1,355 results for Thesis, 2014

  • Strength and flexibility of the hip, knee and ankle associated with patellofemoral pain syndrome : a case-control study

    Stuhlmann, Naomi Helen (2014)

    Thesis
    Unitec

    BACKGROUND: Patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS) has been defined as anterior knee pain in the absence of pathology, and a complex multifactorial aetiology. The identification of modifiable intrinsic factors variables which can be measured in a clinical setting would be useful for practitioners who manage people with PFPS. OBJECTIVES: To identify intrinsic variables associated with PFPS using physical examination measures of known reliability. Design: Cross sectional, case-control. Setting: laboratory. PARTICPANTS: Twenty participants (n=10 symptomatic, n=10 asymptomatic). Asymptomatic participants were matched to symptomatic participants by age, gender, height, weight and level of recent physical activity (RPAQ). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Participants were assessed for hip flexion, quadriceps length, iliotibial band length, isometric hip internal and external rotation strength, and the range of ankle dorsiflexion during weight bearing. RESULTS: Isometric strength measures (hip internal and external rotation strength) were significantly different between symptomatic and asymptomatic participants and were associated with 'very large' effects (d>2.5). CONCLUSIONS: The strong association between hip weakness and PFPS, indicates the importance of considering this factor in a clinical setting. Measures used in this research were clinically appropriate and reliable to assess strength and flexibility measures associated with PFPS.

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  • Clinical reasoning in osteopathy : an investigation of diagnostic hypothesis generation for patients with acute low back pain

    Roots, Simon Ashley (2014)

    Thesis
    Unitec

    BACKGROUND: The clinical reasoning strategies employed in healthcare have been well established in a wide range of health professions. Currently, there is little literature pertaining to the diagnostic process of osteopaths and the clinical reasoning strategies utilised in osteopathy. AIM:To investigate the processes of clinical reasoning utilised by osteopaths in the diagnostic hypothesis generation for patients with acute low back pain. METHODS: Two methods were employed: a thematic analysis in conjunction with content analysis which involved a novel ‘consultation mapping’ approach. Three osteopaths were video recorded taking a case history and performing examination procedures. Following conclusion of each consultation, participants viewed a video recording of the consultation, and provided a commentary which was audio recorded. All audio and video recordings were later transcribed for analysis. RESULTS: Three themes were identified from the data which broadly represented three existing clinical reasoning strategies: Implicit cognitive evaluations not apparent to an external observer (pattern recognition); Iterative processing of cues assembled through clinical interactions (hypothetico-deductive reasoning); Collaborative interaction between patient and practitioner (collaborative reasoning). Each consultation was then ‘mapped’, and content analysis showed dynamic transitioning between three levels of pattern recognition (‘light’, ‘moderate’, ‘heavy’) of hypothetico-deductive reasoning. Collaborative reasoning occurred consistently at the commencement and conclusion of each consultation. CONCLUSIONS:The clinical reasoning strategies employed by osteopaths in this study were pattern recognition, hypothetico-deductive reasoning and collaborative reasoning. Each strategy was characterised by a theme which described its meaning.

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  • Hybrid infill : the search for an affordable housing solution

    Taylor, Maria (2014)

    Thesis
    Unitec

    The provision of quality, affordable housing is vital for our communities and country. The current housing shortage, and lack of quality, affordable housing in Auckland provides the foundation for the relevant and significant inquiry. The intensification of land within the city boundaries through infill development, the implementation of prefabricated construction methods for improved construction efficiency and productivity, and the exploration of smaller, more efficiently designed dwellings; are three ways identified and examined as methods to increase the supply of quality, affordable housing. The review and analysis of literature and precedent outlined the many benefits of prefabrication in the provision of quality, affordable housing, and it’s greatest defeat in the limitations that are typically addressed through site-specific design. Recent literature has identified the hybrid, panel + module typology of prefabrication, largely unexplored in New Zealand, to have the greatest potential to incorporate responsive, site- specific design, for better architectural outcome, with the efficiencies that prefabrication has been proven to provide. The development of the hybrid system for application to a unique infill, social housing programme, with diverse and wide-ranging site conditions, provides the constraints and requirements of the inquiry. The design process documented provides a model to the methods and considerations required in the development of a hybrid prefabricated system for quality, site specific, affordable, infill housing in Auckland.

