1,366 results for Thesis, 2014

  • Characterisation of gold mineralisation and geophysical aided geological mapping in the Old Man Range, Central Otago, New Zealand

    Stephens, Samuel (2014)

    Honours Dissertation thesis
    University of Otago

    Six structurally controlled gold deposits are hosted within two different structural blocks in the Old Man Range area. The mineralised lodes are hosted in normal faults which cut steeply across the host schistosity. In the East structural block, mineralised faults and the prominent joint set strike northwest and cut steeply across greenschist facies TZ III Caples Terrane schist. In the West structural block, mineralised faults and prominent joint sets strike eastwest and cut steeply across upper-greenschist facies TZ IV Wanaka lithologic association schist. These structural blocks are separated by the regional scale Old Man Fault. Orientation of hard rock gold deposits is closely linked to the prominent joints in host schist surrounding the deposits. Mineralised lodes formed along -1 m wide normal fault zones. They are discontinuous but can be traced for up to - l 50m, with variable thickness along strike. The lodes comprise brecciated silicified schist and hydrothermal quartz breccia, and minor quartz veins with abundant arsenopyrite. Open cavities with euhedral quartz crystals are common. Euhedral arsenopyrite occurs in quartz and silicified schist clasts within mineralised zones. Gold occurs as micro-particulate blebs in partly oxidised arsenopyrite, and as coarser free grains within quartz, micaceous laminae, micro-faults, and micro-shears within mineralised rock. Hydrothermal alteration is minor, comprises addition of Si, Au and As, and extends only a few centimetres from the mineralised lodes. Mineralisation may have occurred within a few kilometres of the surface during mid-Late Cretaceous extension (-106-lOlMa), with estimated formation temperatures between 200-350°C. The mineralised structures within the Old Man Range area are similar to other shallow level, post-metamorphic Otago gold deposits. Magnetic, magnetite bearing greenschist has a high magnetic response and can be successfully mapped using total magnetic intensity surveys over the Old Man Range area. Electromagnetic (EM) surveys can be used successfully to map post-metamorphic faults within the Old Man Range area, where they show up as linear conductive anomalies. These geophysical surveys are a useful tool for geologic mapping. However, there is no direct link between the geophysical features and gold mineralisation within the Old Man Range.

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  • Characterisation of Novel Nitric Oxide and Carbon Monoxide Donors

    Kumari, Sweta (2014)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    Nitrogen monoxide (NO) and carbon monoxide (CO) are small messenger molecules which play multiple roles in mammalian physiology. Currently, available NO and CO donor drugs are limited in therapeutic potential due to a lack of organ or tissue specificity and stability. These limitations have stimulated great interest in the development of compounds that can generate NO and CO in a controlled and sustained manner with minimal toxicity. Two new therapeutic agents are under development at the University of Otago, New Zealand, tDodSNO, a photoactivated NO donor and CO-13, an organic based CO donor. This thesis examines some of their pharmacological characteristics trialing as cardiovascular and anticancer therapeutics. Our data demonstrate that photosensitive tDodSNO had a half life of > 4 h under photoactivation (25 W/m2) and was highly stable in vitro in the absence of photoactivation (0 W/m2). The NO release kinetics of tDodSNO was then compared to other commonly studied SNT’s, GSNO and SNAP. We found a steady state concentration of 8 ± 2 μM NO was achieved under photoactivation (300 W/m2) of 100 μM tDodSNO which could be regulated by modulating intensity of photostimulus. The CO release kinetics of CO-13 was also investigated and we found that CO-13 was a slow releasing CO donor compared to commonly studied metal based CO donor (CORM-2). To test the efficacy as vasorelaxing agent, vasorelaxation on vascular smooth muscle tissue was investigated. There was an 8 fold decrease in EC50 value of tDodSNO upon photoactivation. In contrast, both GSNO and SNAP induced NO dependent vasorelaxation, at lower concentrations than tDodSNO, but this activity may be due to their rapid metabolic decomposition, and could not be modulated by photoactivation. Similar to tDodSNO, CO-13 was found to be a potent vasorelaxing agent compared to CORM-2. We also evaluated the cytotoxicity of tDodSNO and CO-13 on A549 lung cancer cell line. Our data with tDodSNO revealed that the photoactivation (25 W/m2) induced highly significant increases in cytotoxicity compared to nonphotoactivation. A time and concentration dependent decrease in cell viability was observed with CO-13, which was substantially different compared to its CO depleted form BP-13. In conclusion, our study suggests that photosensitive tDodSNO and CO-13 have the potential to be promising novel cardiovascular and anticancer therapeutic agents.

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  • Development of a web-based intervention for weight gain prevention in mid-age women.

