1,604 results for Thesis, 2013

  • Evaluation of utilisation of the Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV Programme in Central province, Kenya

    Ngugi, Catherine Njeri (2013)

    Masters thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Background: The PMTCT HIV programme has been one of the most successful HIV preventive interventions towards HIV-free future generations. However, even though the programme is virtually effective in developed countries, many developing countries are reporting child HIV infections due to the MTCT. The programme has existed in Kenya for more than a decade, yet in 2011, 12,894children were HIV infected due to MTCT Objective: To evaluate the PMTCT programme, especially the HIV testing from the antenatal period to the postnatal period among expectant parents attending Nyeri Provincial General Hospital in Central Province, Kenya. Design: Retrospective analysis of the hospital registers. Methods: Three hospital registers were analysed for the period from July 2009 to September 2012. The registers were for antenatal, intrapartum and postnatal care respectively. Each register documented the utilisation of PMTCT services by the expectant parents. Descriptive and inferential statistics were produced to analyse data from the registers. Results: The PMTCT services utilisation was sub-optimal. Of the 504 expectant mothers who attended the antenatal clinic, 59.9% came once, 80.4% had their first visit in the third trimester (between weeks 28 and 40) and only 6.9% were accompanied by their partners. All the women were HIV tested in their first visit but only 12.1% were rescreened after three months, and only 3.8% had been tested prior to the current pregnancy (p=0.000). No expectant mother was tested for HIV intrapartum or postpartum. The children of the 504 mothers who were HIV tested were those whose parent/s were known to be HIV positive or who had presented to a child welfare clinic with recurring symptoms suggestive of a failing immune system. Conclusion: Public health programs need to strengthen the PMTCT and HIV prevention programmes to ensure that HIV testing preconception and in pregnancy is fully implemented and strengthened, alongside continued education of the public through community programmes and the media. To avert further horizontal and vertical transmission of HIV, there is a need to address urgently the identified missed opportunities in the PMTCT program. These programmatic challenges require health system redesign and strengthening, resource allocation, addressing research gaps and reassessing the current PMTCT policies.

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  • Communal consciousness: Thread of lies as composite novel and literary depiction of homophobia

    Ojabo, Idoko (2013-07-18)

    Masters thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    Thread of Lies is a work of fiction that deals with homophobia; the trauma and dejection homosexuals face in the twenty-first century. The death of a lesbian couple is the background behind the plot. The exegesis explores the genre (the composite novel) of the creative work, the impacts of religion and politics on homosexuality, and the societies that gay novelists, James Baldwin and Sarah Waters, portray in their fiction. [Note: The novel “Thread of Lies” is embargoed until 19 November 2019]

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  • Analysis of whether the Sea Shepherds are making a significant contribution to saving their clients of various animals, focusing on whales

    McKenzie, Jacinta (2013)

    Postgraduate Certificate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The controversial tactics which the Sea Shepherd (SS) use to make their statement towards anti-whaling and dolphin harvesting has taken on a worldwide interest. Focusing on the topics of political and legal issues, ethical, cultural, economic and environment issues, this literature review will examine the tactics used in their activist approach towards the Japanese, and how the Japanese have responded. Morikawa suggests that they are making an effective contribution towards saving the SS clients through the Japanese only catching 1/3 of their quota for the 2011/2012 whaling season, due to extreme activism by the SS causing disruption to the season. Hirata, on the other hand, suggests that domestic NGOs have proved to be ineffective in influencing Japanese whaling policy (one of main drivers to the continuation of whaling) through extreme actions, such as those taken by the SS, and Kawashima goes one step further, stating the SS is a protest business for profit. Presenting the argument of the real reason behind the extreme eco-terrorism by the SS, Vidal and Hirata have shown their concerns towards misunderstandings between and the staunch nature of both the Japanese whalers and the SS groups. Discovering the real drive behind the two organisations, may help to solve this intensifying '�Whale War.'�

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  • How many accidents are too many accidents? Tourism Safety in Antarctica

    McLauchlan, Melissa (2013)

    Postgraduate Certificate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    In recent years there have been several accidents related to tourism in Antarctica, and the risks are continuing to escalate. There is potential for a catastrophe for the passengers involved, the rescuers, the research projects being performed, and the Antarctic environment. However, there doesn'�t appear to be much research focused on prevention. Just what is being done to prevent further world headlines about Antarctic accidents such as those on Explorer, M/S Nordkapp, Lyubov Orlova, M/S Fram, M/S Ushuaia and M/S Ocean Nova? What actions are being taken to prevent further loss of life like those on the yacht Berserk? This literature review surveys the information and research which is publicly available and which addresses the subject of safety in Antarctica. In the last decade human activity in Antarctica has increased substantially. Although some actions have been taken through co-operative agreements to limit the risks this creates, these actions have been partial and non-binding to many countries, individuals and enterprises. This review establishes that despite escalating risks, no urgent action has been undertaken to develop binding protocols for Antarctic expeditions.