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  • Identifying the existence of the glass ceiling and examining the impact on the participation of female executives in the Vietnamese banking sector

    Tran, Thi Thu Thao (2014)

    Thesis
    Unitec

    Glass ceiling refers to both visible and invisible barriers that stop women from advancing to the top positions. As the glass ceiling exists in most contexts, should it be assumed that the low participation of female executives in the boardrooms in the Vietnamese banking sector is the effect of glass ceiling? Are female executives fully aware of the multiple layers of the glass ceiling in their organizations? Do they choose to confront it, or are they happy with the current situations? Therefore, an empirical research in the context of Vietnam is needed to provide more empirical findings to the literature. In addition, research should be conducted from various perspectives to have a more comprehensive understanding of the degree of the glass ceiling and its effect on leadership effectiveness and organizational performance. The literature review in the research puts the focus on the glass ceiling and its multiple layers, the differences in the leadership styles between male and female managers/leaders and the relationship between gender and leadership effectiveness/organizational performance. Both qualitative and quantitative methods were employed to conduct the research. The self administered questionnaires were responded by sixty eight participants, who came from three of the largest banks in Vietnam. The interviews were carried out subsequently with the participation of ten interviewees in supervisory and middle managerial positions. The results of the data analysis revealed that the glass ceiling effect did exist in the Vietnamese banking sector. The obstacles originated from various sources including social stereotypes, corporate practices, family-work conflict and women themselves. The findings also supported the differences in the leadership styles between male and female managers/leaders and showed greater preference for male executives in the Vietnamese banking sector. However, following the study’s results, there were benefits of removing the glass ceiling to organizational success. Finally, it was recommended that both banks and women themselves should take action in enhancing women’s career development. More research is needed concerning the relationship between glass ceiling and organizational culture or differences between higher and lower level of leaders/managers in leadership/management styles and their effectiveness. These variables are important to provide a more thorough understanding about the glass ceiling issue and its effects.

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  • The efficacy of a ‘novel mobilisation technique’ on thoracic, lumbar, hip and knee range of motion

    Woolley, Sarah (2014)

    Thesis
    Unitec

    INTRODUCTION TO THESIS Low back pain (LBP) is one of the most common complaints addressed by manual therapists (Slater, Davies, Parsons, Quitner, & Schug, 2012), and there is an extensive literature regarding aetiology, classification, methods of diagnosis and effective treatments for LBP. Low back pain has a substantial financial cost to the healthcare system and employers due to decreased productivity and lost days from work (Wynne-Jones et al., 2014). A wide range of different forms of manual and manipulative therapy have been investigated for the treatment of LBP (Hidalgo, Detrembleur, Hall, Mahaudens, & Nielens, 2014; Tsertsvadze et al., 2014) One form of therapy popular amongst manual therapy practitioners is the ‘Mulligan concept’ (Hing, Bigelow, & Bremner, 2008).BACKGROUND: Low back pain is a common problem affecting most people at some stage in their lives. Manual therapy is commonly used as a form of treatment in the presence of lower back pain. ABSTRACT AIM:The aim of the study was to investigate the concepts of regional interdependence with Mulligan’s mobilisation with movement and the effect of a novel mobilisation technique (Mulligan’s traction SLR combined with a post-isometric relaxation). STUDY DESIGN The present study was a controlled pre-post experimental research design. METHOD: Twelve, healthy and physically active male participants (mean age 28.1 ± 3.5 years), with perceived ‘tight hamstrings’ were recruited for the study. Participants were randomised to receive the novel mobilisation technique to the left (n=6) or right (n=6) leg, using the contralateral limb as the control. Outcome measures included; SLR, KE, modified Schober’s (Tsp, Lsp) and sit and reach tests, which were taken before, immediately and 1 hour post intervention. RESULTS The main statistically significant and clinically meaningful result included immediate changes in the modified Schober’s Tsp (mean difference = -0.40 ± SD 0.48, 95% CI -0.70 to -0.10, t = -2.9, p = 0.014, d = 0.435) and changes in the sit and reach test immediately post (mean difference = -2.20cm ± 1.56, 95% CI -3.30 to -1.20cm, t = -4.869, p<0.001, d= 0.325, “small”) and at 1-hour post (mean difference = -2.62 ± 2.89, 95% CI -4.5 to -0.78cm, t = -3.1, p = 0.009, d = 0.39 “small”) . There were no significant changes in the SLR, KE active or passive and modified Schober’s Lsp tests, immediately or 1-hour post intervention. CONCLUSION The novel mobilisation technique applied to the hip demonstrated statistically significant changes in the modified Schober’s Tsp and sit and reach tests. The main limitations to the present study included a potential ‘ceiling’ effect with the baseline SLR values, short technique duration (‘time under tension’) and no warm up.

