1,567 results for Thesis, 2012

  • The angler's catch

    Martyn, Geoff (2012-05-29)

    Masters thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    For detectives, historians, crossword fanatics, quest-seekers and many many more, finding the solution to a puzzle or mystery is a thing most satisfying. Demystifying the mysterious, solving problems and meeting challenges are perhaps the most obvious driving forces behind the novel The Angler’s Catch, the thesis component of this submission. Beyond that, the creative work endeavours to portray social issues and cultural-historical features of small town New Zealand in the early-mid 1970s. A further aim was to explore the personalities of the central characters and to tell a Kiwi story of ordinary people trying their best and persevering and achieving extraordinary results. It is a tale of surmounting obstacles through collaboration and, in the case of the protagonist Amos, of facing up to and overcoming personal flaws along the way. The Angler’s Catch then, is a story of seeking, of solving and of growth. The exegesis, entitled Seeking, Solving and Growth, attempts to place The Angler’s Catch in context, by exploring the detective novel genre and by identifying the author’s motivations, intentions, and methodologies. It is suggested that the exegesis be read before the creative work, but this of course is left to the preference of the reader.

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  • If you can't beat 'em, join 'em: Malaysia's accession to the ATS

    Chiang, Cheng Yu; Ferrar, Sue; Furborough, Sue; Watson, Sue (2012)

    Postgraduate Certificate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The request to define consequences of Malaysia‟s 2011 accession to the Antarctic Treaty system has been opened up to a broader discussion of potential consequences. This presentation and report examines four different aspects of this discussion in relation to politics, economics, social and symbolic factors and scientific research undertaken. The section on politics reviews developments from the past and the factors leading to Malaysia‟s accession to the ATS. The section on economics analyses overall monetary support and the value of decisions around accession, such as entry and exit costs. Social values in relation to environmentalism are discussed, as are the politics of inclusion and exclusion to decisionmaking processes. An overview of Malaysian Antarctic science is given alongside a discussion of Malaysia‟s consistent interest in resources. Indications for future developments within Malaysia and their relationship to working in Antarctica, are discussed.

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  • Are the SCAR/COMNAP guidelines effective in monitoring the impacts of human activites on the Antarctic environment?

    Cameron, Pip; Columbus, Robyn; Nielsen, Hanne; Wilson, Peter (2012)

    Postgraduate Certificate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The SCAR / COMNAP Technical Handbook (2000) and Practical Guidelines (2005) for environmental monitoring are designed to help new signatories to the Madrid Protocol create effective environmental monitoring regimes for activities in Antarctica. The documents are only relevant for National Antarctic Programmes so other activities such as tourism and fishing are outside the scope of this investigation. A short history of the Madrid Protocol and summary of the COMNAP guidelines set the scene for three case studies, examining the environmental monitoring programmes at Scott Base (NZ), McMurdo Station (US) and the Thala Valley Tip (AUS). Different monitoring methods are being used by each programme and there is currently no central database for monitoring reports, in part because there is no compulsory requirement to publish the data. Changing the Madrid Protocol to introduce minimum environmental monitoring requirements and to require compulsory reporting on environmental monitoring would help to streamline monitoring systems. Having the reports in one central location would make it easier to access data and identify historical trends while encouraging National Antarctic Programmes to adopt best practices and follow the steps laid out in the COMNAP Guidelines.

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  • Ethics of subglacial lake exploration in Antarctica

    Maxwell, Bob; Broughton, Darcy; Rogers, John; Weymouth, Wells (2012)

    Postgraduate Certificate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Current research shows tremendous promise for the exploration of subglacial lakes in Antarctica. Three projects to penetrate subglacial lakes are underway. The Russians are close to penetration of Lake Vostok, the British have plans to drill into Lake Ellsworth, and the U.S.A. WISSARD project plans to sample the Whillans Ice Stream in West Antarctica. The proposed explorations differ in technique and origin, however they all hope to test and analyze a subglacial aquatic environment using physical probes. This paper examines the history of the drilling attempts and discusses the technical aspects of the projects, including the types of drills, fluids used, and issues encountered. It also highlights the potential environmental risks posed by intrusion into the lakes and the ethical issues raised. It would appear that there are justifications for both sides of the debate on whether or not the drilling should proceed. The issues of legal position are also an important note in such a global and cross-cultural territory. As this kind of exploration has never been attempted before and is a prime example of human testing in extreme conditions, the space analogues are also acknowledged. Some conclusions are drawn as to the risk factors imposed by the exploration, and the potential benefits that could result from the data gained from within the lakes.