    Edwards, Olivia Clare (2014)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    Background: Given the high rates of obesity in mid-age women and poor long-term success rates of dieting strategies, there is increasing interest in novel approaches that address some of the key difficulties in long-term adherence to weight management behaviours. Among these are Intuitive Eating and Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) approaches; both of which have been associated with psychological benefits and lower BMI. As access to such treatments is limited for some high-risk groups, the Internet is a promising avenue for future delivery of interventions. Although studies have examined the independent effects of ACT and Intuitive Eating on weight management, none have investigated their combined effect on weight gain prevention through a web-based intervention. Methods: Development of initial draft concepts for website layout, features, and content for eleven intervention modules was undertaken based on existing health-related web-based interventions and published literature on ACT and Intuitive Eating. Draft materials were then tested in a series of thirteen general focus groups (n=26), and one Māori focus group (n=2) with 40-50 year old women with BMI >27kg/m2. Feedback from focus groups was used to inform amendments to website layout, features, and module content. Results: Focus group participants expressed that they particularly liked and perceived to be valuable the empowering thoughts and testimonials, the balance of text, audio and video content, the ability to monitor progress through a graphical representation of personal data, and options to customise reminders to individual preferences. Feedback indicated that modules 2, 5, 6 and 8 were the most accepted by participants. Whereas modules 1 and 3 were the most difficult to convey messages effectively, due to greater participant interest and higher expectations for these module topics. Specific module exercises stood out as particularly valuable to participants, including ‘Urge Surfing’, ‘Mindfully Eating a Raisin’, and ‘Leaves on a Stream’. Areas that were less well received which required revision included the health professional character in video lessons, the use of academic language, and the lack of social support. Participants expressed that they struggled to reduce their dieting mentality, and one module dedicated to achieve this may not be adequate. Māori participants also indicated the need to incorporate Te Whare Tapa Wha health concepts into the intervention, particularly in the intervention title – ‘Mind, Body, Food’. Conclusions: Since this project involved testing of the intervention in it’s first stages of development, further testing of materials in a web-based format is needed to better gauge perceived value. The non-dieting approach, with reduced focus on body weight, was perceived by women to be empowering. Most features associated with successful behaviour change via web-based interventions in previous published research were effectively incorporated into the intervention. More investigation is needed into low cost options for social support. Prior to the feasibility study, further focus group testing is needed of materials to evaluate acceptability and data saturation, especially among Māori women.

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  • The Epidemiology of Breast Cancer in Oman

    AL Farsi, Shamsa (2014)

    Undergraduate thesis
    University of Otago

    Background Breast cancer is the most common cancer in females around the world. Annually, more than one million women are diagnosed with breast cancer globally. In Oman, breast cancer is also the most common cancer in females and its incidence has been rising over the years. Published studies have shown that many Omani women have late stage breast cancer at presentation. Possible reasons for this have not been explored. Although Oman has in place a mortality registration database, no population-based mortality data from breast cancer are available. Likewise, the only data available about survival rate of people with breast cancer come from a hospital-based study. Aims The main aims of the research described in this thesis are: 1) To identify the extent of delay in breast cancer diagnosis in Oman. 2) To assess the relationship between delay and socio-demographic characteristics, medical and obstetric history, nature of presenting symptoms and women’s knowledge about breast cancer. 3) To identify reasons for delay in seeking medical help for self-detected breast cancer symptoms in Omani women. 4) To calculate the population-based survival rate from breast cancer in Oman. Methods Aims 1, 2 and 3 were addressed by a study of 150 patients attending oncology clinics in both the Royal Hospital and Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, who were interviewed using structured questionnaires. Patient delay was defined as a period of three months or more between an individual's first awareness of a sign or a symptom of illness and the initial medical consultation. In order to calculate survival rate, the National Cancer Registry records were to be linked to mortality databases in Oman (Directorate General of Civil Status and to the Parallel Mortality Database). Results The final analysis of delay included 144 patients with breast cancer. The median time taken by women in this sample between discovering the breast symptoms and seeing a doctor was 14 days. 56.9% of the patients had a medical consultation in less than a month after detecting symptoms, whereas 20.1 % had a consultation within 1 to 2 months. 22.9 % of the patients delayed consultation by ≥ 3 months. Of the socio-demographic characteristics examined in this study, it was observed that older age, low educational level and employment status were associated with patient delay. Practice of breast self-examination and having a history of chronic disease were also predictors of delay. 44% of patients had early stage disease (stage I/stage II) compared to 56% of patients with late stage disease (stage III/stage IV). However, patient delay was not associated with advanced stage cancer in this study. The main reasons given for delay were: failure to recognise the symptoms to be breast cancer, not seeing oneself at risk for breast cancer, fear and embarrassment, use of alternative therapy and family and work commitments. Due to ethical consideration, I was not able obtain data from Omani NCR and therefore the linking to mortality databases was not possible. Conclusion This study is the first in Oman to investigate the extent of patient delay for women with self-discovered breast symptoms and the factors that influence this delay. The findings of this study indicate the need for public education aimed at raising breast cancer awareness. Further, initiating a screening program in Oman should be considered to help women achieve diagnosis of the disease in its early stages. Population-based cancer research should be encouraged in Oman, and efforts should be taken to improve the quality and completeness of cancer data, which are important in providing on-going monitoring of cancer.