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  • Impacts of Early Childhood Education Social Obligations on Families and Whanau

    Randall, Judith (2014)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    This thesis explores the impacts of ECE social obligations on affected families and whānau. In 2013 ECE social obligations were introduced through the Social Security (Benefit Categories and Work Focus) Amendment Bill. These obligations require beneficiaries to ensure their children are “enrolled in and attending an approved early childhood education programme from the age of three, until they start school” (Work and Income New Zealand, 2013c). A qualitative approach was utilised to hear the voices of those affected. Data was gathered through interviews with eight beneficiary families and two ECE centre managers who had knowledge of the impacts of obligations. Perceived impacts were analysed using thematic analysis. An examination of the discourses underpinning these obligations as represented in policy documents was undertaken utilising Bacchi’s (2000; 1999) “what’s the problem?” framework. The introduction of the ECE social obligation policy was found to have placed responsibility on beneficiaries but to have failed to adequately address barriers to ECE participation that families face. The study identified many barriers which impede a family’s ability to participate in ECE. These include transportation, cost, and provision of high quality, suitable ECE for their children available in their local community. Mandatory ECE does not provide the infrastructure needed to enable families to access ECE programmes as it does not address the accessibility, structural, and personal barriers that families face. The thesis argues that the context of incorporating ECE policy in Ministry of Social Development (MSD) legislation and the use of sanctions to ensure compliance is likely to lead to negative outcomes for children’s well-being. Policy-as-discourse analysis identified that social obligations were conceived in the context of reducing long-term benefit dependency. The three interrelated dominant discourses underpinning this policy, economic rationalisation, the positioning of beneficiaries as job seekers, and the positioning of children as vulnerable, has left the child as citizen invisible. I advocate that redefining the problem through a child as citizen lens could provide a framework for government to support families through barriers and address provision of high quality ECE. Three key suggestions are made. Firstly, utilisation of a child’s rights framework could ensure children’s rights are at the forefront of ECE policy. This would enable the primary emphasis to be on the welfare and best interests of all children. Within this framework this study identified the need for ECE matters to be in the jurisdiction of the Ministry of Education, rather than MSD, in order to ensure consistency and accessibility to quality ECE for all children. Secondly, ECE engagement needs to be promoted through a positive model rather than sanctions. Government financial investment in integrated ECE services within local communities could aid families to overcome participation barriers and provide an ideal model for enabling families to access social services. Thirdly, government policy and funding needs to support provision of high quality ECE services that are responsive to their local communities. Such services are essential to encouraging ECE participation.

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  • Fluctuation space : how might a mega-event venue be programmed more intensively for long-term viability and social sustainability?

    Wyatt, Matthew (2014)

    Thesis
    Unitec

    With the growth in complexity of global sporting events, the priority driving the design of dwelling places for such festivals is shifting from an aesthetic focus driven by programmatics to a legacy focus driven by pragmatics. Designing for legacy concerns place marking, where the history of an event is retained, as well as place making where the future usage of an event structure provides a positive outcome for the host region, towards all matters of context. The project investigates an alternative strategy for dealing with the master planning of major event venue layouts, and the possibilities of its transition into proactive future usage. The design process is used to demonstrate the interactions between minor buildings and large complexes where both individuality and unity are equally important.

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  • The Further Analysis of Catania's Concept of the Operant

    Zhang, Yi (2014)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    Catania’s theory of the operant incorporated the continuous characteristic of behaviour, where the response distribution follows a normal distribution. That is, most responses fall within the reinforced range, a few responses persisted outside of the reinforced range. Three roosters and three hens were used as the subjects. A continuous reinforcement (CRF) schedule was implemented throughout both experiments of the study. In Experiment 1, the screen was divided into four quadrants. Only one quadrant was active in each condition and the active area shifted to a different quadrant across conditions. Each peck within the active quadrant was considered as a correct response, which results in reinforcement. Each peck outside the active quadrant was considered as an incorrect response, which results in extinction. In Experiment 2, the screen was divided into vertical strips. During Conditions 1 to 8, the consequences for the correct and incorrect responses are the same as Experiment 1. In Condition 9, the consequence for the incorrect responses changed from extinction to punishment (delay to reinforcement). That is, a 3 second red screen was followed with each occurrence of an incorrect response. It was found that the incorrect responses persisted during each condition of the two experiments for most birds. It was also found that most of the hens’ responses were correct responses by the end of each condition in Experiment 2. However, for all birds in Experiment 1 and the roosters in Experiment 2, most responses were not correct by the end of each condition. The findings of Experiment 2 also indicated that the changes in condition length, active area’s size, and consequence of the incorrect responses might have had some influence on the number of incorrect responses. Overall, the findings demonstrated behavioral continuity through exploring the distribution of response proportion when reinforcement was placed on the correct responses, and when extinction or punishment was placed on the incorrect responses. Thus, the study provided some empirical support towards Catania’s concept of the operant.