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  • Carbon emissions in Antarctica

    Domaas, Christel; Mauriohooho, Penny (2012)

    Postgraduate Certificate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    In this report we consider (i) how National Programmes should respond to the challenge of reducing fuel consumption and carbon emissions and (ii) how National Programmes balance environmental values with other values associated with Antarctica. The rate of carbon emissions from activities undertaken in Antarctica, the impact of climate change in Antarctica and globally, and the role of the Antarctic in climate change science are all reasons why the reduction of carbon emissions should be important to National Programmes. National Programmes are obliged to follow the framework provided by the Antarctic Treaty System and COMNAP guidelines. However, analysis of the current practices of a sample of three National Programmes shows that their approach to reducing fuel consumption and carbon emissions is varied. In light of this, we recommend further initiatives that could be undertaken by National Programmes to enhance their efforts to reduce fuel consumption and carbon emissions. Any activity undertaken in Antarctica will have an environmental impact. In order to balance the conflict between environmental and other values National Programmes need to:  Factor in the environmental impact of their activities; and  Aim to minimise this impact.

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  • Scott on the German stage: Reinhard Goering's Sudpoleexpedition des Kapitan Scott

    Nielsen, Hanne (2012)

    Postgraduate Certificate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Much has been written about Robert F. Scott as an English barometer,l but little attention has been given to foreign views of the man or to relevant texts in other languages. This essay will examine Reinhard Goerings 1930 play Südpolexpedition des Kapitän Scott, a German Expressionist work based on' Captain Scott's 1911-12 expedition to the South Pole. With Goering's play, Scott's story was put on the public stage for the first time.2 There is a shortage of literature in the English language on this text and on German perspectives on exploration of the South Pole in general. German literary criticism is also thin on the ground, with most works focusing on Goering's earlier play Seeschlacht (1918). Scott's journals were available in German, but were not accompanied by the same cultural aura of awe as in Scott's homeland. For German audiences of the Weimar Republic the idea of sacrifice remained attractive in a time of austerity post World War I, while national pride was of less importance. German perspectives were also different from British ones due to social and political differences and a greater remoteness from events. Much has been written about Robert F. Scott as an English barometer,l but little attention has been given to foreign views of the man or to relevant texts in other languages. This essay will examine Reinhard Goerings 1930 play Südpolexpedition des Kapitän Scott, a German Expressionist work based on' Captain Scott's 1911-12 expedition to the South Pole. With Goering's play, Scott's story was put on the public stage for the first time.2 There is a shortage of literature in the English language on this text and on German perspectives on exploration of the South Pole in general. German literary criticism is also thin on the ground, with most works focusing on Goering's earlier play Seeschlacht (1918). Scott's journals were available in German, but were not accompanied by the same cultural aura of awe as in Scott's homeland. For German audiences of the Weimar Republic the idea of sacrifice remained attractive in a time of austerity post World War I, while national pride was of less importance. German perspectives were also different from British ones due to social and political differences and a greater remoteness from events.

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  • Leisure time in Antarctica: its Contribution to psychosocial well-being

    Ferrar, Susanna (2012)

    Postgraduate Certificate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The atmosphere on "Discovery", a direct export from Edwardian London, sustained those aboard through their long Sojourn on the loe. Considering recreational activities, there was plenty of physical exercise, home-made entertainment and absorbing Solitary pursuits. Intense interpersonal interaction was mediated by accepted Naval protocols. Music, poetry, church gave a rich diet of Culture in which all Were embedded. Each month everyone was weighed and measured and had a blood test. Beside the picture drawn by both Armitage and Scott, today's Cultural environment Could be considered somewhat impoverished or at least Very far from SelfSufficient. I have done my best to absorb the questionnaire-based Statistical papers, but I've found it hard going. I've never got on with statistics. I like a story or some algebra, not the kind of fudge that statistics represents. There are SOme stories in recent literature, but no evidence that others have asked or answered my duestions.

