1,385 results for Thesis, Modify

  • Characterisation of rhizobia associated with New Zealand native legumes (Fabaceae) and a study of nitrogen assimilation in Sophora microphylla

    Tan, Heng Wee

    Thesis
    Lincoln University

    Many legume species have the capacity to fix atmospheric N₂ via symbiotic bacteria (generally termed “rhizobia”) in root nodules and this can give them an advantage under low soil N conditions if other factors are favourable for growth. There are four genera of native legumes, on the main New Zealand (NZ) islands. These are the closely related Carmichaelia, Clianthus and Montigena in the Carmichaelinae clade, tribe Galegeae, and Sophora, within the tribe Sophoreae: all are capable of nodulation. Little work has been done on the genotypic characterisation and host-range specificity of the rhizobia associated with NZ native legumes. Moreover, the ability of native legumes to assimilate soil N in comparison with their N₂ fixation has not been assessed. The primary objectives of this research were to 1) more fully characterise the rhizobia associated with the four genera of NZ native legumes, including their ability to cross nodulate different species and 2) assess the ability of Sophora microphylla to assimilate soil N in comparison with its N₂ fixation. Gene sequencing results indicated that the bacterial strains isolated from NZ native legumes growing in natural ecosystems in the current and previous studies were of the genus Mesorhizobium. Generally, the Carmichaelinae and Sophora species were nodulated by two separate groups of Mesorhizobium strains. Ten strains isolated from the Carmichaelinae showed 16S rRNA and nifH similar to the M. huakuii type strain, but had variable recA and glnII genes, novel nodA and nodC genes and the seven strains tested could produce functional nodules over a range of Carmichaelinae species but did not nodulate Sophora species. Forty eight strains isolated from Sophora spp. showed 16S rRNA similar to the M. ciceri or M. amorphae type strains, variable recA, glnII and rpoB genes and novel and specific nifH, nodA and nodC genes which were different from those of the Carmichaelinae strains. Twenty one Sophora strains tested were able to produce functional nodules on a range of Sophora spp. but none nodulated C. australis. However, eighteen of the twenty one strains produced functional nodules on Cl. puniceus. These results indicate that, in general, the ability of different rhizobial strains to produce functional nodules on NZ native legumes is likely to be dependent on specific symbiosis genes. Clianthus puniceus appears to be more promiscuous in rhizobial host than the other NZ native legumes species tested. Generally, strains isolated from NZ native Sophora spp. from the same field site grouped together in relation to their “housekeeping” gene sequences and ERIC-PRC fingerprinting banding patterns. Most strains were able to grow at pH 3 – pH 11 but only one showed phosphorus solubilisation ability and none showed siderophore production. The strains showed differences in their ability to promote the growth of S. microphylla under glasshouse conditions. DNA-DNA hybridisation tests indicated that strains isolated from New Zealand native Sophora spp. are of several new Mesorhizobium species. The ability of S. microphylla to utilise soil NO₃⁻ and NH₄⁺ in comparison with its N₂ fixation was assessed under glasshouse conditions. N₂ fixing (nodulated) plants showed substantially greater growth and tissue N content than those relying solely on NH₄NO₃, NO₃⁻ or NH₄⁺ up to the equivalent of 200 kg N ha⁻¹ and N limitation is likely to have been the major cause of reduced growth of non-N₂ fixing (non-nodulated) plants. NO₃⁻ levels were negligible in plant tissues regardless of NO₃⁻ supply, indicating that virtually all NO₃⁻ taken up was assimilated. Thus, there appears to be a limitation on the amount of NO₃⁻ that S. microphylla can take up. However, it is possible that S. microphylla could not access NO₃⁻ in the potting mix and further work is required using different substrate and more regular NO₃⁻ applications to confirm this. Plants showed NH₄⁺ toxicity symptoms at 25 kg NH₄⁺-N ha⁻¹ and above. Nitrate reductase activity was not detected in roots or leaves of mature S. microphylla in the field: all plants were nodulated. Overall, the two major findings of this research are 1) NZ native legumes are nodulated by diverse and novel Mesorhizobium species and 2) S. microphylla seedlings have limited ability to utilise soil inorganic N. Important future work based on the results obtained in this research is discussed.

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  • Ideological choice in the gravestones of Dunedin's Southern Cemetery

    Edgar, Philip Gerard (1995)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    xxv, 136 leaves :ill. ; 30 cm. Includes bibliographical references. University of Otago department: Anthropology. "December 1995."