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  • Constructing and Reconstructing Criminality in Aotearoa/New Zealand: Dominant Media Discourses on Crime and Criminality and their Impact on Offenders’ Identities and Rehabilitation Efforts

    Riches, Murray (2014)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    This study investigates the dominant media discourses and ideologies surrounding crime and criminality in Aotearoa/New Zealand, how such discourses are constructed and legitimised by media reporting of crime, and the implications of these discourses for deemed offenders. The study firstly involves a critical discourse analysis (CDA) of ‘mainstream’ media reports relating to crime and criminality in Aotearoa/New Zealand over a 12-month period – paying particular attention to the reporting evident in two major newspaper outlets. This analysis reveals two key themes: the construction of criminal offenders as undeserving criminalised others – particularly through the use of truth-claims about criminality and the simplification of offenders’ identities – and the legitimisation of retributive, tough-on-crime, responses to offending. The analysis of media discourses is augmented by an ethnographic study of an offender rehabilitation programme. This investigation is used to explore how dominant discourses and ideologies on crime and criminality contribute to the construction of offenders’ self-identities, the impact of such identity construction on their patterns of offending and rehabilitation, as well as the ways in which these discourses are contested (or reinforced) by those deemed ‘offenders’. This follow-up ethnographic case study involves participant observation, focus groups and interviews with participants of the Good Lives Model offender rehabilitation programme at Anglican Action in Hamilton over a 12-month period. The participants of this programme are men transitioning back into the community after serving significant prison sentences. The ethnographic investigation reveals the ways the otherising discourses exposed in the CDA are present for, and effect, the men as they make the challenging journey out of prison, particularly in their experiences of discrimination and otherisation when seeking to engage with, and transition back into, the wider community. This exploration also reveals a nuanced negotiation of identity and power, whereby the men both draw on and challenge the dominant discourses at different times in the process of negotiating an identity position and accessing agency within a marginalising discursive framework. Thus, the discourse analysis and the ethnographic study together provide rich insights into the pervasive impacts of dominant public constructions of criminality on offenders’ sense of identity and on their attempts to reintegrate with society. The study concludes by arguing that the CDA and ethnographic investigation together emphasise the need to challenge the destructive nature of the dominant discourses and cultivate a more inclusive and reasoned discursive framework for exploring ideas around crime and criminality in Aotearoa/New Zealand. The thesis argues that one way to counter the ‘wilful blindness’ exemplified in media and public discourses, is through the use of story for it is through listening and seeking to know the other that we can begin to have our assumptions challenged. It is important to note that this thesis in no way endorses any criminal offending nor does it seek to minimise the pain and suffering of any victims of crime. Rather, it argues that such a dualistic understanding of crime, and the relationship between victims and offenders, only inhibits our ability to look at the issues surrounding crime and criminality with clarity.

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  • Infant and peer relationships in curriculum

    Redder, Bridgette Miriam (2014)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    The purpose of this thesis was to explore the relations between infants and their peers as they interacted intersubjectively with one another in an early childhood care and education environment and to investigate how the teacher was answerable through her engagement in these intersubjective events. Drawing upon a Bakhtinian methodological approach to research utterance was employed as my unit of analysis, providing a means to investigate the intersubjective interactions between infants and their peers in tandem with the teachers’ engagement in these interactions as answerable acts. This thesis builds on a previous pilot study which utilised dialogic methodology to investigate the nature of infant and teacher dialogue in an education and care context (White, Peter & Redder, 2015). The research that formed the basis for my subsequent analysis took place in a New Zealand education and care centre that catered for children less than two years of age. In the present study the same polyphonic video recording was used to capture infant and peer intersubjective interactions and the teacher’s engagement within these events. A mixed methods research approach was employed to qualitatively and quantitatively analyse the video data. The findings of this study suggest that infants are intersubjective agents in their relationships with peers and with teachers. Infants intentionally communicated with peers in lived relational experiences that were characterised by the fleeting, elongated or connected nature of their interactions. Mutual understanding, joint attention, attunement and the employment of synchronised language forms were features of infant ― peer intersubjective experiences. In addition, the findings revealed the capacity of infants and peers to relate with one another in social interactions that promote ‘dialogic spaces’ through which intersubjective relationships are sought. When teachers engaged in the infant ― peer intersubjective relations they either restrained by ‘shutting’ down or sustained by ‘opening up’ the intersubjective experience for the peers. The teacher’s body language was a feature of their engagement that contributed in a variety of ways to the infant ― peer intersubjective experience. Indeed how teachers engaged themselves in the interactions that were taking place between infants and their peers often determined the orientation of the teacher’s body positioning. The findings suggest when teachers restrained infant ― peer intersubjective dialogue, this form of engagement had the potential to alter how infants related to peers in subsequent interactions, highlighting the importance of sensitive, ‘in tune’ teacher engagement. Furthermore, the results highlight the pivotal role of the teacher as a ‘connecting’ feature within infant and peer intersubjective experiences, one who has the potential to ‘open up’ dialogic spaces for infants and their peer partners through engagement that is dialogic. These findings taken together may have implications for policymakers, educators and teacher education by ‘opening up’ dialogic spaces through which infants are seen as intersubjective agents and dialogic partners.