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  • The effect of the Canterbury earthquakes on alcohol consumption and motivations for drinking among psychologically resilient individuals

    Marie, Leila Michele Anastasia (2014)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Individual responses to natural disasters are highly variable. The psychological and behavioural response trajectories of those who manage to cope well with adverse life events are in need of further investigation. Increased alcohol use is often observed in communities exposed to mass traumas, particularly among those exposed to severe levels of trauma, with males drinking more than females. The current study examined patterns of alcohol use and motivations for drinking among a sample of psychologically resilient individuals with varying levels of exposure to the Canterbury earthquakes (N = 91) using structured and semi-structured interviews and self-report measures. As hypothesised, there was a significant increase in alcohol consumption since the earthquakes began, and males reported significantly higher levels of pre-earthquake and current alcohol consumption than females. Contrary to expectations, there was no association between traumatic exposure severity and alcohol consumption. While participants reported anxiety-based coping motives for drinking at levels comparable to those reported by other studies, depression-based coping motives were significantly lower, providing partial support for the hypothesis that participants would report coping motives for drinking at levels comparable to those found by other researchers. No gender differences in drinking motives were found. As expected, current alcohol consumption was positively correlated with anxiety and depression-based coping motives for drinking. Psychological resilience was not significantly associated with alcohol use, however resilience was negatively associated with depression-based coping motives for drinking. These findings have inter-generational and international implications for post-traumatic intervention.

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  • Casting a long shadow: the role of household crowding on Helicobacter pylori infection, and excess stomach cancer incidence among Māori and Pacific people

    McDonald, Andrea M. (2014)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    INTRODUCTION: Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is predominantly acquired in childhood and persists as a chronic infection in the stomach. H. pylori has been linked with household crowding and is an important causal factor which is considered necessary for non-cardia stomach cancer. Māori and Pacific peoples in New Zealand experience greater household crowding, H. pylori infection and stomach cancer incidence. OBJECTIVES: 1) To summarise the association between household crowding and H. pylori infection in the literature; and estimate the contribution of household crowding to Māori, Pacific and European H. pylori seroprevalence. 2) To estimate the excess Māori and Pacific stomach cancer incidence that is attributable to H. pylori exposure and smoking. METHODS: A systematic literature review and meta-analysis was conducted to summarise the evidence on the association between household crowding density and H. pylori, and investigate heterogeneity. Pooled serology data were regionally weighted and adjusted to estimate the Māori, Pacific and European seroprevalence of H. pylori by 1926-40, 1941-55, 1956-70 and 1971-85 birth cohorts. In the latter cohort, the meta-analysis odds ratio and household crowding prevalence from the 1986 census were used to estimate the contribution of crowding to H. pylori seroprevalence. For the 1926-40, 1941-55 and 1956-70 birth cohorts, age-standardised Māori and Pacific incidence rates of stomach cancer were compared to European/Other. Rate ratios (RRs) were adjusted for H. pylori by restricting to the proportion of each ethnic group who were seropositive, assuming that H. pylori is a necessary causal factor for stomach cancer. RRs were adjusted for smoking by probabilistic bias analysis. Adjusted RRs were compared with observed RRs to calculate an ‘excess rate ratio proportion’ which estimates the contribution of H. pylori and smoking to excess Māori and Pacific stomach cancer incidence. In order to better meet the necessary factor proposition, analysis was then restricted to non-cardia stomach cancer cases. RESULTS: Meta-analysis showed that persons experiencing the greatest vs. the least household crowding had 1.73 (95% CI 1.48-2.03, n=28, I2=87%) times greater odds of H. pylori infection. Children exposed to household crowding had significantly greater risk of infection (OR 2.06, CI: 1.53-2.77, n=19, I2=86%). The average pooled H. pylori seroprevalence was greatest for Pacific (62%), followed by Māori (35%) and European (18%). Seroprevalence declined in subsequent birth cohorts for all ethnic groups but relative ethnic differences in seroprevalence increased. Household crowding among children born 1971-85 contributed to 44% of Pacific (95% CI: 32-54%), 36% of Māori (95% CI: 25-47%), and 14% of European (95% CI: 9-20%) H. Pylori seroprevalence. For men born in the 1926-40, 1941-55 and 1956-70 birth cohorts, H. pylori and smoking (to a lesser degree) contributed to more than half of the excess non-cardia stomach cancer among Māori (53%, 65%, 63% respectively) and approximately eight-tenths of the excess non-cardia stomach cancer among Pacific (74%, 83%, 90% respectively). CONCLUSION: This analysis is distinctive because it quantifies a two-step process from household crowding to H. pylori infection, and H. pylori infection to stomach cancer; and then distinguishes how this process differs by ethnicity. Household crowding is a major contributing factor to Māori and Pacific H. pylori seroprevalence; and the primary driver of excess non-cardia stomach cancer incidence among Māori and Pacific. Household crowding reduction interventions that focus on children are recommended. H. pylori ‘screen and treat’ approaches for asymptomatic Pacific and Māori men in NZ require evaluation. Improved sensitivity in H. pylori detection measures and better stomach cancer subsite classification will improve future evaluation of the H. pylori contribution.