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  • Captain Scott's Image: Charting a Century of Change

    McTurk, Lesley (2013)

    Postgraduate Certificate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Were Scott and his Polar party 'five brave men who sacrificed their lives in a great adventure'�? Was this a tragedy in which 'Courage, determination, and the highest sense of duty were defeated in the worst weather of the most savage climate in the world. No men could have endured more: none ever set a nobler example of heroism and devotion.'� (Du Garde Peach 1963:50) Or was the real tragedy 'that neither Scott or his men needed to die!!'�: 'Unfortunately he lacked originality and lost his common sense so early in the expedition that he repeated mistake after mistake. Finally he would listen to no one and became blind to reality and in doing so killed his men. There is no doubt the blame for the disaster rests squarely on Scott's shoulders.'� (Reaney 2010:127) The way Scott and his expedition have been portrayed over the past hundred years has changed dramatically. This critical review traces the portrayals of Scott from 'hero to fool'�, and reasons for the changes through to the current rehabilitation of Scott's reputation and recognition of his long term legacy. Debates have emerged over the years resulting from these changing perceptions and different accounts taken of the cultural, political and economic contexts of Scott's time. The rise, fall and more recent restoration of Scott's heroic image is charted. The period of the review spans the heroic era of exploration to the present day. It draws from selected books, diaries, reviews, journal articles, press, film and television over this period, and also recent museum exhibitions.

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  • The values of the Antarctic Toothfish (Dissostichus mawsoni)

    Kennedy, Richard (2013)

    Postgraduate Certificate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The Antarctic Toothfish (Dissostichus mawsoni) is an apex predator found only in the Southern Ocean. Antarctic Toothfish are commercially harvested. The industry is controversial since it involves humans interfering with a 'pristine' environment. Many environmental groups are concerned that Toothfish fishing could be detrimental to the food web structure of the Southern Ocean due to Antarctic Toothfish having an apex role within the ecosystem, being long lived, and the fact that little is known about their reproduction. The fisheries for Toothfish are managed by the Convention on the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources (CCAMLR). The Toothfish is valuable as an economic resource for nations involved in harvesting, and also valuable from ecological, and scientific perspectives. This industry appears to contradict the environmentally friendly values of New Zealanders; on closer analysis this may not be the case. With careful management the values of the Antarctic Toothfish can be maintained for future generations. Most of the literature comes from the scientific community with little or no publications available from industry bodies on either matters of sustainability or economics.

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  • Antarctica's cultural heritage

    McKenzie, Jacinta; McEldowney, Jessie; Talbot, Peter (2013)

    Postgraduate Certificate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Cultural heritage is a dynamic concept, incorporating the ideas and values of many different organisations and individuals; it is heavily dependent on the context of the item or site being conserved, and transforms something from an old article into a historically significant object. A formal definition of cultural heritage did not appear in the Antarctic Treaty System until 1995, however Antarctic heritage value has been applied to various sites and monuments since the inception of the Treaty, from Shackleton’s Nimrod Hut to a heavy tractor. This report examines a number of case studies to determine the various ways in which heritage items and sites can be managed – such as the removal of the South Pole Dome – as well as their conservation after natural disasters, for instance the Christchurch earthquakes.

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  • Consultative party status and alternative governance systems in the Antarctic

    Calder-Steele, Nicole; Hogarth, Kathy; McArthur, Nicky; McTurk, Lesley (2013)