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  • Community-based ecotourism development through stakeholder engagement and collaboration: A case of Lababia Village, Morobe Province, Papua New Guinea

    Vanua, Renet (2014)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    This thesis argues that community and stakeholder engagement and collaboration in ecotourism development has been limited. However, involvement/engagement of stakeholders is important in the affairs of planning, governing and overall development at local level, and must become an integral part (Williams, 2006) of ecotourism development. While there has been much previous research on ecotourism, emergence of participatory tourism development is a relatively new component within prevailing socio-economic, cultural and political conditions. The concepts of ecotourism, community-based ecotourism, and community participation in tourism planning set the theoretical context of the study. The key question in this study is how can we achieve community-based ecotourism development and participation? Methods and conclusions of the thesis have not only provided critical commentaries about community-based ecotourism and participation but have also drawn clear identification of how stakeholders can effectively participate to achieve sustainable community-based ecotourism development. The aim of this study is to examine the effectiveness of community and stakeholder engagement and collaboration in ecotourism development in the context of a developing nation and provide recommendations as to how it may be achieved. As a result of the uneven distribution of economic benefits to the host community, the positive nature of socio-cultural impacts is admittedly perceived by the host community as poor in developing nations. Most, if not all, stakeholder engagement lacks transparency, and is characterised by political instability, lack of information and data about developmental issues, making it difficult to achieve sustainable ecotourism development. This draws attention to the need for tourism stakeholders and the local community to enhance local ecotourism development through stakeholder participation and collaboration. Lababia village in Papua New Guinea is no exception, as an internationally recognised area, Kamiali Wildlife Management, recognised as a biodiversity research area, fulfilled the requirements of a case study for this research, due to the potential in community-based ecotourism development, and the significance of the negative impact of tourism on the socio-economic nature of the host community. To achieve the research aim, the Nominal Group Technique (NGT) was applied to reveal the existing ways of how stakeholders can facilitate effective engagement and collaboration, and prioritise their recommendations about community-based ecotourism participation. Semi-structured follow-up interviews were conducted with a variety of the relevant stakeholders to further examine the current issues, problems, and concerns raised for the achievement of effective community and stakeholder engagement. The results of this thesis clearly demonstrate the importance of the facilitation of effective community and stakeholder engagement in community-based ecotourism development and that the local community cannot work without the participation and collaboration of other tourism stakeholders directly and indirectly involved in tourism.

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  • How prepared are Pākehā tertiary teachers to teach Māori students? Teachers’ own perceptions of their preparedness

    Honey, Sandra Elizabeth (2014)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    In the past three decades New Zealand has seen an increasing government commitment to realising the promises of both equality and tino rangatiratanga embedded in the principles of the Treaty of Waitangi. There is acknowledgement that the impacts of colonisation and past acts of government have negatively affected Māori economically, socially, politically and educationally. To strengthen New Zealand’s ability to compete economically and academically on an international level, the Ministry of Education 2014 – 2019 Tertiary Education Strategy set an aim for 55% of all 25-34 year olds, regardless of ethnicity, to have a qualification at Level 4 or above on the NZQA Framework, by 2017. Additionally Ka Hikitia: the Māori Education Strategy (2009, 2013) particularly aims for Māori to be achieving these educational successes as Māori, where being Māori is a strength in their learning and where learning environments acknowledge and support Te Ao Māori. Although enrolments of students at Wānanga (tertiary institutes based on Māori principles and values) are steadily increasing, the majority of Māori tertiary students currently study at mainstream (English medium) institutes and are taught in the majority by Pākehā teachers. Regardless of which institute Māori study at, the Tertiary Education Strategy (Ministry of Education, 2014) acknowledges that culturally responsive education better engages Māori. This acknowledgement carries with it an expectation that Pākehā tertiary teachers are prepared to teach in culturally responsive ways and are confident in using culturally responsive pedagogies. This thesis examines how prepared Pākehā tertiary teachers perceive themselves to meet the tertiary education strategy’s expectation. It includes examining the existing literature about how tertiary teachers are prepared in New Zealand and the expectations of culturally responsive tertiary education. Pākehā tertiary teachers were then interviewed for their perspectives of their preparedness for teaching Māori students. Teachers identified themselves variably in their perceived levels of preparedness. What emerges from the study is that tertiary teacher preparation in a cultural context should take priority in developing new teachers’ cultural capacity to meet the expectation of the tertiary education strategies for Māori to be succeeding in tertiary education, as Māori. This research is significant because it looks at the complexity of what is required for preparing culturally responsive Pākehā tertiary teachers and aligns this with teachers’ own perceptions of how prepared they are. Studying the perception of preparedness from the teachers’ point of view is a new direction to take as the evaluation of tertiary teacher performance is usually done by means external to the teachers’ own personal evaluations; that is, teacher capability and performance is usually measured by student evaluations and student achievement outcomes. Whilst this study is New Zealand focussed and refers to many New Zealand originating resources, literature from international studies also serve to reinforce the notion that being a culturally responsive teacher is a multifaceted journey of both personal and professional growth for teachers.