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  • Characterisation and Control of 3-Deoxy-D-arabino-heptulosonate 7-phosphate Synthase from Geobacillus sp

    Othman, Mohamad (2014)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    3-Deoxy-D-arabino heptulosonate 7-phosphate synthase (DAH7PS) catalyses the first step of the shikimate pathway, responsible for the biosynthesis of aromatic amino acids. This pathway is found in microorganisms, plants and apicomplexan parasites and its absence in mammals makes it a viable target for antimicrobial drug design. DAH7PS enzymes differ in the regulatory machinery that decorates the catalytic (β/α)8 barrel. Some DAH7PS enzymes are fused to chorismate mutase (CM), another enzyme in the shikimate pathway. This fusion protein is allosterically regulated by chorismate (CA) or prephenate (PA), the precursor of tyrosine and phenylalanine. It has been suggested that DAH7PS enzymes evolved these extensions to the core barrel for the sole purpose of regulation. Geobacillus sp DAH7PS (GspDAH7PSWT) is a thermophilic type Iβ DAH7PS enzyme with an N-terminal CM domain fused through a linker region. This thesis describes the functional characterisation work carried out on GspDAH7PSWT, in attempt to help determine how DAH7PS enzymes evolved such diverse methods of regulation. Chapter 2 describes the functional characterisation work carried out on the catalytic and regulatory domains of GspDAH7PSWT. The enzyme demonstrated both DAH7PS and CM activities with the DAH7PS domain determined to be metal dependent and most activated by Cd2+. PA completely inhibited the catalytic activity of GspDAH7PSWT, and AUC demonstrated an equilibrium exists between the dimeric and tetrameric quaternary states of the enzyme in solution. Chapter 3 describes the domain truncation of GspDAH7PSWT carried out at the linker region in order to obtain two separate protein domains, the catalytic domain lacking the N-terminal domain (GspDAH7PSDAH7PS) and the regulatory domain without the catalytic domain (GspDAH7PSCM). Both variants were fully characterised, and information obtained from each domain was compared to the respective catalytic and regulatory domains of the wild-type enzyme, which was also characterised. Like GspDAH7PSWT, GspDAH7PSDAH7PS showed greatest activation in the presence of Cd2+, with other metals having varying effects on activation rates and stability of the enzyme. Both truncated variants followed Michaelis-Menten kinetics where GspDAH7PSDAH7PS was found to be more active than GspDAH7PSWT and unaffected by PA, whereas GspDAH7PSCM was a less efficient catalyst than the CM domain of GspDAH7PSWT. AUC demonstrated that in solution an equilibrium occurs between the monomeric and tetrameric oligomeric states of GspDAH7PSDAH7PS. Chapter 4 summarises the findings of the thesis along with future directions of this research, combining the results obtained and expanding upon them. It is concluded that the catalytic regulatory CM domain supports both protein structure and allosteric regulation of GspDAH7PSWT

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  • Modular assembly for in vitro investigation and engineering of articular cartilage

    Schon, Benjamin Sefton (2014)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    Articular cartilage enables locomotion by protecting the ends of the long bones, providing a lubricated low-friction surface for movement, and absorbing and distributing force. It is also a tissue that is often damaged, and has poor intrinsic repair capacity, with damaged articular cartilage often progressing to osteoarthritis. Repair and regeneration of articular cartilage in order to generate structure and function identical to that of native tissue remains difficult. This demonstrates a need for repair strategies, and tissue engineering and regenerative medicine approaches hold promise as potential repair or regeneration methods. A modular approach to engineering of cartilage may allow separation of the tissue properties into components that can be individually optimised and recombined to a functional construct. Modular assembly is a process where separate components possessing separate functions are combined into a single, functional whole. Modular assembly of cartilage has potential to surmount some of the difficulties of articular cartilage repair and regeneration. In this thesis, I have demonstrated significant advancement of a modular assembly method to assemble tissues and a scaffold in an organised and controlled fashion. I have also shown separate optimisation of the tissue and scaffold components, investigated their interaction, and demonstrated enhanced modularity. This work highlights the potential for 3D tissue assembly in the development of clinically relevant cartilage tissue engineering repair strategies. Mass production of spheroidal microtissues by pellet culture was demonstrated in 96-well plates with minimal effect on chondrogenesis compared to standard tube-based pellet culture. Following this, the flexibility and novel capabilities of the 3D tissue assembly process was demonstrated given that microtissues were able to be arranged in a number of configurations within the 3D scaffold. Microtissue assembly was also shown to negate the surface properties of the scaffold surface. Since the quality of matrix formed was independent of the surface of the scaffold, this meant that modularity of the construct components was enhanced. A model for examining microtissue fusion was then developed, and interactions between microtissues were examined. The effects of soluble, physical and enzymatic factors on fusion were investigated, as well as the influence of cell type on fusion. Finally, appropriate scaffold fabrication with mechanical properties matched to native articular cartilage was achieved, while maintaining tissue module-friendly scaffold architecture. A modular construct was fabricated and assembled with tissue modules formed from human articular and nasal chondrocytes. The assembled constructs again demonstrated the desired mechanical properties in an assembled construct with immature tissue, and the process was able be scaled up to form larger constructs. These results demonstrate a modular assembled construct prepared for introduction to a load-bearing environment in vivo, and demonstrate that modular tissue engineering of articular cartilage has potential as a scalable repair strategy.