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  • Satire and Dickens

    White, Richard (1997)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    People have a fundamental need to feel good about themselves, and sometimes we can achieve this at the expense of others. If I can laugh at someone who does something stupid, or feel superior to someone who does something unjust, or rebel against an institution which violates some natural law, then so much the better for me. Essentially, this is why I read satire. Until recently this sort of approach does not seem to have appealed to literary critics - perhaps because it demeans their subject matter - but there are many essential human needs which are satisfied by a reader's imaginative response to satire, and there is nothing ignoble in that. Satire allows us to escape the constrictions that society places on us. When we read satire we can behave badly: we laugh at other people, cackle at their stupidity, and snigger at their pomposity or hypocrisy; we revenge ourselves upon people who have bored, annoyed, or cheated us. All of this misbehaviour is sanctioned by moral propriety, and by the figure who establishes what is proper and what is not, the satirist. It is the satirist who sets up little moral victories for us, made possible by satiric attack. However, when satire becomes part of a novel, it must there vie for ascendancy with other guises of the author. The satirist must compete with the moralist, the comic, or the sentimentalist, and when this happens the reader too must evaluate their satiric victories alongside the other emotions they feel when they read other parts of a novel. Charles Dickens has many such guises, and consequently he particularly challenges the reader to cope with many different responses. This is where satire becomes even more interesting, because the victories are tempered by other, perhaps more noble emotions. The novels of Dickens present the reader with a constant battle between good and bad: both the author's and the reader's.

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  • Measuring the relationship between audit committee characteristics and earnings management: evidence from New Zealand listed companies

    Toh, Moau Yong

    Thesis
    Lincoln University

    The recent corporate accounting scandals, such as the Enron scandal in 2001 and the WorldCom scandal in 2002, have increasingly drawn the attention of regulators around the globe to the monitoring role of audit committees in the financial reporting process. The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between the NZX’s recommendations on audit committee characteristics and earnings management in NZX listed companies. In particular, this study examines the relationships between earnings management and audit committee size, independence, financial expertise and diligence, as per the NZX’s recommendations. This study finds that the NZX’s recommendations that audit committees should comprise a majority of independent directors and at least one financial expert are associated with lower earnings management. Besides, companies whose audit committees meet at least quarterly report lower earnings management. Since the NZX does not recommend best practice for audit committee meetings, this finding has implications for New Zealand regulators and practitioners that meeting at least quarterly is a key criterion of audit committee effectiveness, hence, a change to corporate governance rules and principles may be necessary. However, this study finds that audit committee size is not related to lower earnings management, suggesting that detection and control of earnings management relies more on the independence, financial expertise and diligence of audit committees to generate quality discussions and monitoring duties. Except for the U.S.A., the results of this study do not differ materially from other major countries, such as Australia. This study contributes to the existing literature by providing evidence about the relationship between audit committee characteristics, as per the NZX’s recommendations, and earnings management in countries with similar institutional and legal environment to New Zealand.

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  • Potential of manuka and kanuka for the mitigation of nitrous oxide emissions from NZ dairy farms

    Fitzgerald, Roshean

    Thesis
    Lincoln University

    Author later known as Woods, Roshean.

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  • An Investigation of the challenges in International Financial Reporting Standards’ adoption: evidence from Nigerian publicly accountable companies