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  • Implementing a carbon measurement & reporting system in an international non-government organisation: A case study

    Venter, Ruth (2014)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    The movement towards sustainable business practices has been necessitated by the growing acceptance that traditional business practices are unsustainable: financially, socially and environmentally. To date, studies have largely been concentrated on the for-profit sector, in particular on the implications for investors. In this research, I utilise an action research methodology to explore how the implementation of a carbon reporting system impacts the social license to operate in a large international non-governmental organisation, Christian Blind Mission. The case study summarises the process of developing the reporting system, tools, and implementation in this large organisation spanning 76 countries. The purpose of this study is to utilise institutional theory to demonstration how the NGO’s accountability has progressed beyond only being accountable to the INGO Accountability Charter to include stakeholders under the Social Licence to Operate for long term sustainability. I utilise a new institutional theory perspective in particular: constructing normative networks, ‘changing normative association’ education, undermining assumptions and beliefs, and enabling work. I utilise Institutional theory as a means to explain how institutional pressures change organisational behavior and the implications of the pressures while implementing a carbon measurement and reporting system. I also discuss the implication of carbon reporting on organisations Social Licence to Operate. I also highlight the need for research in implementing traditionally for-profit sustainability tools in the not for profit sector.

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  • Pākehā Roots: Is claiming a Pākehā identity based on ethnic heritage or ethical choice?

    Green, Lynda (2014)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    Development of a Pākehā identity has been an ongoing process since the first influx of people from the Northern Hemisphere set foot on the shores of Aotearoa. Originally the term Pākehā served as a generic term to distinguish early European colonisers from the Indigenous population who came to be known under the generic term of Māori. Both of these terms separated two groups of residents that have come to be known under the broader title of New Zealander. Chapter 2 begins with providing definitions from a range of sources describing some origins and definitions of the term Pākehā, discussion around the appropriateness of the term and how it can be used in our current timeframe to show empathy with Māori and their struggle for self-determination. A brief overview of human migration to the British Isles then the resulting migration to Aotearoa provides historical context to our pre-Pākehā heritage. Following this is a snapshot of some of our earliest Pākehā settlers which leads into the extent our governing bodies enlisted assisted immigrants to populate and provide infrastructure for this new colony of the British Empire. Chapter 3 delves into the angst-ridden territory of authentic existence championed through the existential philosophical movement. Tempered with a more compassionate approach from communitarian philosophy we are provided with a means to explore the many layers that build not only individual identity, but a collective identity also. Evidence is offered for the accommodation of the similarities, and more importantly differences we all experience in our wider relationships. Finally, focus is narrowed to specific issues attached to identifying as Pākehā in Aotearoa. Underpinning this research are the nine semi-structured interviews which have provided tangible evidence of the complex elements accompanying the decision to self-identify as Pākehā (Chapter 4). The very nature of identifying as Pākehā, as illustrated through the interview is not straightforward eliciting responses ranging from abundantly clear, to confusing and to contentious. The sheer diversity of responses generated an initial observance that, if this level of diversity in defining the term Pākehā is shown by nine people, how much more diversity would be operating throughout the general population. Here we can see how the basic premise of existential philosophy, that is, there is no essential nature to our existence, can be applied to attempting to seek a definition of being Pākehā that encapsulates all of the possible elements. What became abundantly apparent was the heartening feeling of most people striving for a sense of connectedness, on various levels, and a sense of belonging to this country we all call home.

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  • Rethinking support for the digital age: support for online learners from a teaching staff perspective

