569 results for Thesis, 2008

  • Dissolved organic matter in New Zealand natural waters

    Gonsior, Michael (2008)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    xi, 186 leaves :ill. (some col.), col. maps ; 30 cm. Includes bibliographical references. "1st of April 2008". University of Otago department: Chemistry.

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  • Hybrid Solid-State Hydrogen Storage Materials

    Benge, Kathryn Ruth (2008)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    This thesis investigates the chemistry of ammonia borane (NH₃BH₃) relevant to the development of hydrogen storage systems for vehicular applications. Because of its high hydrogen content and low molecular weight ammonia borane has the potential to meet stringent gravimetric hydrogen storage targets of >9 wt%. Two of the three moles of H₂ in ammonia borane can be released under relatively mild conditions, with the highest gravimetric yield obtained in the solid-state. However, ammonia borane does not deliver sufficient H₂ at practical temperatures and the products formed upon H₂ loss are not amenable to regeneration back to the parent compound. The literature synthesis of ammonia borane was modified to facilitate large scale synthesis, and the deuterated analogues ND₃BH₃ and NH₃BD₃ were prepared for the purpose of mechanistic studies. The effect of lithium amide on the kinetics of dehydrogenation of ammonia borane was assessed by means of solid-state reaction in a series of specific molar ratios. Upon mixing lithium amide and ammonia borane, an exothermic reaction ensued resulting in the formation of a weakly bound adduct with an H₂N...BH₃-NH₃ environment. Thermal decomposition at or above temperatures of 50◦C of this phase was shown to liberate >9 wt% H₂. The mechanism of hydrogen evolution was investigated by means of reacting lithium amide and deuterated ammonia borane isotopologues, followed by analysis of the isotopic composition of evolved gaseous products by mass spectrometry. From these results, an intermolecular multi-step reaction mechanism was proposed, with the rates of the first stage strongly dependent on the concentration of lithium amide present. Compounds exhibiting a BN₃ environment (identi-fied by means of solid-state ¹¹B NMR spectroscopy) were formed during the first stage, and subsequently cross link to form a non-volatile solid. Further heating of this non-volatile solid phase ultimately resulted in the formation of crystalline Li₃BN₂ - identified by means of powder X-ray diffractometry. This compound has been identified as a potential hydrogen storage material due to its lightweight and theoretically high hydrogen content. It may also be amenable to hydrogen re-absorption. The LiNH₂/CH₃NH₂BH₃ system was also investigated. Thermal decomposition occurred through the same mechanism described for the LiNH₂/NH₃BH₃ system to theoretically evolve >8 wt% hydrogen. The gases evolved on thermal decomposition were predominantly H₂ with traces of methane detected by mass spectrometry.

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  • Visitor perspectives of ecotourism in the Maldives

    Ismail, Ikleela (2008)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    Description: x, 159 leaves : ill. (some col.), forms, maps ; 30 cm. Notes: "March 2008". University of Otago department: Tourism. Thesis (M. Tour.)--University of Otago, 2009. Includes bibliographical references.

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  • Technological change at Hayes Engineering Works, Oturehua, New Zealand

    Edwards, William G (2008)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    Description: vii, 109 leaves: ill. (some col.), maps ; 30 cm. Notes: "1 September 2008". University of Otago department: Anthropology. Thesis ( M. A.)--University of Otago. Includes bibliographical references.

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  • Dawn and Te Ao Hou : popular perspectives on assimilation and integration, 1950s-1960s

    Chan, Michael Adam (2008)

    Undergraduate thesis
    University of Otago

    iv, 90 leaves :ill. (some col.) ; 30 cm. Includes bibliographical references (leaves 84-90). University of Otago departments: History and Political Studies.

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  • The transformation of Alexander's court : the kingship, royal insignia and eastern court personnel of Alexander the Great

    Collins, Andrew William (2008)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    x, 272 leaves ; 30 cm. Includes bibliographical references. University of Otago department: Classics.