    Edeigba, Jude

    Thesis
    Lincoln University

    In search of a global accounting framework, International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) have been implemented by over 140 countries around the world. There are different motivations for the adoption of IFRS by national accounting standards setters. These include the perceived benefits associated with IFRS adoption. Withal the worldwide adoption, the adoption of IFRS by companies has been successful in some countries and unsuccessful in other countries. Whether or not IFRS adoption will be successful depends on the challenges companies face in the adoption. The challenges in IFRS adoption are heterogeneous and different challenges have been reported in countries that have implemented IFRS such as Australia, New Zealand, Romania, Turkey, South Africa and Kenya among others. However, the international accounting systems have continued to shift from national accounting practices to IFRS. Following the World Bank Report on the Observance of Standards and Codes (ROSC), the Financial Reporting Council of Nigeria (FRC) implemented IFRS in 2010 for both listed and non-listed companies. The three types of IFRS (i.e. IFRS for publicly accountable companies, IFRS for SMEs and International Public Sector Accounting Standards) were implemented. In the first year of filing IFRS financial statements by publicly accountable companies, most companies required to adopt IFRS could not produce IFRS financial statements as required. This failure is attributed to the challenges in IFRS adoption. However, these challenges were not reported. Therefore, it was not clear what type of challenges Nigerian companies faced in the adoption of IFRS. There is a limited understanding of the challenges in IFRS adoption as a result of the inconsistency in previous research findings. Therefore, this study examined the challenges Nigerian companies face in IFRS adoption by investigating different factors that inhibit the adoption of IFRS. Specifically, companies’ cultural factors, practical difficulties in IFRS application and the effects of industry were examined. A survey instrument was used to collect data from the preparers of financial statements which resulted in 519 usable questionnaires. The study applied chi-square test, t-test, and Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) to identify different factors associated with IFRS adoption. Further analysis was conducted to test the hypotheses using the logistic regression models. First, it was found that companies’ cultural factors were significant in explaining the challenges in IFRS adoption. Specifically, transparency, statutory control, secrecy, flexibility, and professionalism were found to inhibit IFRS adoption. The empirical results indicated that as the transparency in financial reporting increases by using IFRS, the greater the likelihood companies will not adopt IFRS. In the practical difficulties model, the majority of the companies considered the cost of IFRS adoption prohibitive and the lack of an internal control system was also a significant factor that influenced IFRS adoption. The study also identified variations in the industry effects. Companies in the financial services industry had a greater likelihood of IFRS adoption, while companies in the agricultural industry were least likely to adopt IFRS. Other industries included in the study varied considerably in terms of the likelihood of IFRS non-adoption. Some of the findings were consistent with the challenges identified in other countries such as Australia, New Zealand, Romania, Turkey, South Africa, and Kenya, while some were specific to the case of Nigeria. The research contributes to the Nigerian accounting practice and international accounting research. Further, the influences of companies’ cultural factors on IFRS adoption have not been empirically investigated in the international accounting literature. Therefore, the research provided empirical evidence of the influences of companies’ cultural factors on IFRS adoption in the case of Nigeria. Areas for future research have been identified for international accounting researchers.

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  • A city in a water crisis: the responses of the people of Gaborone

    Kadibadiba, Arabang Tshepiso

    Thesis
    Lincoln University

    Worldwide, countries are challenged by the increasing pressure on potable water resources. In Botswana these pressures are particularly severe. Gaborone, the capital city of Botswana, is faced with a water crisis. There are no nearby permanent water sources to supply the city and successive years of drought led to extreme water shortages in Gaborone in 2015. This study investigates how the government has responded to the developing water shortage over the last decades and how the water use and management practices of the people changed in response to this water crisis. Social practice theory is applied as an analytical theoretical framework with a focus on the elements of practices and the norms of consumption (three Cs of cleanliness, comfort and convenience) reveal how and why consumption takes place. It is shown that the co-evolution of water supply infrastructure and customer demand creates imperatives and expectations that water is always available and ready to be used. It is also concluded that practices of water use are shaped around the concepts of cleanliness, comfort and convenience and that when water was very scarce, practices evolved so that acceptable social standards could still be maintained. The study shows that although people’s practices changed, there were limits to their adaptability in the context of the supply and demand paradigm that dominates water infrastructure across the world. This study illustrates that social practice theory’s conventions of comfort, cleanliness and convenience (the 3Cs) needs to be extended to survival to adequately capture how people respond in a resource constrained situation, which is a contribution this thesis makes to the social practice theory literature. While the importance of technical supply solutions to water situations cannot be overlooked, this study shows that addressing water demand and supply cannot be entirely dependent on them. Understanding people’s social practices and the ways in which they adjust to changes in water provision can be valuable to inform policy aimed at building resilience and adaptive strategies to crisis situations such as water paucity.

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  • The effect of irrigation practice on drainage and solute leaching under spray irrigation on a stony soil