    Lewis, Narissa (2014)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    Although the internet has contributed to a rapid increase in online education provision and student numbers, the withdrawal rate in online settings is higher than that in face to face. Consequently, the need for adequate infrastructure and support systems for online education cannot be ignored. With a growing online student base, there is a need for tertiary organisations to be responsive and supportive to students who are completing their education outside of the traditional, face to face classroom scenario. However, within the tertiary organisation that this study takes place, support services are predominantly focused towards students who are studying face to face. The purpose of this research was to identify current thinking and practices of support for online students from a teaching staff perspective to contribute to the development of support for online students. As the main point of contact for students who are studying online with the organisation, tutors of online programmes were interviewed to identify how they currently support their students and in turn, enable them to progress with their education. Tutors were also interviewed to identify the organisational factors they believe should exist when supporting students who are studying online. This study identified that tutors believe that managerial staff who make decisions about offering online courses perceive these as an extension of face to face courses. As a result, the time and effort required to develop, teach and support online programmes and students is underestimated which causes challenges for teaching staff. Nevertheless, tutors in this study were committed to supporting their students and do this through providing timely feedback, encouraging online learning communities and self-directed learning. Tutors are driven to provide this level of support as they describe their students as having many commitments in addition to their studies. They also describe students as second-chance learners who may have had negative educational experiences in the past. This awareness of students’ circumstances drives tutors to provide support when students are studying which can be after hours or during weekends. Tutors also believe that support services should be more flexible and operate during these times. To compensate, tutors take on roles that they might not otherwise do in the face to face learning environment. However, such practices are challenging and may be unsustainable if the number of courses and student numbers are to increase. Tutors in this study would prefer a collaborative organisational approach to online education to ensure the services and resources required to develop, teach and support online programmes are provided in a seamless manner. This study does not suggest that support services are made available 24/7; rather, it recommends that the organisation first needs to clarify their position and staff roles in online education to ensure those who develop, teach and support online programmes have a shared understanding of the resources, time and effort required for these programmes.

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  • Dairy calves' preference for rearing substrate

    Worth, Gemma (2014)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    Rearing substrate is an important component of the pre-weaning environment of dairy calves. Traditional substrate types, such as sawdust, are becoming difficult and/or expensive for farmers to obtain in New Zealand. Therefore, there is a need to evaluate alternative rearing substrates for dairy calves that that are economically viable for farmers, readily available and provide an acceptable level of animal welfare. The preference of dairy calves for four different rearing substrates and the effects on behaviour and physiology were evaluated. At 1 wk of age, 24 calves were housed in groups of four, in pens which were evenly divided into four rearing substrates: sawdust, rubber, sand and stones. During the first 3 d calves were given free access to all four substrates. Calves were then restricted to each substrate type for 48 h. In order to rank preference, calves were subsequently exposed to two surfaces simultaneously for 48 h until calves experienced all six treatment combinations. Finally, calves were given free access to all four substrates simultaneously for 48 h. Lying behaviour and location in the pen was recorded for 24 h at the end of each experimental period using handycams and accelerometers. Preference was determined based on lying times on each substrate. The insulating properties of each substrate were assessed using iButtons®. During the initial free choice period, the proportion of time spent standing (p < .001) and lying (p < .001) was influenced by substrate. Calves spent a higher proportion of time on sawdust (88%) than all other substrates (rubber: 6%, sand: 4% and stones: 3%). When restricted to each substrate, calves spent more (p .05) of rearing substrate on the frequency of jumps, buck/kicks, head to object and mount/frontal pushing. Calves spent more (p < .05) time lying on sawdust and rubber in comparison to sand and stones. There were no effects (p > .05) of rearing substrate on the number and duration of lying bouts. We detected no effect (p > .05) of rearing substrate on concentrations of cortisol, lactate, glucose, or white blood cell, neutrophil and lymphocyte count or the neutrophil:lymphocyte ratio. The insulating properties were greatest for sawdust and lowest for sand. During the pairwise choice period, calves had a strong preference for one substrate over another, spending on average, 89% of their time on the preferred surface. Calves preference ranking was for sawdust, rubber, sand then stones as determined by the proportion of time spent on each surface. At the end of the study, when given free access to all rearing substrates again, calves spent a higher proportion of time on sawdust (85%) than all other substrates (rubber: 5%, sand: 7% and stones: 3%). In conclusion, dairy calves showed a clear preference for sawdust over rubber, sand and stones. This preference remained consistent over the course of the study. The calves’ preference for sawdust may be associated with the physical and thermal properties in comparison to the alternative substrates. However, factors such as cost to the farmer, availability and practicality of alternative substrates need to be considered along with animal preferences before any recommendations can be made.

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  • A Thematic Analysis of Mental Illness in New Zealand News Articles

    Fernandez, Brett (2014)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    Mental illness is one of the main reasons for disability in the western world with one in five individuals being classed as mentally ill during some time in their life. As a concept, mental illness has a strong presence in the consciousness of society. However, conceptualising mental illness has always been complicated. It is not surprising that certain stereotypic/misinformed views have prevailed in society and media due to the complicated nature of mental illness. Media, especially news media, are one of the main sources of information about mental illness for the public. Opinions and understandings of mental illness are actively shaped by the mass media like news articles. This thesis includes a thematic analysis of the portrayal of mental illness in thirty New Zealand news articles taken from six major national papers. A literature review on the portrayal of mental illness in media with a specific focus on news articles was conducted. Inductive thematic analysis was used to code the data in news articles where no a priori, explicit theory was employed. The three major themes I identified were: things that compromise mental health (and/or physical health); characteristics of (people with) mental health problems; ways of helping people and communities affected by mental illness. Various sub-themes of each of these major themes were identified and discussed. The implications of these findings were outlined in the light of previous research on this topic.