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  • "Every man bears the whole stamp of the human condition" : how does health information privacy law respond to the shared nature of genetic information?

    Anderson, Sharon Claire (2008)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    "22 December 2008". University of Otago department: Law

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  • The impact of patents on New Zealand's biotechnology and genetics services sectors

    Green, Aphra (2008)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    x, 155 leaves ; 30 cm. Bibliography: leaves 151-155. University of Otago department: Law

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  • Listening through deaf ears : parental experiences of the wired world

    Sawicki, Nina (2008)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    Sensorineural hearing loss affects 1 to 3 of every 1000 children born. In most cases the child is non-syndromic (meaning that it is not associated with any congenital features) and the child is well. Sensorineural loss in childhood limits the development of spoken language but with amplification (hearing aids) or cochlear implantation and intensive habilitation these children may develop spoken language. This Master's thesis details a qualitative research study which aimed to examine the experiences of parents throughout New Zealand prior to, and in the years following their child's cochlear implant. The Research Question What are the experiences of parents whose child(ren) undergo cochlear implantation in New Zealand? Method The decision to use qualitative research methods was deemed to be the most appropriate given that the aims of the study were based on exploring the experiences of the parents. A constructivist methodology was used to explore the meaning of these parents' experiences. The study was carried out throughout New Zealand in 2007, and fourteen parents (seven parent pairs) participated in the study. Data for the study were sought through open-ended in-depth interviews. The analysis was iterative, therefore subsequent interviews incorporated issues raised by previous participants. The data from the interviews were analysed using a general inductive approach. Results Several prominent themes were found. Parents reported experiences of profound shock after their child's initial diagnosis, a sense of isolation, and ongoing emotional distress which they did not perceive as being appreciated by the many health and service providers involved in the ongoing management of their child(ren). Many parents found the referral process erratic and the hearing aid trial a source of stress and frustration, with little benefit. Despite the stress of the surgery and the considerable habilitation work involved in the post-implantation period, the parents were overwhelmingly positive about the benefits noted after surgery. All parents described their implanted child as a "normal" child. There was low use of sign language and there was limited contact with the Deaf community. Many parents spoke of the need for sign language but reported a range of difficulties accessing tuition. These issues were more apparent for families in remote communities. Conclusions The implications arising from this study suggest that the management of implanted children by health and education providers needs to emanate from a definitive family oriented paradigm. The needs of siblings and other extended family members also need consideration. Cochlear implantation provides a management tool, not a cure, for childhood deafness and implanted children will continue to face significant challenges in the world of hearing persons. The low use of sign language suggests that these children may not be receiving a holistic and pluralistic approach to their language development. As a consequence of limited contact with the Deaf community, minimal use of sign language, low modelling of its value by parents and increasing demands placed on implanted children to function as "hearing", these children may face additional challenges as they mature.

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  • Moving beyond acknowledgment : an investigation of the role of spirituality and religion within the professional practice of social work in Aotearoa/New Zealand

    Stirling, Blair (2008)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    For the past two decades there has been an ever expanding interest in the implications of spirituality and, or, religion within the professional practice of social work (Anderson and Angell, 1999; Bishop, Avila-Juarbe, & Thumme, 2003; Cornett, 1992; Northcut, 1999; Northcut, 2000; Praglin, 2004 ; Sheridan, Wilmer and Atcheson,1994). Increasingly, scholars and social workers alike have been considering the appropriateness of inclusion and the practical implications involved. This interest has developed to include attention to spirituality within varying ethical codes and definitions of social work. This is evident in international social work organisations such as the IFSW (International Federation of Social Workers) and IASSW (International Association of Schools of Social Work). Both have begun to include religious and, or, spiritual concerns into professional practice principles. In Aotearoa New Zealand the Aotearoa New Zealand Association of Social Workers (ANZASW) is a member of these international bodies; thus the profession is bound to the above principles. Additionally, the Aotearoa New Zealand Social Workers Registration Board (SWRB) code of practice reflects the standards and ethical codes of the ANZASW. Moreover, spirituality and, or, religion is an important aspect for different client groups within the Aotearoa social services context. This is particularly so within bicultural frameworks. Despite this, little attention has been given to exploring how social workers and social service agencies in Aotearoa New Zealand integrate this aspect in their work with clients to meet the varying ethical requirements. Additionally, little investigation has been undertaken to explore the implications religion and, or, spirituality might have within the Aotearoa New Zealand Social Services context. To date a number of conversations have occurred with regard to spirituality and religious concerns for Tangata Whenua, and to a lesser degree Tagata Pasifika. This study seeks to address the paucity of information by undertaking a mixed methods investigation of the role religion and spirituality has within Aotearoa New Zealand social work.

