the core of the sun. The lack of an observable signal is used to constrain the set of values for free parameters within the SUSY model. IceCube's results complement those from other experiments which use different detectors for Dark Matter interactions, and together are placing meaningful constraints upon the most promising SUSY models.

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  • Approaches to Wilderness and Aesthetic Values in a Domestic and International Context

    Strachan, Kathryn (2016)

    Postgraduate Certificate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Within the Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty 1991 ('the Madrid Protocol'�) there are a number of key terms which are not adequately defined. This deliberate 'constructive ambiguity'� is useful in the process of reaching agreement between states with diverse cultural and political values but less helpful when it comes to implementing its terms. Within the context of the Madrid Protocol, two such undefined terms are 'wilderness'� and 'aesthetic values'� which must be taken into account and protected from adverse impacts. Across the different treaty party states there are differing levels of engagement with the matter of both 'wilderness'� and 'aesthetic values'� both domestically and in an Antarctic context. Looking at New Zealand, the United States of America and China's approaches to 'wilderness'� shows three different levels of interaction with the concept domestically and three different interpretations of the term within an Antarctic context. The same can be seen in other state's approaches, though it is beyond the scope of this paper to address this. In terms of 'aesthetic values'�, different methodologies for quantifying the visual worth of a landscape are employed by different states but with an emerging theme of public consultation. Both terms have not yet been actively engaged with on a wide scale within the Antarctic Treaty System, but certain themes can be ascertained across the approaches of the various states.

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  • Review of the 1991 Madrid Protocol

    Sullivan, Nita (2017)

    Postgraduate Certificate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    In an environment as fragile and influential as Antarctica, protection and preservation guidelines form an important part of human interaction and governance. As the Antarctic Treaty system developed over the 20th Century, environmental issues moved to the forefront of the international discussion. Signed in 1991 and ratified in 1998, the Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty was viewed as a ground-breaking legal document, with the capability of enhancing the protection of the Antarctic environment through a comprehensive ecosystem approach. Today, the Protocol is met with significant criticism around issues of implementation, human impacts, and its ability to meet new and distinct environmental challenges. In this review, the successes and failures of the Madrid Protocol will be examined, with the literature showing widespread discontent with the Protocol's environmental capabilities. These perspectives reflect an increasing urgency around the need for changes to be made to the Treaty system, in order to maintain the Antarctic environment for future scientific research, tourism, and other human related activities.

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  • Protected Area Management: A Framework for Managing Cumulative Impacts in the Antarctic

    Harding, Belinda (2016)

    Postgraduate Certificate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The Antarctic Treaty System is challenged with developing a strategic conservation approach for protected area management and with determining how cumulative impacts are addressed under the current regulatory framework. Key scientific and environmental values benefit from general protection under the Antarctic Treaty and a further system for designating protected areas was established under the Agreed Measures for Flora and Fauna 1964. With increasing human presence across the Antarctic the need for consistent implementation of environmental protection measures to minimise impacts is required. All visitors to the Antarctic, including tourists, scientific and support personnel of National Antarctic Programs and non-governmental organisations, have an obligation under the Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty 1991 to manage all environmental impacts, including those that are cumulative. The current protected area management system provides an existing framework in conjunction with the Environmental Impact Assessment process for managing cumulative impacts, but it has not yet been explicitly used for this purpose by the Antarctic Treaty Consultative Parties. This review will consider the established system for terrestrial protected area management in the Antarctic and examine whether this can facilitate improved management of cumulative impacts.

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  • Exploring the Underlying Motivations of the Antarctic Scientists of the Heroic Age.

    Cox, Anna (2017)

    Postgraduate Certificate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Scientific discovery in the Heroic Age of Antarctic exploration, the ten years commencing 1907, was extremely demanding and carried great risk. The working conditions of the scientists within the expedition teams led by Shackleton, Charcot, Shirase, Filchner, Mawson, Scott, and Amundsen varied greatly. Scott ran a comprehensive scientific institute, appointing a capable team of scientists, encouraging ongoing scientific pursuit with regular lecture series and providing the necessary logistical support, alongside his sporting pursuits. Charcot and Mawson led expeditions purely for scientific purposes. Shackleton and Charcot each endeavoured to provide a similar science setting to Scott's, but were limited by geographical challenges and personnel issues. The scientists who travelled with Amundsen or with Shirase worked in comparative isolation, but achieved notable scientific work. In all instances, the scientists themselves were highly motivated for scientific discovery in extreme conditions. The accolades, publishing opportunities and financial gain that may have come to them after the expeditions were not the main source of their motivation for undertaking such work. It was the work itself, the extreme environment it existed in, and the people they were working alongside, which collectively provided the main motivation for the scientists to explore within the Antarctic expeditions of the Heroic Age.

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  • Do Antarctic Specially Protected Areas Provide Further Entrenchment of a Sovereign Claim?

