581 results for Thesis, 2008

  • Marine Protected Areas

    Pallesen, Ana; Ericson, Jessica; Winton, Holly; Steel, Andrea (2008)

    Postgraduate Certificate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    In recent years the conservation and sustainable use of marine biodiversity beyond areas of national jurisdiction has received increasing attention, there is growing agreement that Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) should be considered as an integrated and flexible management tool for the ocean. MPAs, in particular areas closed to certain fishing activities are proposed as a useful protective measure within the framework of precautionary and ecosystem based approaches, to reduce the impact of fishing on vulnerable marine habitats and species. The impacts are particularly acute in fisheries of deepwater demersal species, because of the use of non selective gears that potentially impact fragile habitats, in particular seamounts and other deepwater features. The need for adequate international and regional frameworks for implementing spatial based fisheries management measures in the high seas and methods to prevent illegal activities are widely noted in international discussions. These concerns are of particular importance to the implementation of high seas MPAs. At the 2002 World Summit on Sustainable Development, governments agreed on the objective to implement representative networks of MPAs by 2012, with the aim of conserving marine biodiversity and allowing sustainable use of marine resources (IUCN 2006). This paper seeks to address the question of whether this goal of achieving a network of MPAs can be met by 2012. How can this be achieved and what resources are necessary to implement and maintain the MPAs or, if this is not achievable not why not?

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  • A review on Innovation and Impotence in Fisheries Instruments: The Convention on the Conservation of Marine Living Resources 1980 and Fish Stocks Agreement 1995

    Phillips, Andrew (2008)

    Postgraduate Certificate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Two international agreements instrumental in developing the concept of ecosystems based management and the precautionary approach are the 1995 Straddling and Migratory Fish Stocks Agreement1 (UNFSA) and the 1980 Convention on the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources (CCAMLR). In many respects a framework agreement, the UNFSA requires Regional Fisheries Management Organisations to take into account ecosystems effects when making decisions on catch limits, drawing from the example of CCAMLR. The principle of caution in the face of limited information on the ecosystem is by no means universal in its application, primarily due to the scarcity of data and the difficulty in achieving consensus. However, the UNFSA has developed powerful measures to move away from flag state hegemony towards coastal and port state controls. CCAMLR has also failed to find effective enforcement mechanisms, the Catch Documentation Scheme and Vessel Monitoring Scheme both being manipulated in recent years. Future developments should focus on port state interventions, an area CCAMLR members continue to be negligent, and demand initiatives including the implementation of stricter export tariffs, strengthening criminal and civil penalties, educating consumers and perhaps most importantly, restricting the importation of threatened species.

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  • Journey to the Unknown: Human/ Social Science in Antarctica for Outer Space

    Tan, Chiu-Pih (2008)

    Postgraduate Certificate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    This paper reviews literature related to the use of human/ social science research in Antarctica for human exploration in outer space. It compares and contrasts human experience in both contexts, and highlights the uses and development of human/ social science research in Antarctica for human experience in space, especially for long-duration missions.

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  • The Emperor's Domain: Adaptations & energetic requirements for life on the ice

    Pilcher, Natalie (2008)

    Postgraduate Certificate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The Antarctic environment is renowned for being among the most extreme on earth, presenting a range of challenges to any organism living there. One of the most successful species to do so is the Emperor penguin (Aptenodytes forsteri). Emperor penguins owe this capability to the evolution of a variety of anatomical, physiological and behavioural adaptations. This review sets out to explore the relationship between some of these adaptations, as well as the energetic requirements for living and breeding on the ice.