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  • Men and Masqueraders : cross-gendered identity and behaviour in New Zealand, 1906-1950

    Pearman, Louise (2008)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    This thesis contributes to the study of New Zealand historiography and gender historiography by examining female-to-male cross-gender identity and behaviour between 1906 and 1950. The primary source material is New Zealand media, specifically the New Zealand Truth newspaper. Sexological theories of the early twentieth century create a framework for reflection on language and ideas present in the New Zealand media. I will show, using both Foucauldian and feminist discourse analysis, the complex and discontinuous history of cross-gender identity and behaviour in New Zealand.

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  • The clinical anatomy of the anterior neck muscles

    Kennedy, Ewan (2008)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    The role of the anterior neck muscles in cervical dysfunction has become an area of interest in the physiotherapy literature, resulting in the development of new methods for assessing and treating dysfunction of these muscles. However, these methods are based primarily on electromyographic (EMG) and various imaging studies, and lack a detailed anatomical or biomechanical foundation. The purpose of this work was to examine the morphology and basic biomechanics of the sternocleidomastoid (SCM); scalenus anterior, medius, and posterior; longus capitis and colli; rectus capitis anterior and lateralis muscles with a view to better understanding the capabilities of these muscles. This will contribute to our understanding of the mechanisms of cervical disorders and inform more evidence based approaches to treatment. This research was completed in three stages: dissection of the fascicular anatomy of the anterior neck muscles in embalmed cadavers; magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of these muscles in young volunteers; and biomechanical modelling. Descriptive and morphological data from both the dissection and MRI studies were recorded, and cross-referenced for input into the biomechanical model. The biomechanical study involved calculating the peak force capabilities of each fascicle, and deriving the orientation and distribution of these forces across the cervical motion segments using CT scans. The result was a detailed breakdown of the peak torque, compression and shear forces generated by the anterior neck muscles at a fascicular level, calculated with reference to each cervical motion segment. The dissection study revealed several interesting findings regarding the structure of these muscles, adding considerable detail to anatomical textbook descriptions. Findings are described for each individual muscle. The MRI study found substantially larger muscle volumes than found in the dissection study, due to changes both with age and embalming. Biomechanical modelling demonstrated that in the neutral position the anterior neck muscles are not capable of exerting large forces, and do not act equally on all the cervical motion segments. Moment generating capacity into flexion was dominated by the SCM, and increased at lower levels in the cervical spine. All muscles were capable of producing compression, and total compression capacity remained relatively even at different cervical levels. Shear capacity was minimal, and was only potentially produced by the SCM in the lower cervical spine. The anterior neck muscles are complex and interesting muscles for which textbook descriptions tend to be simplified. These muscles act closely on the cervical motion segments, producing largely compressive forces. The more deeply placed longus and scalene muscles demonstrated a limited capacity for producing flexion moments, especially compared to the SCM. At C2-3 the SCM produced a net extension moment, suggesting that at this level (and above) the longus capitis and colli may proportionally play a greater role in cervical flexion. However, the force capabilities of these muscles remain very small and may be insufficient to produce actions attributed to these muscles in the clinical literature. This research presents data fundamental to understanding the function of these muscles, and which has the potential to contribute towards many different biomechanical applications in future research.