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  • A Review of the Medical Issues and Challenges Faced by Antarctic Personnel

    Weymouth, Wells (2012)

    Postgraduate Certificate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    "We had seen God in His splendors, heard the text that nature renders. We had reached the naked soul of man.” These were the words of Sir Ernest Shackleton after crossing South Georgia Island in his quest to reach the South Pole in 1916. Other than Antarctica, it is hard to imagine a more harsh and unforgiving landscape. Even so, the Antarctic continent still draws a steady stream of modern day explorers, scientists, and tourists. Antarctic personnel encounter many of the same medical issues as Shackleton’s crew, although technology has evolved to improve their quality of life. Here I recognize and address the unique Antarctic environment's impact on human physiology and psychology, and the directions of current and future research.

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  • The controversy around the proposal and formation of the South Pole Traverse

    Maxwell, Bob (2012)

    Postgraduate Certificate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The South Pole Traverse is a 1650 Km overland (ice) route from the US McMurdo station on Ross Island to the Amundsen–Scott South Pole station. The route was formed to enable supplies and fuel to be transported overland by means of tractor trains and specialised sleds, which previously was completed by multiple flights using Hercules LC-130 aircraft (Anandakrishnan, 2001). This paper aims to briefly outline the controversy around the proposal and formation of the South Pole Traverse. First a short overview of the construction and reasons behind the construction of the route will be presented. A search of the literature is next presented, with further analysis of the three key themes identified: environmental impact, wilderness impact and tourism. Discussion of the various themes is undertaken, concluding with suggestions for future research. The primary reason the South Pole overland traverse was considered necessary was because of the efficiency savings sought, due to the high cost of flying fuel and materials to the South Pole Station. The main savings would be realised with respect to savings of fuel, as it is up to 40% more fuel efficient to transport overland than by air freight (National Science Foundation, 2004). Other advantages include the opportunity to conduct more science by freeing up planes that other wise would be used to re-supply the South Pole Station. Environmental impact would be also reduced by lowering the amount of fuel consumed, and larger load sizes are able to be hauled compared to flown. Construction of the route started in the 2002-2003 summer season, and the route was operational four seasons later in the 2005-2006 summer season (The Antarctic Sun, 2006). The first operational traverse was completed during the 2008 – 09 season (The Antarctic Sun, 2009). The route traverses two crevasse fields, the McMurdo shear zone and the lower Leverett glacier. Crevasses in these areas were filled in using explosives and heavy snow moving machinery, allowing the safe passage of the tractor trains. As the areas of crevasse fields are constantly moving every season requires newly opened crevasses to be identified and filled. The remaining route is relatively flat with little attention needed. The entire route is marked by flags at regular intervals to indicate the way (The Antarctic Sun, 2009). The route selected (figure 1) was not the most direct path to the South Pole. Rather it goes along the Ross Ice Shelf almost parallel to the Transantarctic Mountains, then rises up the Leverett glacier to an altitude of 2400m gaining the polar plateau, turning south for the last 440Km to the Pole. The Leverett glacier was chosen as it has a low gradient, low katabatic wind component (Schwerdtfeger, 1984) and a relatively low number of crevasses compared to more direct routes. Early suggestions that the route would also supply an on ice cable for internet traffic (IT World, 2002), was never realised due to the movement of glacial ice flows. It takes approximately 40 days to deliver a cargo load to the South Pole Station, and each load consists of 110 tonnes of cargo, equivalent of 11 re-supply flights of the LC 130 aircraft previously used (National Science Foundation, 2006). The return trip carrying waste and obsolete materials is significantly shorter (The Antarctic Sun, 2009). Limitations of load size are also negated by the use of tractor trains; large loads previously were constrained to the 3m by 3m door opening on the LC 130 aircraft. Severe weather conditions on the continent hinder many re-supply flights, were as the tractor trains are able to continue in all but the worst weather (Niiler, 2011). The South Pole Traverse does not intend to stop all flights to the South Pole Station, personnel, equipment and supplies are still being transported by aircraft, while large cargo and bulk fuel is going overland (Anandakrishnan, 2001). There are many names given to the overland route from McMurdo to the South Pole such as South Pole Traverse, South Pole Route, Ice Road, South Pole Highway and Surface Traverse. In this paper different terms will be used with respect to different themes as discussed next

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  • Reviews on Antarctic Compliance Framework and Critics: Past, Current and outlook

    Chiang, Cheng Yu (2012)