    Robertson, Balin Burns

    Thesis
    Lincoln University

    Research was conducted to assist in the improvement of irrigation efficiency on the shallow stony soils of Canterbury and identify the effect of current irrigation practice on the redistribution of solute within the soil profile. Irrigation treatments were measured using twenty-four undisturbed monolith lysimeters containing a stony Eyre shallow silt loam soil. Treatments included 15/10, 15/15, 30/20, 30/30, 60/40 and 60/60, being the respective soil deficit irrigation trigger/irrigation depth combinations (mm). The trial was split into three experiments. Experiment 1 began with a surface application of bromide tracer before exposing the lysimeters to the irrigation treatments for three months. Experiment 2 and 3 were designed to examine how the bromide had been redistributed within the pores during Experiment 1. Experiment 2 irrigated 250 mm depth continuously at 50 mm/hr to drain bromide in the macropores, while Experiment 3 irrigated 500 mm depth continuously at 2 mm/hr to drain bromide in the soil matrix. Over the three experiments, leachate was collected regularly and analysed for bromide. Preferential flow dominated solute leaching, occurring in the first drainage event irrespective of the application volume and frequency of irrigation, with leached bromide moving predominately through the macropore fraction of the soil. Treatments with greater irrigation quantities corresponded with more extensive preferential flow, drainage and for the most part, leaching in Experiment 1. Treatments irrigated to field capacity (FC) had greater leaching and drainage as well, as uniform irrigation of lysimeters in a treatment meant soil heterogeneity caused some lysimeters to exceed FC before others. Generally, there were no significant treatment effects on the cumulative bromide leached across the experiments, reflecting the dominance of preferential flow under the irrigation conditions studied. There was evidence that bromide distribution in the profile at the end of Experiment 1 was affected by treatments, with moisture status after irrigation having an effect on the bromide peak mass readings in Experiment 2, while the moisture deficit irrigation trigger influenced the bromide peak mass and cumulative mass readings in Experiment 3. However, effects were not consistent across treatments and experiments, making interpretations difficult. The results indicate that irrigation practices on Eyre shallow silt loam soils at 50 mm/hr needs to be adjusted for preferential flow, which has a dominant influence on solute distribution within the soil profile. Results imply that the 15/10 treatment had the least leaching as less extensive preferential flow means solute remains within the profile and has a greater opportunity to be immobilised.

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  • Effect of the environment during seed development on brassica seed quality

    Rashid, Muhammad

    Thesis
    Lincoln University

    High quality seed is essential for the establishment of a good crop. New Zealand grown brassica seeds usually have high germination but often have variable seed vigour. The latter can result in poor crop establishment and storability. High temperature stress during seed development is known to reduce seed vigour in some species, but whether temperature stress is responsible for seed vigour loss in brassica species was not known. The effects of high temperature during seed development on forage rape (Brassica napus) seed quality were determined by assessing seed mass, germination and vigour using a sowing date trial and field and controlled environment experiments. A time of sowing trial was conducted in the 2011-12 season. A late flowering forage rape cultivar “Greenland” was sown on 25 March and 13 April, 2011 with sowings replicated four times in a randomized complete block design. Seed quality was assessed at three seed development stages (determined by seed moisture content (SMC)): at physiological maturity (PM) (≈50% SMC), pre-desiccation final stage (≈25% SMC) and harvest maturity (≈14% SMC). Seed had attained PM at between 47-52% SMC which was similar to other brassica species. The seed quality testing results demonstrated that sowing time had no effect on seed germination in the prevailing environmental conditions in that season, and at PM there were no differences in seed vigour. However, seed vigour was significantly reduced in seeds harvested at the pre-desiccation (≈25% SMC) and harvest maturity (HM) (≈14% SMC) stages for the early sowing. This was explained by a longer time of exposure to conditions which caused weathering during maturation for the March sowing. In a controlled growth room, set at 30/25 ˚C (day/night, 12 hours each, R.H 70%), plants received heat stress for four days (240 ˚Ch) at (i) seed filling ii) PM and iii) seed filling plus PM before being returned to the field until seed harvest for two consecutive seasons, 2011-12 and 2012-13. Heat stress decreased seed quality in all three treatments. In both years seed vigour was adversely affected by the heat stress, but seed germination was not. High temperature stress during seed filling produced smaller seeds but this did not occur with heat stress at PM. Seed developed at the top of the raceme was smaller and had lower germination compared with seed developed at the middle and basal raceme positions. This difference in seed quality between raceme positions became greater after heat stress. A field trial was conducted in the same two seasons with artificially created high field temperature conditions (using plastic sheet cages) during forage rape seed development. The heat stress was imposed during phase-I (seed filling to PM) and phase-II (PM to HM) and at both Phase-I+II. Heat stress during phase-I significantly reduced seed germination, vigour and seed mass, confirming the results of the controlled environment experiment. Imposition of heat stress during phase-II (after PM), however, significantly reduced seed germination and vigour but did not affect seed mass. Hourly thermal time (HTT) at a base temperature (Tb) of 25 ˚C and the number of hours that temperature remained above 25 ˚C during phase-II (from PM to HM) were significantly correlated with germination and vigour, but not seed mass. The data suggested that for a Tb of 25 ˚C, at least 100 ˚Ch before PM and 300 ˚Ch after PM were required before vigour loss occurred. The effects of high temperature during seed development were further studied at a physiological and ultrastructural level using heat stressed and non-stressed seeds from the controlled environment experiment. Both reactive oxygen species (ROS) (H2O2) and lipid peroxidation were measured. H2O2 and malondialdehyde (MDA) were both significantly higher in heat stressed seeds than in non- stressed seeds. Loss of seed vigour was associated with an accumulation of H2O2 and lipid peroxidation. H2O2 in heat stressed seeds was strongly correlated with seed vigour loss, suggesting that lipid peroxidation was not the only cause of seed deterioration. Seed vigour loss was also characterized by a marked decrease in the ROS scavenging antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and glutathione reductase (GR) activities following heat stress. A significant negative effect of heat stress on the adenine nucleotides pool and adenylate energy charge (AEC) was recorded which indicated the altered metabolic system. This was mainly due to a decrease in cellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP), resulting in a decrease of AEC. Electron microscopy revealed significant cellular damage in heat stressed seeds, particularly in the cell membranes and mitochondria. The decreased level of nucleotides and energy levels, and higher electrolyte leakage recorded in heat stressed seeds was associated with this structural damage. Mitochondrial ATP synthesis provides an important source of energy to complete the germination process. The mitochondrial damage in this study as a result of heat stress suggests that the mitochondria were unable to synthesize sufficient energy for the active oxidative phosphorylation required to complete successful germination.