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  • Uterine expression of mucin1 in a line of sheep displaying reduced embryo survival

    Quirke, Laurel Diana (2014)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    During the first 30 days of pregnancy, 20-25 % of embryos from ewes with multiple ovulations are lost. This represents a major economic loss to the sheep industry as the affected ewes remain pregnant but have a reduced litter size. Within the AgResearch Booroola flock we have observed differences between two half sibling rams which produce either a reduced embryo survival (RES) or normal embryo survival (NES) phenotype in their daughters. These ewes provide a unique resource for studying the underlying physiology of this reduced embryo survival trait. In this Booroola line of sheep, embryo loss occurs primarily before day 30 of gestation and the uterus rather than the embryo appears to be the major determinant of embryo survival. Consequently this study has focused on the interactions between the uterus and the embryo during the time of implantation. One factor that has been identified as being involved in successful implantation is mucin1 (MUC1). MUC1 is a large transmembrane protein reported to be expressed by the luminal and glandular epithelial cells of the uterus in various species, where it is believed to inhibit the interaction between the trophoblast and the luminal epithelium, and block implantation. It is hypothesised that the presence of an embryo initiates a cascade of events resulting in the down regulation of MUC1, thereby allowing adhesion to occur. Embryos and reproductive tissue were collected from the daughters of the RES sire (n=10) and from the NES sire (n=5) at day 18 of pregnancy. This study utilised Western blotting, immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridisation to evaluate MUC1 mRNA and protein expression. The antibody used was a polyclonal mouse anti-rabbit MUC-CT1 antibody which corresponds to the highly conserved region within the cytoplasmic tail domain of the protein. For in situ hybridisation, sense and anti-sense probes were generated from ovine cDNA encoding a 278 bp fragment corresponding to the cytoplasmic tail region. Western blotting analysis revealed that MUC1 exists as a single 70 kDa band under reducing conditions in ovine uterine tissue. This expression pattern is similar to MUC1 protein expression observed in day 19 pregnant mouse uterine tissue. The doublet (19-23 kDa) often seen in virgin mouse uterine tissue was undetectable in ovine uterine tissue. Specificity of the ovine 70 kDa band was confirmed by blocking with the MUC-CT1 peptide. Semi-quantitative analysis by Western blotting did not reveal any differences in protein levels between the RES and NES groups. Both MUC1 mRNA and protein, as evaluated by in situ hybridisation and immunohistochemistry, showed expression in the luminal epithelial cells, and strong expression in the glandular epithelial cells of the compactum stroma, with a weaker signal observed in the glandular epithelial cells of the spongiosum stroma. There were no differences observed in the expression patterns of both MUC1 mRNA and protein between the RES and NES groups. Blood samples were collected daily from day of mating to day 18 of pregnancy to measure progesterone concentrations by radioimmunoassay (RIA). As progesterone is considered to modulate MUC1 via the progesterone receptors it was hypothesised that there could be a detectable difference in progesterone concentrations if MUC1 expression levels were different between the RES and NES groups. Analysis revealed no difference in progesterone concentrations between the RES and NES groups throughout the first 18 days of gestation. MUC1 mRNA and protein was detected in endometrial tissue in both the RES and NES groups in the Booroola line of sheep, however no discernable differences in expression levels were found. Animal numbers available for the study were low and consequently results were inconclusive as to whether MUC1 plays a significant role in the partial loss of embryos seen in these animals.

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  • How does the concept of cultural competence affect the practice of bioethics and health law

    Gray, Ben (2014-05-17)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    Cultural Competence is one of the competencies required of all Health Practitioners in New Zealand since the enacting of the Health Practitioners Competence Assurance Act in 2003. This dissertation examines what relationship there is between this concept and Bioethics and Health Law. The dissertation argues that the need for the concept of Cultural Competence comes from the failure of the Bioethics community to adequately address the fundamental ethical issue that non-dominant cultural groups frequently receive inferior care, and have significantly worse health outcomes, than people who are part of the dominant cultural group. The definition of Cultural Competence is not agreed upon in the literature so I have examined the policies of the sixteen Health Practitioner Registration Authorities in New Zealand to develop a New Zealand definition to work from. The most important triggers for the development of Cultural Competence were the fact that there were significant health outcome disparities affecting non-dominant cultural groups, and people from non-dominant cultural groups do not receive care that is cognisant of their values, beliefs and ways of living. Cultural Competence is particularly important in New Zealand because we have an increasingly diverse community and there are significant health outcome disparities, some of which are caused by inequitable access to healthcare services. Practising in a culturally competent way is important for non-dominant cultural groups, but also for many people within the dominant cultural group. This is because of the cultural distance between many people and their health care providers, where the explanatory model of clinician and patient are not congruent. An important indicator of this is the level of non-compliance of patients with investigation and treatments recommended by their clinicians. Most bioethics problems are complex, and if complexity science is applied to them it becomes clear that bioethical judgements are based on an uncertain factual base, change with time and need to be made by the people involved in the problem. The concept of frame of reference is usefully applied to bioethics problems, understanding that every person will approach a problem from a different (sometimes slightly different, sometimes significantly different) frame of reference. An understanding of the frame of reference of all parties involved in a problem is essential to good decision making. I will argue that both Cultural Relativism and Moral Objectivism are inadequate positions to deal with a multicultural society and develop a concept of Complex Principlism as a framework for analysing bioethical problems. Bioethics is a relational activity and it is essential to focus on maintaining a functional relationship with all involved in the problem and understanding how to establish and maintain trust and utilise fair process, rather than just focussing on analysing what you as an individual believe is the right answer to the problem. We live in a multicultural society but do not value multiculturalism, although New Zealand does value biculturalism between Maori and the dominant cultural group. There is strong evidence in favour of putting the valuing of multiculturalism at the centre of our governance. This would contribute significantly to improving health outcome disparities and is an essential strategy to learn how to live successfully in the modern world.