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  • The Mummified Seals of the Dry Valleys : A literature review

    Balham, David (2008)

    Postgraduate Certificate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    By the accounts of most who visit them the Dry Valleys of southern Victoria Land, on the shores of the Ross Sea, exert a strange fascination. Left literally high and dry by receding glaciers, these “oases in the ice” (Clarke) are starkly beautiful. They are of unusual scientific interest too: stripped of the ice mantle up to 4km deep which covers most of Antarctica, they provide a rare opportunity to study the continent’s geology, flora and fauna. But not all of the secrets of the Dry Valleys are readily revealed. From the first years of Antarctic exploration observers were puzzled to find the contorted and mummified carcases of seals many kilometres up the valleys and in surrounding areas, often at considerable heights above sea level. What drove the seals to trek doggedly away from their colonies and food sources until they apparently starved to death remained a mystery: theories from tidal waves to climate change, glacial retreat or suicide were put forward, but none seemed satisfactlory. Also mysterious was the age of the carcases. Early efforts at carbon dating suggested some of the seal remains were up to 2600 years old, but the inaccuracy of carbon-dating marine creatures in Antarctica makes these results unreliable. A more recent theory is that the harsh conditions prevailing in the Dry Valleys obliterate bone and tissue quickly, and that even the most weathered of the carcases are only a few decades old (Dort 1981). Other questions abound. Most of the seal carcases are Crabeater seals (Lobodon carcinophaguis), yet the dominant seal in McMurdo Sound, where they appear to have come from, is the Weddell (Leptonychotes weddellii). The seals demonstrate a puzzling determination to march to their deaths: faint tracks from one seal found dead on the surface of Lake Bonney (Dort 1981) ran for several kilometres in an almost straight line, and a live animal heading inland across the McMurdo Ice Shelf resisted all attempts to point it back towards the sea (Stirling and Kooyman). This has led to speculation that these unfortunate animals are following some sort of internal guidance system which has gone wrong (Dort 1981). After a flurry of activity studying the seals in the sixties and seventies, little work appears to have been done since. Some study is currently focused on the microbial colonies beneath the dead seals, which apparently differ greatly from one carcase to another. Dr Craig Cary of Waikato University is shortly to publish on this topic. This paper will attempt to follow the trail of the seals, as it were, from the earliest observations by Scott and Shackleton’s parties to the most recent – and still inconclusive - theories about how and why they met their strange deaths.

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  • Plant Survival in Antarctica: The lichens of continental Antarctica

    Logan, Rebecca (2008)

    Postgraduate Certificate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Antarctica is not the sort of place you would expect to find plants, yet it has an extremely interesting variety of vegetation. Antarctic flora has been studied extensively, with the most intense focus over the last forty years (Green et al. 1999). It is an interesting area of study because of both the isolation and extreme growing conditions of the area (Brabyn et al. 2005). The ability to survive in the terrestrial habitats of Antarctica requires organisms to possess a wide variety of unique adaptations. This report is an introduction to the terrestrial vegetation found in Antarctica, with a more in-depth focus on the adaptations of lichens. Extensive literature exists in the areas of Antarctic botany and ecology and these topics are becoming even more relevant with the threat of global environmental changes. Many scientists (Brabyn et al. 2005, Green et al. 1999, Robinson et al. 2003) have stressed the importance of understanding Antarctic terrestrial ecosystems, in order to ensure their continued management and protection.

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  • Review on the Clean Up of Cape Hallett Station

    Carson, Nicholas (2008)

    Postgraduate Certificate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Past human activity has littered Antarctica with abandoned rubbish, machinery and buildings creating an environmental concern. The Antarctic community has addressed the issue by the creation of the Environmental Protocol. The Protocol has put environmental restrictions on present and past activities and the methods of waste managements for these sites. The removal and clean up of these areas are costly to the nations in which the activities originated from as the Protocol places the responsibility onto them. But for environmental protection and the conservation of the “wildness” factor in Antarctica, these requirements and regulations have to be enforced and completed by all of the different Antarctic programs. The New Zealand and United States of America programs, had a combined station at Cape Hallett in Northern Victoria Land, which was abandoned in 1973. The area has had various clean up attempts made spanning the last 34 years as environmental commitments and moral pressures were put on Antarctic programs to remove and remediate, present and past wastes from sites. This review will focus on the Cape Hallett Station and the history of the clean up activities of this site.