    Postgraduate Certificate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Coming from a social science perspective, Antarctic matters are bounded by environmental sensitivity issues, earth science, political interests and other strategic movements behind the scene. Since 1959, many entities came to agreement and collaborate in many Ways to keep sustainability in Antarctic surroundings. Antarctica Treaty and its conventions come to regulate implications associated with Antarctica surrounding matters. In the development of Antarctica matters, the Antarctica Treaty and the following conventions formed the Antarctica Treaty System (ATS) that further defines three major pillars into the system: peaceful purpose, freedom of Scientific research and natural reservation. At the frontier of environmental matters, sitting on resourcefulness continent and at the backyard of the globe, Antarctic issue emerged. It falls into politic spotlight; then, the sustainability in the current and the future will feed appetite for politicians, scientific researchers and commercial seekers. Having hopes for better place to become in Antarctica, efforts are deemed significantly required for disciplinary and responsibilities for parties involved. The ATS system serves major mechanism to maintain its balance since 1959. It tends to assure sustainability issue in place in Antarctic environment.

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  • The Relationship of the Maori with Antarctica - A Critical Review

    Mauriohooho, Penny (2012)

    Postgraduate Certificate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Eldon Best (1923, p.27) describes Maori: "Their love of travel is innate; they are born sailors, and have invaded and conquered in many directions....are born Sailors and rovers - the sea is their home.” (Best, E. 1923) Best illustrates that Maori have a history of exploring and travelling. This review attempts to investigate Maori connections within Antarctica's history to establish where Maori youth pursuing Antarctic interests can connect and identify with. Due to knowledge being passed down by oral tradition within the Maori culture this review tries to consolidate what little literature may be available for future reference. It highlights common themes such as oppression, discrimination, biculturalism and whaling and as such a lot of the literature is a reflection of the times in which they were written and could have been an impediment on Maori involvement on relationships with the Antarctic. It also shows that when papers and books were written reference to New Zealand is always assumed to include Maori with no need to differentiate between ethnicities until it becomes a criminal issue in which case the dissociation is made certain. (Dodds & Yusoff, 2005., Dannette, 2010). Specific Maori are commented on for a key relationship played or either for commendable traits demonstrated in an effort to share with Maori today in the hope of increasing Maori involvement within New Zealand Antarctic society, and acknowledge the successes of Maori thus far. If anything it re-iterates what some already know and to educate what more should know as a part of New Zealand history, to get more Maorithinking about their concern for New Zealand's relationship with Antarctica.

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  • Defining Wilderness: a review of history, cultural perspectives and current discussions relevant to Antarctica

    Watson, Ruth (2012)

    Postgraduate Certificate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The term 'wilderness' is used directly in the 1991 Protocol on Environmental Protection (the Madrid Protocol).' Article III of the Protocol states: "The protection of the Antarctic environment and dependent and associated ecosystems and the intrinsic value of Antarctica, including its wilderness and aesthetic values and its value as an area for the conduct of scientific research, in particular research essential to understanding the global environment, shall be fundamental considerations in the planning and conduct of all activities in the Antarctic Treaty area." Furthermore, "... activities in the Antarctic Treaty area shall be planned and conducted So as to avoid... degradation of, or Substantial risk to, areas of biological, scientific, historic, aesthetic or wilderness significance". Following the Antarctic Treaty of 1959, terms were not defined, and considered to be self-explanatory. The appearance of the term 'wilderness' in 1991 rather than 1959 reflects the growth of widespread concern about ecological issues in the intervening years, with related calls for protection of certain types of landscapes. Biodiversity has been implicated in some but not all of these areas (as will be seen below, synonymy of wilderness and biodiversity cannot be assumed). Unlike geology, when it comes to interpretation and values the present is not always a key to the past; significant changes of attitude have taken place overtime. The use of the wilderness concept in the Madrid Protocol may represent what Callicott and Nelson have called "the received wilderness idea", which can be characterised as dramatic landscapes, devoid of human habitation and limited human activity. This contemporary Western version of wilderness forms the basis for significant challenges by extra-Western Cultures; this will be reviewed in more depth below. The wilderness topic is therefore set against the context of changing interest in, and use of, varied Antarctic landscapes by scientists and other visitors, raising important questions about current and future acts of use and preservation. The debates around definition have consequences for those dealing with the ATS and Madrid Protocol; the review below gives an overview of key issues and texts on this subject.