    Postgraduate Certificate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Concerns about contemporary challenges have raised questions about the ability of the Antarctic Treaty System to effectively regulate and manage Antarctica and the Southern Ocean. The increased human activity on the continent, and the protection of its fragile environment from degradation and the exploitation of resources is the focus of this paper. The Antarctic Treaty System consists a complex array of bodies that aim to ensure the sustainability of Antarctica. The Antarctic Treaty’s primary aims are peace and science and it has a proud history of achievement, but it must remain fit for purpose. The difficulty of operating within its system is demonstrated through the case studies of extended continental shelf claims in Antarctica and bioprospecting. This paper argues that it is time for the Consultative Parties to address the core complexities of the Antarctic Treaty: the issue of sovereignty claims, the paradigm for governance, consensus decision making and to acknowledge the political nature of the governance regime. It is proposed that, in order to overcome these issues, a new deal is needed. This could be achieved through an assessment of the governance structure of the Antarctic Treaty System by Consultative Parties in order to make improvements and increase its effectiveness and efficiency. Regular “Meetings of Parties” at a Ministerial level, facilitated by the Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research, would see an increase of the effectiveness of the regime, underpinned by scientific research. The collapse of the Antarctic Treaty System, without a suitable alternative, would likely see a “free for all” to its resources by selfinterested states.

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  • Marine protected areas in the Southern Ocean

    Hawkey, Josie; Kennedy, Richard; MacGilloway, Llara; Miller, Polly; Smiley, Kathleen (2013)

    Postgraduate Certificate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    We have reached a critical turning point for Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) in the Southern Ocean. The Southern Ocean contains features of exceptional ecological value and scientific importance. It is one of the last great wildernesses of the world which has not yet been heavily impacted by human activity. There is growing international pressure for the Convention for the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources (CCAMLR) to provide more protection for Southern Ocean ecosystems than the current Regional Fisheries Management Organisation (RFMO) framework provides. This report explores the use of MPAs as a management tool in the Southern Ocean. MPAs are effective management tools as they promote conservation and recovery of fish stocks at the ecosystem level. The success of MPAs in both near shore and high seas contexts were explored. Near shore MPAs have ample scientific evidence of their success but it was concluded that high seas have not been established for long enough to provide conclusive evidence of success. For MPAs on the high seas to succeed they must be well planned, include adequate resources to combat Illegal, Unreported and Unregulated (IUU) fishing and provide flexibility through adaptive management. While CCAMLR is governed by consensus decision making, the key challenge in the establishment of MPAs will be to balance the different agendas of conservation and exploitation of the 25 CCAMLR Members. The solution most likely to gain consensus is a create a network of MPAs in the Southern Ocean that incorporate a mixture of managed harvest and no-take areas. We expect that by the end of 2013 if CCCAMLR Members will reach consensus on the Ross Sea MPA Proposal, the Southern Ocean will then have its first large-scale, high seas MPA. This is an important step in creating a network of MPAs that will protect and conserve the Antarctic marine resources for us, and for future generations, to enjoy

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  • Mapping the End of the World Technology and Antarctic Cartography

    Hawkey, Josie (2013)

    Postgraduate Certificate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Maps are used either as a way to communicate knowledge or, in the display of data, as a way to synthesize knowledge. Throughout history cartography has been used for both of these purposes and the result is that maps have become objects that tell a story, not only of the geography of a place but the also politics and power of that era. Antarctic cartography is an excellent example of this as the exploration of the continent has been confined to a period of rapid technological change. The interplay between technology and the use of cartography as a means of communicating or synthesizing knowledge is reflected in the literature that describes these events. The following study reviews a range of literature and discusses how the interaction between technology, cartography and knowledge in the history of Antarctica is represented in these texts.

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  • Electricity in Isolation: the progress of power generation in Antarctica.

    Calder-Steele, Nicole (2013)

    Postgraduate Certificate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    This review outlines the development of power generation technologies in Antarctica, their downfalls and the increasingly popular eco-friendly alternatives to traditional methods. Power generation in Antarctica is a rapidly developing field considering its relatively short history. Demonstrated in this review is how quickly power generating technologies have developed in less than 100 years on the continent. Generation has progressed from the heroic age in Antarctica where blubber was burnt, to a diesel dominated lifestyle where diesel generators were utilised in almost every base as the predominant means of power supply. Management of diesel and dealing with the effects of its use were not fully realised until the rise of environmental awareness. Here alternative, eco-friendly power generation methods were investigated. With a range of renewable energy generation methods considered, solar and wind generation have, thus far, been selected as the emerging energy technologies on the continent. These new technologies require less maintenance, are cheaper to run long term, and produce fewer emissions so are ultimately better for both the environment and humans alike.

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  • ANDRILL: Has it accomplished all it set out to achieve?