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  • The Coordination Chemistry of Tripodal, Tetraamine Ligands Incorporating Pyrazolyl Donors

    Cubanski, John Randolph (2014)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    A family of novel tripodal, tetraamine (N4) ligands incorporating three heterocyclic donors and inequivalent donor arms has been synthesized and characterized. All of the ligands incorporate at least one pyrazolyl or 3,5-(dimethyl)pyrazolyl donor, and many include either a pyridyl, imidazolyl, or 1,2,3-triazolyl ring. Additionally, these ligands have been complexed with cobalt, copper or zinc and crystallographically characterized. Ligands incorporating the pyrazolylmethylamino moiety were found to be unstable in the presence of protic solvents, regardless of the alkylation pattern of the pyrazolyl donor, and in solution they are found to be in equilibrium with their N-dealkylated counterparts. On the basis of crystallographic, mass spectral and 1H NMR studies, an acid-promoted mechanism for this transformation is suggested. Despite observation of N-dealkylation, complexes of the intact tripodal ligands can be synthesized with kinetically inert metal ion (i.e cobalt(III)), and the intact ligands are stabilized on metal coordination. Mixed pyrazolyl-1,2,3-triazolyl ligands have been readily synthesized using the functional group tolerant copper-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC). These ligands have been coordinated to a cobalt(III) carbonato fragment. Evidence for the formation of ligands with one, two or three N4 binding pockets, and their mono-, bis- and tris-cobalt complexes, is presented. CuAAC also allows for synthesis of ligands with different types of binding pockets, followed by sequential metallation. Synthesis of a ligand with an N4 binding pocket and a pyridyl-1,2,3-triazole binding pocket is described, and the cobalt(III) carbonato complex of this complex has been synthesized and crystallographically characterized. Coordination of silver(I) is observed, and a cobalt-silver complex can be isolated and characterized; however, data collected are ambiguous on the full structure of the mixed metallic complex. The acid hydrolysis of cobalt(III) carbonato complexes of the N4 ligands described in this thesis is studied in detail, and the factors impacting this reaction are studied using a variety of techniques, including solution-phase infrared spectroscopy, 59Co NMR spectroscopy, UV-visible spectroscopy, and cyclic voltammetry. It has been previously observed that electronic differences between carbonato ligands in various cobalt(III) carbonato complexes are minimal, and further evidence for this observation is presented. Data agree with previous suggestions that steric bulk inhibits the rate of hydrolysis, suggesting an associative rate-limiting mechanistic step. This is rationalized by noting the bidentate nature of the carbonato ligand, and an addition to the currently accepted mechanism of reaction is suggested.