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  • Credit accessibility: the impact of microfinance on rural Indonesian households

    Santoso, Danang Budi

    Thesis
    Lincoln University

    Microfinance enables rural households to accumulate assets, smooth consumption in time of economic shocks, reduce the vulnerability due to illness, drought and crop failures, and better education, health and housing for the borrower’s household. In addition, access to finance may contribute to an improvement in the social and economic position of women participation in family decisions making. Microfinance may have positive spill-over effects such that its impact surpasses the economic and social improvement of the borrower. However, there is still concern whether microfinance performance and outreach eminently reaches the poor household. This study aims to investigate the credit accessibility and significant characteristics of rural households who are users of microcredit loans versus non-users of microcredit loans. The study also surveys the welfare impact of microfinance on rural households in Indonesia. The study administered a structured questionnaire to 605 rural households in Bantul District, Yogyakarta Province in Indonesia. Binary Logistic regression is used to investigate credit accessibility of the surveyed respondents. The results reveal that age of borrowers, household income, interest rates, and loan duration are key determinants affecting credit accessibility in the surveyed area. Similarly, binary logistic regression is used to investigate characteristics of the surveyed respondents, based upon whether they used or did not use microcredit. The empirical results suggest that age, marital status and education attainment siginificantly affect characterics of clients and non-clients of microfinance. The multinomial logit model (MNL) is used to assess the welfare impacts of microcredit in term of households income, monthly expenditure and total assets of borrowers. In term of the borrowers income, the MNL shows that age of borrowers, monthly expenditure and occupation are significant factors influencing the increase in income of the borrowers after they have accessed microcredit. In term of borrower’s total assets, the MNL model reveals that more highly educated borrowers are more likely to increase their total assets after accessing microcredit. The MNL model also reveals that only expenditure per month of borrowers has a positive correlation with the increase of welfare impacts of the clients’ expenditures.

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  • The response of manuka (Leptospermum scoparium) to homogeneous and heterogeneous distribution of biosolids in soil

    Reis, Flavia Vilela Pereira

    Thesis
    Lincoln University

    Potentially, biosolids (sewage sludge) could be added to soil to enhance the growth of manuka (Leptospermum scoparium) for the production of honey, essential oils, and ecosystem restoration. Given that manuka is a pioneering species that is adapted to low fertility soils, it was unclear whether there would be a positive growth response to biosolids addition. I aimed to determine the effect of biosolids addition on the biomass, root morphology and elemental composition of manuka. Pots (2.5 L) and Rhizoboxes (15 x 30 x 2.5 cm) were filled with low-fertility soils from Eyrewell Forest (Lismore brown soil) and Kaikoura (sand). Biosolids from Kaikoura (10% of the total weight by mass containing 22g N/kg) were applied either homogeneously or heterogeneously to the surface of the pots and in a 5 cm vertical strip on one side of the rhizoboxes. There was also a control (no biosolids). Each treatment was replicated thrice. Manuka seedlings were grown for 12 weeks and then the biomass, root distribution and chemical composition was determined. The addition of biosolids increased the biomass in both soils. The increases in biomass were not significantly affected by the distribution of the biosolids. However, the distribution of the biomass affected root distribution, with roots proliferating in the biosolids patches in the heterogeneous treatments. In the Kaikoura sand, the addition of biosolids increased the plant concentrations of N, C, P, S, Zn, and Cd, whereas in the Eyrewell soil the biosolids increased N, Zn, Cd and Ni. In Kaikoura there were differences between homogeneous and heterogeneous treatments in plant Zn, Cu and Ni and in Eyrewell differences occurred in Zn and Cd. None of the trace element concentrations in manuka were likely to pose a risk to herbivores or ecosystems. My experiment demonstrated that manuka responds positively to the addition of biosolids and that the positive growth response was not affected by the distribution of biosolids on two soil types. Furthermore, the addition of biosolids did not cause manuka to take up unacceptable concentrations of trace elements. Future research should investigate the performance of manuka over a longer timescale and include treatments where biosolids are applied to the soil surface of existing manuka stands. Root morphology should also be investigated for deeper understanding of foraging behaviour.