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  • Home truths : understanding the key motives that underlie consumer home choice

    Khoo-Lattimore, Cathryn Suan Chin (2008)

    Thesis
    University of Otago

    This thesis aims to identify the motivating factors driving consumers home purchase decisions from the consumer's point of view. Although there is an abundance of past real estate research, dating back as far as the 1920's, the factors shaping consumers home choice have not been fully explored. Past research has tended to assume that homebuyers arrive at a decision following a logical and rational decision making process. These studies have also tended to focus on utilitarian or economic factors shaping home choice. Although past research has unquestionably added to the understanding of home purchase behaviour, the focus on utilitarian and economic factors does not explain decisions that are underpinned by deep-seated motives. The present thesis extends past research by exploring the less tangible, non-economic aspects of home choice in order to provide a fuller story of why and how people consume homes. The primary aim of this study was to investigate the unsolicited motives underlying consumers' home choices, therefore, a qualitative technique known as ZMET was employed. Based on the notion of unconscious thoughts, ZMET uses visual images gathered and/or generated by consumers to elicit and probe the metaphors that represent their thoughts and feelings. For the present study, 14 consumers who had recently placed an offer on a home took part in the ZMET interview. The present methodology extends past property research which has predominantly taken a quantitative approach. The findings of the study provide a rich insight into the motivations behind consumer home choice. Firstly, it reveals that the pre-purchase checklists used by many homebuyers and real estate agents are inaccurate representation of consumer home choice, and explains why this is so. Secondly, it demonstrates the influence of twenty four motives, including three central constructs (space, nature and views) on consumer home choice and highlights the fact that autobiographical memories underpins many of the motives to impact on choice. Thirdly, it provides a model mapping out the interaction between utilitarian and hedonic motives, which evokes a network of feelings, sensations and emotions that shape consumer home choice. In doing so, the research provides theoretical insight into the link between the rational information-processing model and the experiential view of hedonic consumption in home purchases. This study has shown that a specific set of utilitarian and deep-seated hedonic factors interrelate to culminate upon one's home choice. The findings in this study maintain that while utilitarian factors are significant determinants of home choice, in themselves, they do not always tell the whole story. This new knowledge of how and why homebuyers chose what they did is valuable to practitioners in predicting accurate property demands and value. Real estate agents can-sell more effectively by matching a property to a homebuyer's hedonic needs. The information in this study also helps homebuyers understand that their home choice is guided by internal images and deep-seated motives derived from many years of past experience but more importantly, they can decide if these motives justify the price they pay for the property. Finally, the model gives future researchers a new framework to access meanings necessary for understanding homebuyer choice and allows a closer examination of the mechanics of these influences on the housing market and its demands.

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  • Developing compound-specific stable isotope tools for monitoring landfill leachate