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  • Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor and Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    Falvey, James David (2014)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is a pleiotropic pro-inflammatory cytokine and intracellular signalling molecule that is implicated in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease. Intestinal MIF concentrations are elevated in patients with IBD, and inhibition of MIF ameliorates disease activity in animal models. MIF has diverse effects. It is a pivotal mediator of innate immunity and released by immune and non-immune cells in response to both endogenous and exogenous factors. In turn, MIF stimulates the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines and mediates immune cell migration and activation through both direct and indirect mechanisms. In addition to traditional pro-inflammatory cytokine activities, MIF counter regulates the immunosuppressive effects of glucocorticoids through both local and pituitary release, and is a potent anti-apoptotic factor able to prolong the survival of tissue, inflammatory and tumour cells. In the GI tract MIF is constitutively expressed within the apical compartment of the epithelium and is predominantly secreted in an apical direction. Provisional evidence implicates MIF in several key patho-biological processes in IBD, in particular microbial sensing through both a moderating effect on M-cell function and as an effector molecule of TLR signalling; dendritic cell function; and also in the control of intestinal hypoxia and redox sensitivity and signalling. Several small molecule inhibitors of MIF have been identified although none have reached clinical trials. MIF has recently been identified as the main cellular target of isothiocyanates, a group of plant-based chemicals that are present in cruciferous vegetables that are found in the human diet. In a proof of concept investigation, consumption of a large meal of watercress (a potent source of phenethyl isothiocyanate) was found to reduce human plasma MIF concentrations. The anti-inflammatory effects of isothiocyanates as a novel therapy in IBD was investigated in a murine model of colitis. The dextran sulphate sodium (DSS) model of colitis was established, and a novel method of clinical disease scoring was developed and prospectively validated. Animals were dosed with isothiocyanates and the MIF inhibitory capacity was investigated. Animals were examined for evidence of toxicity and the efficacy of ITC in preventing DSS colitis was investigated. No significant beneficial treatment effect was observed. Indeed, significant gastric toxicity occurred following oral administration. Gastric toxicity from ITC has not been reported previously and the mode of action of this effect is unknown. In further experiments, the efficacy of rectally administered ITC was investigated. Although a pilot investigation showed a marked effect, in subsequent experiments, no statistically significant effect was observed. No toxicicity was observed in the colon following rectal administration. The contribution of two functional promoter polymorphisms of MIF to IBD susceptibility and phenotype was investigated. The investigation, the largest of its kind, aimed to define the contribution of MIF variants to IBD risk in the Canterbury population, and to resolve, through meta-analysis, discordance in results from previous investigations. Within the Canterbury data set, no evidence was found for an association between either variant, whether considered individually or together, with respect to IBD risk, phenotype, disease behaviour or clinical course. A weak trend toward protection against ileal CD and MIF-173C was observed. With respect to rs755622; meta-analysis found no significant association between MIF-173C and risk of UC, CD or overall IBD. These data do not undermine the importance of MIF to the pathobiology of IBD, but emphasise previous observations that intestinal MIF concentrations are largely determined at the post translational level. In an investigation of MIF as a biomarker of disease in IBD, the relationship between plasma MIF and endoscopic disease severity was investigated. The investigation found no correlation between plasma MIF and gold standard disease assessment, indicating that MIF has no value as a biomarker of disease. The research group is continuing to investigate the biological properties of MIF in human disease, with particular emphasis on endogenous MIF control and the effect of MIF inhibition in vitro and in vivo. These investigations are timely given that international phase one trials are currently underway of a neutralizing anti-MIF antibody in human disease. Greater understanding of the contribution of MIF to IBD is urgently needed in order for patients with IBD to benefit from these advances

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  • SYNTHESIS AND COMPLEXES OF BRIDGING HETEROCYCLIC LIGANDS

    Rajan, Siji (2014)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Ligand–mediated coupling between metal centres is of fundamental importance in inorganic and materials chemistry. Bridging ligands involving azo groups as coordinating π–acceptors can yield complexes with interesting properties. This thesis describes the synthesis of a series of N–heterocyclic compounds containing the azo functionality, designed for potential coordination to the metal through the azo nitrogen and a N–heterocyclic ring. The azo ligands are divided into four categories; ligands based on azobispyridines, ligands containing pyrimidine and fused aromatic azine groups and ligands capable of coordinating in a bis–tridentate fashion to the metal centre. Ligands containing flexible imine subunits connected directly, or through different spacers, are also discussed. Overall twenty one ligands were synthesised, six of which are new compounds. The coordination and metallosupramolecular chemistry of these ligands with ruthenium(II) and silver(I) metal atoms was investigated. A total of thirty five ruthenium(II) and eleven silver(I) complexes were prepared, of which thirty eight were characterised by X–ray crystallography. Mononuclear and dinuclear ruthenium(II) complexes were synthesised and characterised by a combination of spectroscopic and structural techniques. UV/Visible absorption studies and electrochemical methods were used to investigate the nature of metal–ligand and metal–metal interactions. In the mononuclear Ru(II) complexes, N–heterocyclic azo ligands act as chelating ligands forming five–membered chelate rings involving azo–N and heterocyclic–N atoms. The non–coordinated pyridine ring of the azo ligand is twisted with respect to the azo–N atom and is directed towards the adjacent bipyridine rings. Studies reveal that these azo ligands posses extremely low–lying π*–orbitals and are electron deficient. X–Ray structural analysis of the dinuclear complexes revealed short inter–metal separations of ca. 4.9 Å and electrochemical studies indicate that these ligands mediate very strong interactions between the metal centres , due to the excellent π*–acceptor properties of the azo functionality. Varying the pyridine ring of the azo ligand to pyrimidines and fused N–aromatic rings has a considerable effect on the electronic properties of these complexes. Incorporation of a pyrimidine ring facilitates the stabilisation of azo anion radicals and leads to the formation of diruthenium(II) species, bridged by radical species. The X–ray crystal structures of both these complexes were determined. The use of the hexadentate ligands coordinating in a bis–tridentate manner mediate even stronger communication between the two ruthenium centres. Ligands containing bis–pyridylimines result in weaker coupling between the metal centres in dinuclear ruthenium(II) species. A complete absence in the inter–metal communication was observed with increasing the distance and/or flexibility between the two pyridylimine units, contrary to a previous reported claim. Reaction with different silver(I) salts afforded an array of one–dimensional coordination polymers and a discrete dinuclear complex depending on the coordination strengths of the anions. The metallosupramolecular assemblies obtained were characterised mainly by X–ray crystallography, elemental analysis and mass spectrometry.