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  • Surveillance in the North and its applicability to the Southern Ocean

    Cameron, Philippa (2012)

    Postgraduate Certificate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The northern hemisphere has been heavily populated for centuries, and so the waterways have undergone? laws long before the current ones were in place. The European Seas presently have an extensive maritime Surveillance System in place to monitor the activities of vessels in the Surrounding Waters, as well as facilitate the movements of ships within ports'. It is a current requirement by the International Maritime Organisation (IMO) for all international Voyage ships greater than 300 tonnes, national waters Voyage ships greater than 500 tonnes, and all passenger ships to carry a transponder device and send updates to coastal authorities and neighbouring vessels with regards to their location and speed. Whilst the Surveillance is primarily used for pollution control and maritime safety, there is recognition for the information to be extended into control over the fisheries industry". The northern hemisphere has a combination of both satellite usage and patrol vessels being used for surveillance, whereas the Southern Ocean is largely unsupervised due to its high seas status". This review surveys the literature available on the European Seas and Arctic maritime Surveillance systems, and the applicability of such a system in the Southern Ocean.

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  • Mining Oil: The Antarctic Treaty System, CRAMRA, and the Effectiveness of The Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty.

    Columbus, Robyn (2012)

    Postgraduate Certificate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    South Korea next year, will begin building a $120 million base at Terra Nova Bay for completion in 2014 - there have been claims that with the Ross Sea suspected of being one of the world's largest untapped oil reserves, (Field, M; 2011) they are setting themselves up for territorial claim when The Madrid Protocol is open for discussion in 2048 (Fogarty, E cited in Field, M; 2011). According to Elliot, D (cited in Ward, J; 1997- 1998) Antarctica's predicted oil reserves have been estimated to be up to 50 billion barrels in the Weddell and Ross Seas (Carroll, J cited in Ward, J; 1997-1998) with Elliot, D (Cited in Ward, J; 19971998) placing the overall Continents reserves at under 203 billion barrels. This review will examine literature surrounding the mining of oil in Antarctica, specifically the effectiveness of The Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty (The Madrid Protocol, 1991) when sovereignty and resource issues will be revisited in 2048. The Antarctic Treaty will be outlined, as well as the history of mining for oil in Antarctica, detailing the failed Convention on the Regulation of Antarctic Mineral Resource Activities (CRAMRA). The reviewer will then explore literature outlining the proponents and opponents of mining for oil in Antarctica, and then examine the effectiveness of The Madrid Protocol with regards to mineral exploitation by looking at the pros and cons of The Protocol.

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  • The geology of Mount Erebus and its tectonic setting in Antarctica

    Broughton, Darcy (2012)

    Postgraduate Certificate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    This review aims to outline current geological knowledge surrounding the Mount Erebus Volcano and its association with the wider tectonic setting present in Antarctica. Mount Erebus was discovered in 1841 and for the moment it is the most active Volcano on the Antarctic continent. It is located on Ross Island in the Ross Sea of Antarctica (Harpel et al. 2004). ROSS Island is the base for both New Zealand's Scott Base and the USAS McMurdo Station and this has resulted in the volcanoes frequent observation since 1956. In 1972 yearly observations of the volcanoe's lava lake were begun (From Kyle 1982 as cited in Harpel et al. 2004). Since then it has been studied extensively, and numerous papers have been Written on its geology. Mount Erebus is the Worlds southernmost active volcano and is 3794 meters high. It dominates the landscape of Ross Island and its volcanic structure and the processes which have led to the formation of these features are discussed in this review with close reference to Esser, Kyle and McIntosh (2004). Mount Erebus is classed as an alkaline intraplate stratovolcano (Behrendt 1999) and has been produced by distinct volcanic phases (Esser, Kyle & McIntosh 2004). Within the last 95,000 years eruptive activity in the summit region of Mount Erebus has included lava flows, Small strombolian eruptions and at least one, possibly two caldera forming events. At least one plinian eruption has occurred from Mt Erebus within this time frame (Harpelet al. 2004). The mountain produces frequent strombolian style eruptions from a convecting phonolitic lava lake which is located at the bottom of the main Crater (Panter & Winter 2008). The volcano is directly associated with the Terror Rift (Behrendt 1999). This is in turn associated with the West Antarctic Rift System making Mount Erebus one of many volcanoes associated with this larger continental scale rift system (Kyle 1990). A thermal anomaly has been observed underneath Ross Island and this is thought to represent a mantle plume feature which is responsible for the volcanism of Ross Island (Gupta, Zhao & Rai 2009).