    Benbow, Timothy J (2008)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    This thesis has developed a suite of compound specific stable isotope tools to monitor landfill leachate and identify the infiltration of leachate to ground water and surface water. These tools have the power to indicate the fractional contribution multiple discrete sources of pollution are making to a single location. This journey began by developing two solid phase extraction (SPE) methods to extract non-polar and polar organic compounds from leachate with minimal fractionation of hydrogen or carbon isotopes. Non-polar compounds were successfully extracted using ENV+ SPE cartridges and polar compounds were successfully extracted using Strata-X SPE cartridges. The isotopic fractionation of non-polar compounds during ENV+ extraction varied significantly (up to 245⁰/₀₀ and 1.8⁰/₀₀ for D and ¹³C respectively, when eluted with acetonitrile and ethyl acetate, as recommended by manufacturers) but the fractionation of compounds eluted with dichloromethane was negligible (less than instrumental precision). Polar compounds were eluted from Strata-X cartridges with negligible isotopic fractionation using methanol. The direct comparison of SPE and liquid-liquid extraction found SPE to extract slightly more compound from leachate then liquid-liquid extraction (especially for polar compounds) and the isotopic compositions of compounds did not change with extraction methods. These new analytical methods subsequently were used to determine the isotopic compositions of organic compounds dissolved in leachates from three New Zealand landfills. The molecular and isotopic signature of leachate varied significantly between landfills, indicating the isotopic fingerprint of organic compounds in leachate is unsuitable as a universal tracer of leachate. However, compounds such as terpien-4-ol, methylethylbenzene and juvabione maintained their isotopic composition over short geographical distance-indicating their potential as site-specific tracers of leachate. Organic compounds analysed on a transect across the landfill boundary indicated polar compounds were more mobile than semi-volatile compounds and possessed a more conservative isotopic composition. However, hexadecanoic acid extracted from leachate and ground water was highly depleted in ¹³C (-72 ⁰/₀₀ to -40⁰/₀₀), indicative of methanogenic and sulfate reducing bacteria. These bacteria only live in highly reducing environments such as leachate; therefore their presence in the pristine environment can potentially indicate the release of leachate from the landfill. The final experiments traced the uptake and utilisation of leachate by periphyton. The isotopic composition of bulk periphyton, fatty acids and phytol indicated that microbial assimilation and utilisation of nutrients is a complex process. Fatty acid biomarkers for green algae and diatoms showed signs of leachate derived nutrients, however the availability of nutrients (carbon, nitrogen, water and light) caused significant changes in metabolic processes and isotopic compositions. Under slow growing conditions, the [delta]¹³C composition of periphyton became enriched in ¹³C as solar irradiation levels decreased (including shading by detritus and periphyton), while the [delta]D composition of fatty acid was controlled by the internal recycling of hydrogen. This study indicated the power of compound specific isotope analysis as a tool to detect the release of landfill leachate from a landfill, especially at locations with multiple potential sources of contaminants, and provides a sound platform for future research.

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  • Distribution and ranging of Hector's dolphins : implications for protected area design

    Rayment, William (2008)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    ix, 410 leaves ; 30 cm. Includes bibliographical references. "June 2008". University of Otago department: Marine Science

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  • Basin analysis of the late Eocene - Oligocene Te Kuiti Group, western North Island, New Zealand

    Tripathi, Anand Ratnakar Prasad (2008)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Waikato

    Paleogeography - Te kuiti group (Map 1-13) in print copy

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  • Conservation biology of New Zealand Sea Lions (Phocarctos hookeri)

    Childerhouse, Simon John (2008)

    Post-doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    Format: xvi, 197 leaves : ill., maps ; 30 cm.

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  • Rheology of the Alpine Fault Mylonite Zone: deformation processes at and below the base of the seismogenic zone in a major plate boundary structure