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  • Iconic Photographers from the Heroic Age: Frank Hurley and Herbert Ponting

    McCarthy, Peter (2008)

    Postgraduate Certificate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Capturing images of Antarctica is a challenge even under ideal conditions. Expedition photographers Herbert Ponting, Terra Nova (1910-13) and Frank Hurley, Endurance (1914-16) created iconic images from those two famous journeys. Their relentless drive to capture the moment, mood, scale, isolation and hardship are exhibited in their collection of exquisite photographs and some film footage. They were pioneers not only in the expeditions but also in their chosen profession. The two photographers have different styles but both more than satisfied the public’s appetite for images of distant places and spectacular events. These photos are now Antarctic heritage artefacts that can be enjoyed, reproduced and traded by all Antarctic history enthusiasts. This literature review compares these photographers’ styles and personalities, and discusses their drive and professionalism for their art that is synonymous with the heroic age.

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  • The History of Antarctic Astronomy

    Woollands, Robyn (2008)

    Postgraduate Certificate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    After performing a literature review using numerous papers relating to the developments of Antarctic astronomy over the last century, it became apparent that the astronomy undertaken on the ice can be separated into three specific areas. They are astrogeology, high energy particle physics and photon astrophysics. It is also clear that the majority of astronomy related research, with a few exceptions, has been located at either the South Pole or Mawson Station. This is due to the extremely favourable atmospheric conditions which are discussed during the review.

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  • The Quest for the Magnetic Pole: navigation and research into polar terrestrial magnetism

    Atkin, Andrew (2008)

    Postgraduate Certificate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    At the conclusion of Scott’s Discovery expedition, Albert Armitage wrote the following: The observations for variation have proved very good, and the results of these alone are sufficient reward for all the monotonous labour connected with the magnetic observations, if, as I believe they will do, they enable those who go down to the sea in ships to navigate with a greater measure of confidence and safety those waters that wash the shores of our southern possessions and South America. (Armitage 1905) Armitage was one of many navigators, scientists and expeditioners to investigate the nature of terrestrial magnetism up to the famous sledge journey by Mawson, McKay and David to the vicinity of the south magnetic pole in January 1909. I believe that geomagnetic research flourished between 1830 and the Heroic era of Antarctic exploration. Although much research had been undertaken during that period, and many questions answered, Louis Bauer (Director of the Department of Terrestrial Magnetism of the Carnegie Institution of Washington) indicated there were still gaps in fundamental knowledge when he wrote in 1914: The accumulation of data must at present be the chief aim of the student of the earth’s magnetism.(Bauer 1914) This review will briefly describe some aspects of development of the science of geomagnetic research, especially during the Victorian era. It will also discuss its place in the art of traditional navigation and the linkage to selected high latitude expeditions.

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  • Antarctic Cartography: The mapping of the Terra Australis Incognita , 1531-2007

    Ericson, Jess (2008)

    Postgraduate Certificate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    ‘It hath euer offended mee to looke vpon the Geographicall mapps and find this Terra Australis, nondum incognita. The vnknown Southerne Continent. What good spirit but would greeue at this? If they know it for a Continent, and for a Southerne Continent, why then do they call it vnknowne? But if it bee vnknowne; why doe all the Geographers describe it after one forme and site?’ -Joseph Hall, 1605. (Quoted by Richardson 1993: 67 – 68). ‘A team of researchers have unveiled a newly completed map of Antarctica that is expected to revolutionise research of the continent's frozen landscape. The map is a realistic, nearly cloudless satellite view of the continent at a resolution 10 times greater than ever before with images captured by the NASA-built Landsat 7 satellite. The mosaic offers the most geographically accurate, true-colour, high-resolution views of Antarctica possible.’ -NASA ScienceDaily excerpt, 2007. The above quotes give an insight into the exciting and complicated history of Antarctic cartography. They represent a paradigm shift from an unexplored ‘Terra Australis Incognita’ whose existence was portrayed in detailed but inaccurate topographic maps, to the representation of the Antarctic continent in the modern era using high-resolution, highly accurate satellite technology. The following article comprehensively reviews the evolution of Antarctic cartography and gives an insight into the processes and problems associated with mapping of the polar regions.