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  • Evaluation of utilisation of the Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV Programme in Central province, Kenya

    Ngugi, Catherine Njeri (2013)

    Masters thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Background: The PMTCT HIV programme has been one of the most successful HIV preventive interventions towards HIV-free future generations. However, even though the programme is virtually effective in developed countries, many developing countries are reporting child HIV infections due to the MTCT. The programme has existed in Kenya for more than a decade, yet in 2011, 12,894children were HIV infected due to MTCT Objective: To evaluate the PMTCT programme, especially the HIV testing from the antenatal period to the postnatal period among expectant parents attending Nyeri Provincial General Hospital in Central Province, Kenya. Design: Retrospective analysis of the hospital registers. Methods: Three hospital registers were analysed for the period from July 2009 to September 2012. The registers were for antenatal, intrapartum and postnatal care respectively. Each register documented the utilisation of PMTCT services by the expectant parents. Descriptive and inferential statistics were produced to analyse data from the registers. Results: The PMTCT services utilisation was sub-optimal. Of the 504 expectant mothers who attended the antenatal clinic, 59.9% came once, 80.4% had their first visit in the third trimester (between weeks 28 and 40) and only 6.9% were accompanied by their partners. All the women were HIV tested in their first visit but only 12.1% were rescreened after three months, and only 3.8% had been tested prior to the current pregnancy (p=0.000). No expectant mother was tested for HIV intrapartum or postpartum. The children of the 504 mothers who were HIV tested were those whose parent/s were known to be HIV positive or who had presented to a child welfare clinic with recurring symptoms suggestive of a failing immune system. Conclusion: Public health programs need to strengthen the PMTCT and HIV prevention programmes to ensure that HIV testing preconception and in pregnancy is fully implemented and strengthened, alongside continued education of the public through community programmes and the media. To avert further horizontal and vertical transmission of HIV, there is a need to address urgently the identified missed opportunities in the PMTCT program. These programmatic challenges require health system redesign and strengthening, resource allocation, addressing research gaps and reassessing the current PMTCT policies.

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  • Touchable: Adapting a Haptic Feedback Glove for Use in Rehabilitation Contexts

    Foottit, Jacques

    Masters thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    With the increasing miniaturisation of computing and sensor technology, it is becoming common for electronics of all kinds to be integrated into clothing and other wearable items. Motion sensing technologies in particular have been used for a variety of consumer fitness and virtual reality applications for able-bodied people. This research explores the potential for affordable motion capture and haptic feedback technologies to be utilised in a rehabilitation context, with a specific focus on the hand. An iterative development process was used to adapt and improve an existing prototype haptic feedback glove in response to the unique challenges facing wearable device users in a rehabilitation context. Collaboration with physiotherapists provided valuable feedback throughout the design process. The result is a significantly different prototype device with major design improvements, and insights into how iterative development processes can be utilised for hardware development.

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  • Household livelihood strategies, environmental dependency and poverty: the case of the Vietnam rural area