    Toy, Virginia (2008)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    The Alpine Fault is the major structure of the Pacific-Australian plate boundary through New Zealand’s South Island. During dextral reverse fault slip, a dominant slip. Formation of this highly-oriented fabric would have led to significant geometric softening and enhanced strain localisation. During this high strain deformation, pre-existing Alpine Schist fabrics in polyphase rocks were reconstituted to relatively well-mixed, finer-grained aggregates. As a result of this fabric homogenisation, strong syn-mylonitic object lineations were not formed. Strain models show that weak lineations trending towards ~090 degrees and kinematic directions indicated by asymmetric fabrics and CPO pattern symmetry could have formed during pure shear stretches up-dip of the fault of ~ 3.5, coupled with simple shear strains, gamma >=30. The preferred estimate of simple:pure shear strain gives a kinematc vorticity number, Wk>=0.9997. Rapid exhumation due to fault slip resulted in advection of crustal isotherms. New thermobarometric and fluid inclusion analyses from fault zone materials allow the thermal gradient along an uplift path in the fault rocks to be more precisely defined than previously. Fluid inclusion data indicate temperatures of 325±15 degrees C were experienced at depths of ~ 4.5 km, so that a high thermal gradient of ~75 degrees C/km is indicated in the near-surface. This gradient must fall off to -slip quartz CPO fabrics indicate deformation temperatures did not exceed 650 degrees C at >=7.0-8.5±1.5 kbar, ie. 26-33 km depth. During exhumation, the strongly oriented quartzite fabrics were not favourably oriented for activation of the lower temperature basal slip system, which should have dominated at depths 25μm, indicating maximum differential stress of ~55 MPa for most mylonites). It is likely that the preferentially oriented prism slip system was activated during these events, so the Y-maximum CPO fabrics were preserved. Simple numerical models show that activation of this slip system is favoured over the basal system, which has a lower critical resolved shear stress (CRSS) at low temperatures, for aggregates with strong Y-maximum orientations. Absence of pervasive crystal-plastic deformation of micas and feldspars during activation of this mechanism also resulted in preservation of mineral chemistries from the highest grades of mylonitic deformation (ie. amphibolite-facies). Retrograde, epidote-amphibolite to greenschist-facies mineral assemblages were pervasively developed in ultramylonites and cataclasites immediately adjacent to the fault core and in footwall-derived mylonites, perhaps during episodic transfer of this material into and subsequently out of the cooler footwall block. In the more distal protomylonites, retrograde assemblages were locally developed along shear bands that also accommodated most of the mylonitic deformation in these rocks. Ti-in-biotite thermometry suggests biotite in these shear bands equilibrated down to ~500±50 degrees C, suggesting crystal-plastic deformation of this mineral continued to these temperatures. Crossed-girdle quartz CPO fabrics were formed in these protomylonites by basal dominant slip, indicating a strongly oriented fabric had not previously formed at depth due to the relatively small strains, and that dislocation creep of quartz continued at depths =0.98), but require a similar total pure shear component. Furthermore, they indicate an increase in the simple shear component with time, consistent with incorporation of new hanging-wall material into the fault zone. Pre-existing lineations were only slowly rotated into coincidence with the mylonitic simple shear direction in the shear bands since they lay close to the simple shear plane, and inherited orientations were not destroyed until large finite strains (<100) were achieved. As the fault rocks were exhumed through the brittle-viscous transition, they experienced localised brittle shear failures. These small-scale seismic events formed friction melts (ie. pseudotachylytes).The volume of pseudotachylyte produced is related to host rock mineralogy (more melt in host rocks containing hydrated minerals), and fabric (more melt in isotropic host rocks). Frictional melting also occurred within cataclastic hosts, indicating the cataclasites around the principal slip surface of the Alpine Fault were produced by multiple episodes of discrete shear rather than distributed cataclastic flow. Pseudotachylytes were also formed in the presence of fluids, suggesting relatively high fault gouge permeabilities were transiently attained, probably during large earthquakes. Frictional melting contributed to formation of phyllosilicate-rich fault gouges, weakening the brittle structure and promoting slip localisation. The location of faulting and pseudotachylyte formation, and the strength of the fault in the brittle regime were strongly influenced by cyclic hydrothermal cementation processes. A thermomechanical model of the central Alpine Fault zone has been defined using the results of this study. The mylonites represent a localised zone of high simple shear strain, embedded in a crustal block that underwent bulk pure shear. The boundaries of the simple shear zone moved into the surrounding material with time. This means that the exhumed sequence does not represent a simple ‘time slice’ illustrating progressive fault rock development during increasing simple shear strains. The deformation history of the mylonites at deep crustal P -T conditions had a profound influence on subsequent deformation mechanisms and fabric development during exhumation.

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  • Historic and contemporary population genetics and their management implications for an endangered New Zealand passerine, the mohua (Mohoua ochrocephala)

    Tracy, Lisa Naomi (2008)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    Format: xii, 115 leaves: illustrations (some coloured), maps; 30 cm.

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  • La guerre dans l'espace littéraire français de 1935 à 1945

    Haderbache, Anne (2008)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    108 leaves ; 30 cm.

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