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  • “To Fe or not to Fe?” Iron fertilisation in the Southern Ocean

    McFarlane, Turi (2008)

    Postgraduate Certificate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    As public concern about global warming grows, and the need to reduce greenhouse gas emissions is becoming clear; lawmakers, businesses, the public and investors are being presented with a number of new ideas for how to achieve these goals. Recently one such approach, ‘iron fertilization’ of the oceans - the process of ‘seeding’ some parts of the ocean with the essential micronutrient iron in order to promote plankton growth and thus remove atmospheric carbon (in the form of CO2) and store it in the oceans - has been promoted in the hope that iron fertilization could go some way to sequester carbon emissions1 . However, this process raises a number of questions, including its effectiveness as a market-based sequestration system as well as the possible negative effects on the ocean and other environmental systems. Fertilizers of various forms have become a common means toward improving plant growth. Imagine a fertilizer so powerful it could increase a yield by over 2500%. This is what scientists observed when they ‘fertilized’ a patch of ocean in 1995 with Iron Sulfate as part of the IronEX II experiment. But why would this chemical have had such a profound effect on phytoplankton growth? Over 20% of the world’s oceans are nutrient rich but iron poor 2 , which is the limiting nutrient for phytoplankton growth. By adding sufficient levels of iron to the surface ocean water, a phytoplankton bloom can be induced, and the effect can be quite dramatic. During the 1995 experiment, 450 Kg of iron was spread over a 100 km2 patch of the ocean, producing a phytoplankton bloom which consumed over 2500 tons of carbon dioxide from the surface ocean waters3 . Whether iron fertilization has been a viable mechanism controlling climate in the past, and whether it could be useful in the future is a topic of current debate. What is clear from fertilization experiments to date is that they have been effective tools allowing us to question the role of iron in controlling phytoplankton growth, nutrient cycling and the flux of carbon from the atmosphere to the deep sea.

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  • Remote Sensing of Ice Sheet Mass Balance in Antarctica

    Winton, Victoria (2008)

    Postgraduate Certificate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Technological advances in the twentieth century have enabled scientists to undertake research on virtually every location on the Earth. Parallel advances in space technology have provided a rapidly increasing number of satellite platforms that can be used to study complex physical processes in the Earth-atmosphere system. Remote sensing is the small or large-scale acquisition of information of an object or phenomenon in a given area by the use of recording devices that are not in physical contact with the object or area of interest, such as aircraft or satellite. The basis of remote sensing is the electromagnetic spectrum. Satellite remote sensing often permits real time, year round and long-term study. Remote sensing has greatly improved mass balance estimates of ice sheets and glaciers in Antarctica. Mass balance is the difference between accumulation and ablation of mass on an ice sheet or glacier over a time period. There are three ways to measure the mass balance of an ice sheet: the mass-budget method, the volume method, and the geodetic method. The significant development of Synthetic Radar Altimetry (SAR) has allowed the measurement of surface height in the mass-budget method. The volume method uses satellite radar altimetry to measure changes in surface elevation of ice sheets. The geodetic method is an emerging approach that exploits gravity and holds huge potential for the future. This review will focus on these three methods. Although these methods have made dramatic improvements on mass balance estimates over the last decade, each method still has limitations. Mass balance products of remote sensing are important because they assist in interpretation and analysis of global change (Konig et al., 2001). In the field of glaciology, remote sensing has proven to be a particularly useful tool because areas of interest are often inaccessible, such as those at high latitudes in Antarctica. Other physical characteristics of Antarctica that have limitations on ground based point measurements include: climatic extremes, the large spatial coverage, environmental sensitivity, the polar ‘night’ and the continent’s natural resources.