    MacGilloway, Llara (2013)

    Postgraduate Certificate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    ANDRILL (ANtarctic geological DRILLing) is a multinational drilling project that is drilling into sediments under the Ross Ice Shelf in Antarctica. ANDRILL are looking at sediment cores to find evidence supporting the theory of past paleoclimatic changes in the Ross Ice Shelf area (and globally). This review evaluates the ANDRILL project to see if it has met its own conditions and to see if it has added to the geological and climatic knowledge of the Antarctic Region. ANDRILL has currently completed drilling in two sites (McMurdo Ice Shelf (MIS) Project and Southern McMurdo Sounds (SMS) Project) and has recovered 1285m of core material from the MIS project with sediments dating back to ~13 Ma, and another 1138m drill core from the SMS project with sediments dating back to ~20 Ma. Through analysis of these cores, ANDRILL has been able to locate each ice sheet retreat and advance in the vicinity of the drill sites over the past 20 million years. So far, there has been a lot of analysis on the sediment cores themselves, however there is a lack of correlation between these sediments and the dates they were deposited and how this relates to past and future climatic changes.

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  • A review of genetic differentiation of a population of Weddell seals (Leptonychotes weddellii) in McMurdo Sound, Antarctica.

    McEldowney, Jessie (2013)

    Postgraduate Certificate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The circumpolar distributed Antarctic Weddell seal (Leptonychotes weddellii) is considered sensitive to climate change, due to its disappearing fast ice breeding habitat, and assumed to have little panmixia due to a high degree of natal site fidelity. The advancement of molecular techniques has greatly assisted the understanding of population structure within this still cryptic species, and is beginning to reveal a significant relationship between the retreating ice edge extent and decreasing seal population size. However, there is still a need to investigate population trends at a continent-wide scale, to fully understand the climatic changes occurring in relation to the charismatic megafauna.

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  • Measuring snow accumulation using ground-penetrating radar(GPR)

    Hogarth, Kathy (2013)

    Postgraduate Certificate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Ground-penetrating radar (GPR) is a non invasive geophysical method that uses radar pulses to image the subsurface. GPR can be used in a variety of media, including rock, soil, ice, fresh water, pavements and structures. In polar ice sheets, snow accumulation is transported by ice flow to outlet ice streams and glaciers and/or ice shelves. Time scales for this transport can vary up to 105 years depending on the physical processes operating within the ice sheets. Therefore understanding of the internal physical processes, internal structure and flow regime is of great importance for understanding past, present, and future changes of the ice sheet. Radar is an established geophysical technique that has been and continues to be applied to investigate a variety of ice mass properties. This review presents the evolution of the technique from its early inception to the modern currently used Ground penetrating Radar (GPR) systems in the application of primarily measuring snow accumulation in Polar Regions.

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  • Tourism in Antarctica: Finding a Balance for the Future

    McArthur, Nicky (2013)

    Postgraduate Certificate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Antarctic Tourism has increased significantly over the past fifty years, as has global tourism. This review sets out to consider how this increase in tourist numbers, which appears to be inevitable, is impacting on Antarctica. Is the current legislation sufficient for management of the negative impacts of tourism? If not, what is being suggested as a possible way to mitigate these impacts? Tourism has positive impacts as well, and the future for Antarctica appears to be finding a way forward by recognizing the value tourists bring and balancing this alongside manageable regulations to mitigate the negative impacts.

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  • Do the benefits of using fuel cells as a power source in Antarctica, justify overcoming the challenges that remain in constructing and operating them there?

    Talbot, Peter (2013)

    Postgraduate Certificate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Fuel cells are being developed in a number of countries as it is thought that they can provide an environmentally friendly alternative to fossil fuel burning combustion engines such as those in vehicles and some stationary power sources. This paper reviews the existing literature on the use of fuel cells as power sources in Antarctica. It also examines literature regarding the use of fuel cells in similar environments and highlights other relevant research which could impact on their use in Antarctica. The paper then summarises the benefits offered by fuel cells in Antarctica, and identifies the challenges which are still to be overcome. The paper concludes that there is enough evidence to suggest fuel cells can provide significant benefits over diesel generators (including emission reduction and likely cost savings), and offer benefits over other renewable energy sources (such as the ability to produce energy when there is no wind or sunlight), so overcoming the remaining challenges is justified.