    Ta, Hong Ngoc

    Thesis
    Lincoln University

    This study explores households’ dependency on environmental income for households that engage in different livelihood strategies. This study also investigates the impact of environmental income on rural household poverty and inequality, and identifies factors that determine the choice of rural households’ livelihood strategies in rural communities in Vietnam. A cluster analysis identifies five livelihood strategies: wage dependency; non-farm, non-wage dependency; mixed-income dependency; transfer dependency; and environment dependency. Households engaging in various livelihood strategies differ in their asset endowments. Households engaging in environmental dependency strategy are more likely to have abundant labour, land and physical capital. However, those following more remunerative livelihood strategies, such as mixed-income and non-farm, non-wage dependencies, are more likely to be endowed in financial and social assets. Environmental income accounts for 40.65% of total household income, of which 36.89% comes from agricultural activities and 3.77% comes from common property resources extraction. In addition, the study finds that environmentally dependent households are the most reliant on environmental resources in both relative and absolute terms. Environmental income provides 82.48% of total income to households in this strategy group, which is worth about 11.8 million VND per capita per year. This amount is significantly higher than that of the other strategy groups. The findings confirm the contribution of environmental income to income inequality and poverty reduction. In terms of income inequality, on average, the inclusion of environmental income reduces the Gini coefficient by more than 20%, from 0.598 to 0.475. With respect to rural poverty, environmental income reduces the poverty headcount index, poverty gap and poverty severity by 28.0%, 22.5% and 18.7%, respectively. This study also provides evidence that households’ asset endowments and contextual factors have an important influence on the choice of household livelihood strategy. Family size, agricultural land owned, livestock herds, ownership of productive equipment and distance to all-weather roads all increase the likelihood that a household follows the environment dependency strategy. However, the educational level of the household head, social networks and credit loan accessibility has negative influences on the likelihood that a household is highly dependent on environmental resources. These characteristics constrain households from shifting to strategies that are more remunerative. Other variables also have mixed effects on the choice of household livelihood strategy. In terms of policy implications, the results of this study suggest that policies should focus on enhancing the productivity of agricultural land plots owned by households rather than increasing households’ access to common property resources. In addition, effective pro-poor policies should be targeted towards assisting the poor to shift to higher-return activities, such as wage employment and/or non-wage, non-farm businesses by investing in diploma education in rural areas, improving the road infrastructure and relaxing credit constraints in rural areas.

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  • Predicting willingness to buy dairy functional foods: a health behaviour study

    Garg, Shweta

    Thesis
    Lincoln University

    Introduction: In recent years, obesity and other diet related health problems have been trending upwards. Consequently, functional foods, along with other healthy foods, have gradually gained prominence in our daily diet. China being a new market for dairy, and functional foods within dairy, is heavily dependent on imports to meet its growing domestic demand. Thus, this is of particular interest to New Zealand dairy exporters. Purpose: The present study focussed on the role of two of health behaviour theories- the Health Belief Model (HBM) and the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB), to predict willingness to buy dairy functional foods (yoghurt in this study) amongst Chinese consumers. Method: Data for this study was collected through an online survey distributed at various universities in China. The behavioural components of the models, such as perceived severity and susceptibility, perceived benefits and barriers, cues to action and self-efficacy, for HBM; and attitude, subjective norms and perceived behavioural control, for TPB, were measured. Willingness to buy was then estimated for each model using multivariate regression analysis. Cluster analysis was used to group consumers with similar characteristics. Results: Empirical investigations have suggested that for Chinese consumers, TPB was a better predictor of willingness to buy, than HBM. This implied that the sampling population from China perceived functional foods as one that promoted health and not as a disease-avoiding food category. Attitude, self-efficacy and control over one’s behaviour, as perceived by consumers, were found to be significant predictors of willingness to buy amongst Chinese. The role of health consciousness as a moderator was found to be non-significant in predicting willingness to buy yoghurt. Clustering the consumers resulted in three clusters, each significantly distinct in their attitude, willingness to buy and health consciousness. Cluster 3 was observed to be significantly different from Cluster 1 & 2, and scored highest on willingness to buy, health consciousness and attitude towards yoghurt. A further investigation of the profile of consumers grouped as Cluster 3 revealed, that this segment comprised of single, young males, with college degrees and an above average household income. They reportedly lived in a household with children. Originality value: There have been few stated preference studies on functional foods undertaken in European context, the US and a few Eastern countries. The author has found some publications investigating willingness to buy functional foods for consumers in China. However, none of these have used the theories of the Health Belief Model or the Theory of Planned Behaviour to study Chinese consumers’ willingness to buy yoghurt. The study adds to the existing body of knowledge by building on health behaviour theories to study the consumption behaviour of Chinese consumers.

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  • “Essentially a woman’s work”: A history of general nursing in New Zealand, 1830-1930

    Sargison, Patricia Ann (2001)

    Post-doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    Format: viii, 285 leaves: illustrated; 30 cm.

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  • The Old Testament as Christian scripture: three Catholic perspectives

    Stachurski, Michael R (1998)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    Format: viii, 114 leaves ; 30 cm.