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  • Roimata Toroa (Tears of the Albatross): A historical review of the albatross in folklore, and a critical examination of the environmental law protections

    Pallesen, Ana (2008)

    Postgraduate Certificate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The albatross is a southern seabird that has been caught, studied, feared and revered in mythology since before recorded history, centuries before the threat of its extinction gave rise to the international battle to conserve the majestic creature. The Grey-headed Albatross can circle the globe in forty-six days. It follows the major ocean currents, where upwelling of the cooler water provides abundant feeding grounds. It is these lucrative fishing sites which have caused the depletion of the Procellariiformes (albatrosses and giant petrels). Long line fishing fleets exploit the same areas. There have been major global attempts to reduce the drowning of the albatrosses caught on these lines. The purpose of this review is firstly to traverse the folk law of the albatross across several different cultures of the world and through the different ages, and discuss why this bird has come to be nestled in the human psyche. Secondly, it will discuss the difficulties of preserving a species that migrates in and out of a vast number of jurisdictional borders, the protection of which interferes with one of the most lucrative global industries.

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  • Take only pictures … leave only footprints

    Steel, Andrea (2008)

    Postgraduate Certificate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    “Tourism is the fastest growing global industry. Its economic power is enormous and generates ever greater political influence at national and international levels. Governments, associated industries and presumed beneficiary communities see tourism as a route to economic prosperity and are often strong advocates for further tourism development. Those involved in the industry are invariably advocates for continual growth, simply out of selfinterest. On the other side of the ledger are concerns about the negative effects of tourism. These include disjunction of existing social and economic systems, shifts in power relationships and environmental effects, often substantial and irreversible. Whether the effects of tourism are viewed as negative or positive depends of course on one’s place in the scheme of things” (ASOC? ) Tourism in Antarctica is well established, with exponential growth of visitor numbers over recent years. This growth has been a concern amongst the various participants in the Antarctic Treaty System (ATS), tourist operators, NGOs and scientists, all have voiced concerns regarding the potential and actual impacts of tourism to the continent.

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  • Non-Native Species in Antarctica : A review of how the Antarctic Treaty parties are responding to the issue through the Antarctic Treaty Consultative meetings

    Wills, Fiona (2008)

    Postgraduate Certificate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Biological invasions through the introduction of non-native species (NNS) such as microbes, fungi, plants and animals are considered globally as one of the most significant threats to biodiversity (McKinney & Lockwood 1999 cited in Frenot et al. 2005). Almost every continent and ecosystem type on earth has been affected by NNS often resulting in irreversible changes to the structure and functioning of ecosystems. Antarctica, with no indigenous population, remained free of human visitation until approximately two centuries ago. Isolated from the rest of the world through its climate and geography, the Continent, which contains less than 2% ice free areas (Potter 2006), has developed a series of simple (some of which have been described as the simplest on the planet [Convey, 2007]), yet interdependent eco-systems and is one of the last continents where biogeographic boundaries still exist (De Poorter & Gilbert et al. 2006). Research to date indicates the vast majority of the Continent has escaped biological invasions. However, increasing human visitation and activity both to, from and within, the Continent (predominantly by national Antarctic programmes and tourists) combined with current climatic trends means there is an increasing awareness by Treaty Parties of the risk of NNS unintentionally being introduced and becoming established on the Continent. Another significant risk recently identified by Treaty Parties is the impacts of intra-continental contamination whereby native species have the potential to be unintentionally transferred across natural biogeography boundaries within the Continent into ecosystems where they do not naturally exist (De Poorter & Gilbert et al. 2006) This paper is a review of how Antarctic Treaty Parties have addressed the issue of the [unintentional] introduction of NNS within the Treaty Area through Antarctic Treaty Consultative Meetings over the past decade. It also includes a case study of how a Treaty Party member, the Australian Antarctic Division, is addressing the issue as part of their obligations under the Treaty. It is limited to a review of NNS being unintentionally introduced to the Antarctic Continent through human activity but does not address the issue of unintentional introduction of NNS to the marine environment of the Treaty Area (Southern Ocean).