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  • Carbon footprint model

    Chiang, Cheng Yu (2012)

    Postgraduate Certificate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The purpose of this Carbon footprint excel model intends to establish a reference point for carbon dioxide (CO2/kg) generated during PCAS operation in Antarctica. Based on best available factors sourced, the excel model aims to produce immediate Carbon dioxide estimations for the purposes of Decision making ; Management Reviews It is also to bring awareness for human activity-generated CO2 emissions in an Antarctic context.

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  • Antarctic sea ice - an online resource

    Wilson, Peter (2012)

    Postgraduate Certificate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The objective of the project was to produce an educational resource that would be used by students at New Zealand Secondary schools. There are multiple aims for this educational resource that blend together. • To provide a context for teaching a section of the Secondary school Physics curriculum. • To promote an understanding of Antarctica and the Southern oceans. • To explore the ongoing work related to sea ice thickness measurements. • To explore the role of sea ice in the global climate system. • To explore the use of an online learning tool. An online resource was produced that works. There is scope for further improvements.

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  • Motivation of Antarctic adventurers: knowledge transfer to motivational interventions

    Maxwell, Bob (2012)

    Postgraduate Certificate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    This paper investigates the motivation of Antarctic adventurers to uncover trigger points in their lives that set them on a life of adventure. It is proposed that the knowledge gained will be able to be transferred to motivational intervention programmes for the long term unemployed. A bibliographical technique was used by reading accounts of Antarctic adventurers’ expeditions, which uncovered two trigger points: the ability of literature to inspire people to undertake their own adventures and the conditioning of people to seek out adventures. Methods to incorporate literature and conditioning within motivational interventions are put forward, with the intention of increasing the number of motivational opportunities for participants.

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  • Review of key parameters in the Antarctic toothfish (Dissostichus mawsoni) stock assessment model for the Ross Sea fishery

    Cameron, Philippa (2012)

    Postgraduate Certificate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The Antarctic toothfish found in the Ross Sea forms one of the largest fisheries in the Southern Ocean. Extreme conditions in the area restrict research of the species and limit knowledge of the life cycle, thereby forcing stock assessments to make assumptions. Aspects relating to recruitment, biomass, and the tagging programme are looked into as both parameters in the model and aspects of a stock assessment. With much of the species life cycle under question and with limited means to investigate it further, the calling for a critical assessment of assumed methods and parameters as they relate to the fishery within the stock assessment model becomes apparently obvious.

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  • Antarctica and the importance of the environment - a rude awakening

    Domaas, Christel (2012)

    Postgraduate Certificate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    When thinking about Antarctica I imagine the image is of a vast, white continent at the bottom of the world. It has breathtaking scenery that makes your mind wander, but it is also a continent that—after being there—leads a person to reflect on themselves, on life and death, past and present, and the future. Its stories are all over the landscape and follow a person around like a shadow in the 24-hour daylight. It is a long time ago that the first men sat foot on this continent. But the marks are still there, not only in the stories, but also in the landscape; the first hut erected is still standing, and buried in the ice are many remains of human impact. It is interesting to ponder on how humans have behaved on the continent and to examine whether and how their behaviour has changed over time. What has brought about these changes and what does this mean for the future protection of Antarctica? This paper will chart the evolution of changing behaviour towards the Antarctic environment from the early position of its use value to today’s more environmental protection focus. Today we have a framework of laws and regulations for the Antarctic continent and its surrounding oceans, but it is only 20 years since the Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty was adopted, and big changes have been made during the recent years. Our understanding of this land and continent is completely different today than 100 years ago. From being a white unknown, uncharted area, terra nullius/incognito, on the map at the turn of the last century humans have explored, charted, claimed the continent and exploited it’s marine resources. Our knowledge has increased, and is continuing to do so, not only about Antarctic matters, but also about the Earth in general. Focus on the environment and our behaviour has become a world issue. The environment is a fundamental element in human pleasure and satisfaction even though human behaviour has environmental impacts that are sometimes negative and destructive. Legal requirements, emanating from the signing of the Antarctic Treaty in 1959, and added regulations and measures to control human activity and change conduct in the Antarctic, are elements that have shaped behaviour. But general public opinion and peer pressure have also been significant parts of the process.

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