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  • Preparing pupils for peer or group response

    Foster, Rebecca (2014)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    Teaching writing is a complex skill, and one that needs attention if student writing scores across New Zealand are to improve. The teaching of writing has changed over the years from a traditional product approach, where students wrote for the teacher, to a more collaborative approach where students work together as part of a writing community. Peer or group response is one approach that teachers can use when building a writing community as part of their writing programme. This typically involves groups of students sharing and responding to writing, usually during the revision stage of the writing process. Students use the responses they receive from peers to revise their message, which in turn impacts on the quality of writing produced. Preparing students for effective peer or group response is a sophisticated process that requires careful planning and preparation. This research used qualitative observations and interviews to investigate some of the ways that four teachers prepared their students for peer or group response in writing. The results of this study suggest that there are a number of ways to prepare students for response in writing and that teachers will coach students how to respond to their own and others’ writing differently, depending on the discourse/s of writing and teaching writing that they consciously or unconsciously subscribe to. This research also shows that response activities motivate students, and suggests the benefits of adopting a school-wide approach and involving teachers in professional development to help develop their identity as a writer.

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  • Predicted hydrodynamic and sediment transport impacts of breakwater construction in Tauranga Harbour, New Zealand

    McKenzie, James Scott (2014)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    The study predicted the impact of a proposed breakwater development, along the northern boundary of the Tauranga Bridge Marina, on existing hydrodynamics and sediment transport. Numerical modelling was undertaken using the DHI MIKE 21 modelling suite. A 25 m grid resolution regional hydrodynamic model of Tauranga Harbour was established to provide boundary conditions for a 4 m grid resolution local hydrodynamic model of the Stella Passage, Town Reach, and Waipu Bay region. Calibration and verification was achieved by comparing model predictions with measurements from tidal gauges and field deployed ADV instruments. A wave model was set-up to provide predictions of wave-induced sediment transport. A sediment transport model was developed to identify sediment transport pathways and areas of erosion and accretion. A pile and panel breakwater was recommended based on predictions of reduced current velocity within the marina and a limited increase along the Sulphur Point wharf. Flow diversion and channel constriction contributed to increased maximum velocities of 10% near the Stella Passage drop-off, increased peak tide velocities of up to 0.3 m.s⁻¹ west of the breakwater, and flood jet development off the western tip of the breakwater. Increased accretion north of the drop-off was predicted in response to increased annual spring transport rates in Town Reach from 10 m³/yr/m. Peak tide velocities within the marina were reduced by 0.2 – 0.5 m.s⁻¹ in the north and up to 0.2 m.s⁻¹ in the south and annual spring transport rates decreased from up to 50 m³/yr/m to predominantly <0.1 m³/yr/m.

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  • The perfect stroke: Moving beyond the performance narrative within rowing

    Green, Toni-Elizabeth (2014)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    This Thesis presents a narrative inquiry into the experiences rowers have within their sport, through exploring the stories they tell. Following Carless and Douglas (2012) my thesis identifies that success is a multi-dimensional concept. In doing so, I challenge the dominant performance narrative within sport that conceptualises success solely as winning. The performance narrative is often unsustainable and therefore can be damaging to an athlete’s well-being, due to such circumstances as injury, de-selection, drop out, aging, and losing. This can lead to narrative wreckage; where the individual no longer knows how to make sense of their life as the dominant story they told no longer aligns with their experiences. Highlighting, exploring and sharing stories that resist or move past the performance narrative can give individuals the ability to view themselves as a multi-faceted identity, allowing them to holistically enjoy sporting participation. Rowers interviewed in this thesis told stories of winning, but also of friendship, loyalty, and the freedom of movement. Of particular interest were the stories told that shared a sense of embodied convergence; the sensation of merging with the medium (Anderson, 2012). As yet, the convergence narrative is largely underdeveloped in the broader sporting literature; thus the paper drew heavily on the literature surrounding surfing in which the notion of convergence has been developed. By sharing and spreading of a range of different stories, individuals develop their narrative repertoire. This gives them the resources to be able to move past the performance narrative, and restory themselves if, and when, it no longer aligns with their experiences. My thesis looks to add to the existing literature resisting the performance narrative, by sharing evocative tales showing the complexities and intricacies of resisting or conforming to the performance narrative, and essentially, the joy that can be found within the sport of rowing.

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