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  • Place: A situation of becoming

    Claire O'Shaughnessy (2008)

    Thesis
    Unitec

    This is a masters by design project in Landscape Architecture. The research was conducted using a competition brief for an otherwise inconspicuous inner city terrain to develop a design technique that attempts to achieve some of the goals of place theory without falling prey to the essentialism associated with the tradition of this theory. One of the aims of this project is to participate in a general Rehabilitation of place theory in design discourse, in order to deal with some of the problems that arise as a result of a commonly adopted global design approach which does not acknowledge the specific circumstances of a landscape. The problem that immediately presents itself is that place theory and the concept of place are considered by some no longer to be relevant in a time when they have already been widely criticised. As Edward Casey says in The Fate of Place, ‘Space and Place are historical entities subject to the vagaries of time’. The term ‘place’ has been tainted by historical references which are considered singular, exclusive and socially damaging. Therefore the reintroduction of this term in contemporary architectural discussions has been done with caution and thorough redefi nition. Throughout this project I have made myself aware of the criticisms, while familiarising myself with the motivations of traditional place theory. The aim of the project is to meet at least some of the criticisms and make place theory a useful way to approach the design for dynamic, becoming landscapes.

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  • Factors influencing the demand for themed wedding packages

    Krishnan, Sivemalar (2008)

    Thesis
    Unitec

    This research study explores the factors that are likely to influence the demand for themed wedding packages. The research focuses on the Auckland market, specifically on the factors affecting the buying motivation of New Zealanders for themed weddings. Globalisation today has brought about the extension of trends in most developed countries: one of these is the themed wedding. Trends in themed weddings are being exported globally. There is an endless market opportunity for themed weddings in New Zealand just as there is in other developed countries like the U.S. and the U.K. The New Zealand market is making use of ideas for wedding themes from overseas markets. There is a need to keep abreast of the trends for themed packages and related services in order to be successful in New Zealand wedding market. Qualitative methodology has been used as the primary data collection. Thirteen semistructured interviews with wedding planners were tape-recorded and transcribed, and analysed by thematic content analysis. This research found that, based on the statements made by the interviewees during the interview, themed weddings are not currently in -demand: most couples still adhere to a ‘traditional’ setting. However, this does necessarily mean that themed weddings will not be well-liked in the market, as there are already some wedding planners who are marketing themed weddings through their websites. This study also found that popularisation seems far from happening because most wedding planners are not focusing on themed weddings but on their primary service - the standard wedding event. During the interview process most of the wedding planners thought that this concept of themed weddings would be a useful tool to develop their existing business. This research concludes that the wedding planners are gifted to create a market in Auckland or perhaps nationwide for themed wedding packages.

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  • Innovation in the education export industry

    Lonergan, James (2008)

    Thesis
    Unitec

    Most secondary schools in New Zealand have experienced an average drop of 40% in international student numbers since 2003. This multi-case study looks at three schools that have gone against the trend and had an increase in international student numbers during this period. The three schools involved in this multi-case study all introduced the Cambridge International Examination (CIE) qualification pathway form 2002. This study suggests that Mazzarol and Soutar’s (2002) push-pull model of international students studying at tertiary institutions could be applied to international students studying in New Zealand secondary schools. The study goes on to also suggest that the CIE could be an innovation that gives schools a competitive advantage in attracting international student, particularly students from Asian countries.

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  • Delivering successful projects in the New Zealand process engineering industry

    Meister, Walter (2008)

    Thesis
    Unitec

    The objective of this study was to identify the critical success factors that provide a focus to assist project managers in New Zealand deliver successful process engineering projects. Possible critical success factors derived from the literature review formed the design of a semi-structured interview questionnaire to survey nine New Zealand project managers in the process engineering industry. Conclusions were drawn based on comparing the empirical data with findings and recommendations from the literature review. The literature review highlighted the difficulty of defining project success. Distinction is made between project process success (the project is delivered to scope, on time and within budget) and project product success (the product of the process satisfies its various stakeholders). This distinction proved helpful in understanding the challenge that these project managers were facing when attempting to manage to achieve success. Within identified limitations it is concluded that the critical success factors that provide a focus to assist project managers in New Zealand deliver successful process engineering projects are: • Managing client expectations and perceptions in an ongoing manner such that the project, as delivered, meets those expectations and is perceived as a success. • Clear scope definition (that aligns with client expectations). • The ability to assemble the required resources within the budget. • The generic hard skill of project process management. • The generic soft skills of people management.

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