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  • Diet of Adélie penguins (Pygoscelis adeliae): Past, Present and Future

    Smiley, Kathleey (2013)

    Postgraduate Certificate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Adélie penguins (Pygoscelis adeliae) are a numerous species of Antarctic penguins. Many studies have examined their diet, both past and present using a variety of methods. However, the conclusions that can be drawn from these studies are limited by the fact that these studies are limited to specific time of the year and the areas which have been studied. Most authors agree that in the past Adélie penguin diets were predominately fish-based, whereas currently the diets are krillbased. Adélie penguins (and their prey) have a strong relationship with the sea-ice. Given that changes in climate and levels of competition have resulted in prey-switching in the past it could be speculated that a change will happen again due to recent climatic and competition changes and what the consequences of this might be. Few studies have given much thought as to how likely this change is. However, researchers are divided as to whether these changes are likely and what the main causes of these changes are. There seems to be much uncertainty surrounding the diet of Adélie penguins, particularly in regards to their diet in the future. Further studies are needed to further reduce this uncertainty.

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  • How have Antarctic explorers from the heroic age shaped our understanding of leadership, and what links can be drawn between the historical accounts relating to Robert Falcon Scott, Ernest Shackleton and Roald Amundsen and more recent Antarctic exploration, and the literature focused on strategies to develop our leaders today?

    Miller, Polly (2013)

    Postgraduate Certificate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    In his 1977 critique of the heroic role of Scott in the British consciousness and character, David Thomson highlighted how late Edwardian values and education were a poor preparation for Antarctic adventure. In comparison Roald Amundsen, a Norwegian who virtually grew up on skis, trained for the mission in conditions similar to the Antarctic environment, and employed an unsentimental approach to using dog teams to reach the pole (Thompson, 2002). Accounts of Ernest Shackleton's unsuccessful attempt to cross the continent also provided fascinating insights into the values and approach to leadership in the Antarctic at the time (Alexander, 1998). The highly practical and scientific approach to preparing and leading groups used by Amundsen and Shackleton are still relevant today (Perkins, Holtman & Murphy, 2012)

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  • King Tide: screenplay and exegesis

    Marbrook, James (2013-12-03)

    Masters thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    King Tide is a 114 minute comedy-drama that is an exploration of care and of community. It follows the middle-aged Reade as he returns to New Zealand from the Gold Coast to begin an unofficial investigation into ACC fraud in the Kaipara/Dargaville community. He has left the Gold Coast under a cloud. His relationship with girlfriend Sharon has also drastically soured. Worst of all, he must leave his adored step-daughter Summer as he starts a new life in Dargaville. His undercover investigation is soon complicated by the possibilities of a new relationship with country school teacher Nadine. Adding to this complexity is the very make-up of the community he finds himself in. News spreads fast here. His cover is blown almost immediately when he follows up on a tip and seeks out the head-injured Clay, a possible recipient of illegal ACC funds. Clay, the local woodchopping hero whose injury has reduced him to a silent state, is also Nadine’s ex. The stumbling block of any investigation in the area is Roy, the enigmatic ACC co-ordinator and charismatic guardian of this town. Coalescing around him are a host of locals; hairdressers, carers, woodchoppers, fishermen and the local antique dealer Merle. While the spine of the film centres on Reade’s enquiry and investigation into fraud and community connivance, his journey also becomes a prism through which other things are seen; there is the Kaipara environment itself, small town culture and also Reade’s own personal connection to the area (and this is mostly kept hidden). While Aoetoeroa / New Zealand has a reputation for its “cinema of unease” (Botes, 2008), King Tide represents an attempt to circumvent this by embracing weakness, disability and idiosyncracy as the ties that can bind and protect a community. NOTE: The screenplay is embargoed until 20 August 2019.

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  • Seabird tracking in the Southern Ocean

    Smiley, Kathleen (2013)

    Postgraduate Certificate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Terrestrial animals have a long history of being studied although have only relatively recently begun to detail due to the challenges involved in studying them. Compared to other marine species seabirds are relatively easy to study and are potentially sensitive to changes in the marine environment. As a result of this they are often used as bio-indicators. In the Southern Ocean a number of different devices created by a number of different manufacturers are used, with each type having advantages and disadvantages. When selecting a device to undertake a study it is therefore necessary to consider the biological question being asked, the size of the study species and the budget of the research. The data which is collected in these studies can be used for both conservation and fisheries management purposes and has been used so by the Commission for the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources. However, there are a number of ethical considerations to be taken into consideration, including the weight of the device and potential impacts upon breeding success. Tracking and monitoring technologies are continually being improved, allowing for increasingly complex biological questions to be answered, which allows for a greater understanding of the ecology of seabirds.

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