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  • Effects of aspects of terroir on the phenolic composition of New Zealand Pinot noir wines

    Wei, Liu

    Thesis
    Lincoln University

    Phenolic content is an important dimension of Pinot noir wine quality. This study aimed to find generic relationships between the phenolic content of Pinot noir wines produced from well-defined locations (single vineyards) in New Zealand, as determined from various chemical analyses, and aspects of terroir relating to local climate, soils and methods of production and information collected from questionnaires. Two New Zealand Pinot noir wines were stored at room temperature (with and without headspace sparging with N₂), at 4°C (with and without sparged N₂), at - 20°C, and at - 80°C following flash freezing with liquid nitrogen, after the original, sealed bottles were opened. The changes in total phenolics, total tannins, anthocyanins and colour parameters over 134 days were quantified. Results showed that the colour-related parameters were more sensitive to storage conditions and time compared with the other parameters. Storage at - 80°C could be the optimal way to preserve colour parameters, as it generally caused the least change in values and induced the least precipitation over the whole experimental period, followed by storage at 4°C. A total of 86 single-vineyard Pinot noir wines were collected from the 2013 Bragato wine competition. Analyses, using standard methods for total phenolics, total tannins and colour measurements, and HPLC (high-performance liquid chromatography) analysis of monomeric species separated using a published SPE (solid-phase extraction) method, were carried out on these wines. Some strong correlations were found between the different ways of taking measurements on the same, or similar, compounds in wines. Generally, the regional or vintage differences in total phenolics content and total tannins, were not dramatic, but there were evident regional and vintage differences in the colour parameters. Wines awarded different medals grades also differed in their colour parameters. Specifically, wines with gold or silver medals tended to have deeper colour densities and were higher in total anthocyanins than the bronze and no-medal wines, but were not necessarily lower in colour hue. The overall phenolic content differences investigated using PCA (principal component analysis), showed separations between Otago wines and Marlborough wines, and also between vintage 2012 wines, 2011 wines and 2010 wines, although there were some overlaps in these separations. A total of 41 viable questionnaires were returned. Viticulture, winemaking and barrel ageing practices were all quite similar among wines and influences for these parameters on individual phenolics were not able to be drawn. In contrast, soils differed considerably between regions and there were consistent negative and linear correlations between vine potential vigour as affected by soil parameters (carbon content, potential rooting depth and profile readily available water) and key colour parameters (total anthocyanins, total red pigments, ionised anthocyanins, and malvidin-3-glucoside), while positive correlations with some hydroxybenzoic acids were also found.

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  • Effect of row width and plant population density on yield and quality of maize (Zea mays) silage

    Opoku, Elvis

    Thesis
    Lincoln University

    The study reported in this thesis was conducted during 2015/2016 at Lincoln University, New Zealand, to investigate the effect of row width and plant population density on yield and nutritive quality of maize silage (Pioneer Hybrid P7524). A Randomized Complete Block Design was used. The main treatments were row widths (0.76m and 0.38m) whilst the sub-treatments were intra-row spacings (0.12m, 0.18m and 0.24m), giving a total of six plant population densities (54,824, 73,099, 109,649, 146,198 and 219,298 plants/ha) with four replicates each. The crops were harvested at 30-35% DM and ensiled in PVC type silo for 100 days. Grain, DM and stover yield per unit area increased significantly with increasing plant population due to increasing radiation interception. However, low leaf chlorophyll concentration was also found to reduce grain and DM yield in spite of high radiation interception. Also, at constant or same intra row spacing, the 0.38m row width recorded percentage grain increases of between 78.6% and 127.6% which were almost twice or more compared with the 0.76m row width. Increasing plant population also increased leaf chlorophyll concentration of plants during the initial stages of plant growth and development. Plant population density and row width did not have any significant impact on the nutritive value of maize silage.

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  • LC/MS method development for the separation of anthocyanins and anthocyanin-derived pigments in red wines

    Frey, Alistair S. P.

    Thesis
    Lincoln University

    LC/MS method development was undertaken to investigate the factors affecting the separation of anthocyanin-3-O-glucosides in fractionated wine samples. The type and concentration of acid used to lower the pH of the HPLC solvents was found to be the most critical factor, with formic acid producing far better separations than acetic acid. The choice of solvent gradient, column temperature and flow rate were also found to affect separation. The methods thus developed were successfully applied to the separation (by HPLC) and identification (by PDA/UV-Vis and MS) of a number of anthocyanin-3-O-glucosides, anthocyanin- 3-O-acylglycosides, pyranoanthocyanins and polymeric pigments in young Pinot Noir and Cabernet Sauvignon wines. The relative amounts and proportions of anthocyanin-3-O-glucosides were compared between young wines vinified from four varieties of grape (Cabernet Sauvignon, Malbec, Merlot and Syrah) sourced from the Marlborough region of New Zealand.

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