    Martin, Jonathan Andrew (2016)

    Postgraduate Certificate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Antarctic Specially Protected Areas (ASPA) are the main designation bestowed onto areas deemed to have values that need protection. There has been an inconsistent method by which party states have selected areas to be put forward as ASPA. No overriding framework has been confirmed and applied universally across the management of protected areas. Neither has there been a concerted effort to create a network of ASPA that are representative of the diverse eco-systems in Antarctica. The locations of existing ASPA are within the confines of sectors subject to a sovereign claim. There is a correlation between the party responsible for the management of an ASPA and the location of the ASPA. The consequence of this correlation is evidence of an effort by claimant parties to further entrench their sovereign claims and exercise a degree of control over areas within their claim.

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  • Climate change tipping points in Antarctica and what this means for the Antarctic Circumpolar Current

    Marks, Nicolette (2017)

    Postgraduate Certificate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The Antarctic region is like no other place on Earth. In Antarctica and the Southern Ocean there are large-scale components which may pass critical tipping points within the next century. Anthropogenic climate change pushes the fragile physical and chemical mechanisms of climate sensitive regions into new territory. Minor changes in annual ice duration or light availability could cause radiating ecological responses to Antarctic systems. The Antarctic Circumpolar Current is a critical system within the Antarctic and global environment which joins the waters of the major oceans with a strong current unimpeded by any land mass. The impact of reaching or breaching critical tipping point thresholds in Antarctica and the Antarctic Circumpolar Current could be disastrous to the local and global environment.

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  • Accurate Measurement of the Reforming of the Ozone Layer above Antarctica

    Eason, Jo (2016)

    Postgraduate Certificate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The Montreal Protocol was accepted almost universally and successfully gained global cooperation to reduce the production and release of Ozone Depleting Substances (ODS). When Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) are released the free chlorine molecules that become available in the atmosphere are able to deplete the O₃ ozone molecule in a catalytic reaction allowing Ultraviolet (UV-B) radiation to enter the atmosphere. This deletion of the ozone layer was quickly acknowledged to be detrimental to human health and measures were taken. There is some concern that there are ODSs still being released from some sources and that there are residual ODSs in equipment yet to deteriorate. This review examines the present measurements of the ozone levels in the Antarctic stratosphere, how the increased use of modelling has improved the accuracy of the measurements and led to a clearer understanding of the dynamic mechanisms that reform the ozone hole each year. The polar vortex formation and the dynamically induced changes in the troposphere are the main drivers in the appearance of the ozone hole each year above the Antarctic. Mt Erebus has recently been found to be a significant source of ozone destroying gases. As these dynamic systems are more clearly understood and accounted for the variable annular ozone levels are able to be accurately assessed for the possible future recovery of the ozone hole to pre-1980 levels.

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  • What are the barriers to establishing effective wastewater management in Antarctica?

    Cunningham-Hales, Peggy (2017)

    Postgraduate Certificate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Antarctica is often presented as earth's 'last untouched wilderness', however human induced impacts have been progressively transforming aspects of the environment since our arrival on the continent. Wastewater discharge from research stations is a significant vector of non-native microorganisms, high nutrients loads and a range of contaminants, and has been shown adversely affect the receiving environment in a variety of ways. Effective treatment technology now exists for cold environments and implementing wastewater treatment at all research stations would help reduce the potential suite of effects. Despite this, the management of wastewater in Antarctica is varied, with some stations still employing rudimentary treatment facilities or disposing raw sewage to the environment. In this review, the barriers to establishing effective wastewater management in Antarctica have been explored. The literature suggests that the environmental values of each country, the logistical/financial challenges of installing and operating treatment stations, and an outdated environmental protocol are the primary barriers to effective treatment systems being installed at all stations. It is likely that further advanced treatment plants will be installed at some stations in the future, given a growing awareness of the impacts of untreated wastewater in Antarctica. However, this is likely to be the result a country's values rather than regulatory requirements.

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  • Alien Invasions of the Antarctic Mainland: current knowledge and lessons from the wider Antarctic region and beyond

    Chambers, Claire (2016)

    Postgraduate Certificate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Two species of invasive alien grass species have established themselves on the Antarctic Peninsular. The Antarctic mainland is expected to undergo further spread of these species and introductions of new species as a result of warming caused by climate change and by increased human activity in the area. This report considers the properties and behaviours of invasive species, together with the means by which they reach and establish themselves in new and vulnerable areas, such as ice-free areas of the Antarctic mainland. Specific pathways relating to human activity in the Antarctic are reviewed, alongside some effective controls for reducing the introduction of new plant material into the region by these routes. Consideration is given to control, containment and eradication strategies, including suitable methods of plant removal within the Antarctic context. The existence of seed banks and the likelihood of reinvasion due to local changes which persist after alien populations have been eradicated are discussed. These, together with climate change and increased propagule pressure, point to the importance of ongoing monitoring programmes. Finally, suggestions are made for allocating responsibility for monitoring and responding to current and future non-native plant populations and their timely removal.

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