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  • Accessing audiences in the internet age: Social media, blogging and the universe

    Barton, Gareth (2014)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    Since 2001 social media has emerged as the driving force behind publishing, posting and access on the internet. Networking sites have created an incredible level of connectivity, blogging has reduced the cost and barriers of publishing to nothing and celebrity is only few clicks away. Yet science communication has been slow to capitalise on this phenomenon. With a general decline in print journalism and a move toward faster modes of communication science needs to adapt. Social media offers a chance for science to spread beyond the complicated, jargon-filled pages of peer-reviewed journals and into a form that the public is capable of accessing. This thesis is an examination of the current literature surrounding social media, blogging and accessing the internet audience. It comprises an analysis of both the literature within the domain of science communication and the literature from without, reaching from computer science to psychology. The breadth of this new field, and the methods that it employs to reach it’s time-poor audience, is beginning to influence much more than computer-based communication. Information distilled by social media is attractive, compact and has strong ‘social proof’. Adapting the lessons of social media to print media has an advantage in that it allows information to be tested with less risk than traditional publishing. In an attempt to explore this methodology an informally styled book, as per the requirements of this Masters Program, has been included in this thesis. This book, about space exploration, is informed and directed by the need for communication to reach an audience with less time, less motivation and a generally low level of science literacy. In total this thesis combines a wide range of sources to provide an in-depth examination of social media and internet science communication that has previously only been examined, within the scope of science communication, superficially and narrowly (e.g. collaborative filtering or linking motivations.) and an artefact filtered by that information for public consumption.

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  • Human papillomavirus type 16 oncoproteins as immune modulators and immune targets

    Jemon, Khairunadwa (2014)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the primary etiological agent of cervical cancer. The high-risk HPV16 is the most prevalent HPV genotype worldwide and its DNA is detectable in more than 50% of all cervical tumours. The consistent over-expression of the HPV E6 and E7 oncogenes is necessary for cervical carcinogenesis. High mortality and morbidity due to HPV-associated disease still remains a major health burden globally. Since the current virus-like particle vaccines exert no therapeutic efficacy, better therapeutic strategies are required for the treatment of pre-existing, potentially cancer-causing, HPV infections. The aims of this study were firstly to understand the immune-modulation by HPV16 E7 on antigen presentation in the epidermal microenvironment and secondly to explore the potential use of HPV16 E6 as a target for immunotherapeutic approach for HPV vaccine candidate. In HPV infection, Langerhans cells (LC) have been thought to be important in antigen uptake, presentation and consequently initiating the immune response. It was reported previously that the frequency of LC was greatly reduced in HPV16 infections. In this study, the effect of HPV16 E7 in modulating antigen presentation and its downstream effects on the CD8 T cell response was investigated. Replication-defective lentiviral vectors were used to deliver HPV16 E7, a luciferase reporter and the model antigen ovalbumin specifically to the epidermis. It was demonstrated that E7 is capable of reducing the density of LC in the transduced epidermis independent of any viral proteins. When the kinetics of the luciferase gene expression in the presence and absence of HPV16 E7 was monitored, it was observed that E7 delayed the loss of the luciferase expressing lentivirus transduced cells. We also showed that the magnitude of the CD8+ T cell response to skin-expressed ovalbumin was significantly reduced in E7 mice, compared with control mice. However, it was observed that the down-regulation effect occurred independent of LC since LC depletion did not alter the strength of CD8 T cell response in both E7 and control mice, suggesting E7 regulation of other skin-derived dendritic cells in antigen presentation and function. The therapeutic efficacy of E6-VLP (virus like particles) derived from Rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus against tumour cells expressing HPV16 E6 and E7 was tested in a murine cervical cancer model. It was shown that E6-RHDV-VLP was efficient in inducing an anti-tumour effect against TC-1 tumour cells. Moreover, the incorporation of a universal helper T cell epitope, PADRE into E6-VLP further improved the therapeutic effect and prolonged the median survival, compared to mice immunised with E6-VLP without PADRE. Furthermore, treatment either with anti-CTLA-4 antibody to block T cell suppression or with PC61 (anti-CD25) to deplete regulatory T cells has shown to enhance the vaccine potency afforded by E6-VLP-PADRE. Data presented here highlight the potential therapeutic use of E6 and/or E7 for the restoration of factors impeding the immune response as well as a target for immunotherapeutic approach against HPV-induced cervical cancer. The information gained from this research contributes to our understanding of HPV regulation of antigen presentation in the skin and may have implications for immunotherapy against HPV pre-cancers.

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  • Petronius’ Satyrica: A Commentary on its Transmission, Pre-Plot Fragments, and Chapters 1–15

    Koentges, Thomas (2014)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    The thesis is a commentary on the transmission and beginning of Petronius’ Satyricon Libri: the research corpus comprises the first 15 chapters and fragments and references that help to reconstruct the plot of the lost, earlier books of the work. To provide an analytical basis for the comments, there is an extensive introduction to Petronius’ work containing explanations of Petronius’ style and narrative composition, the reconstruction of the plot, and the transmission of the Satyrica. A list of sigla and emendations leads into the text itself. The basis for the text was the fourth corrected edition of Konrad Müller (2009) and the critical apparatus of Bücheler’s editio maioris (1862). However, the text of this commentary differs from Müller’s text in 36 instances and in 32 instances from Breitenstein’s work on §1–15 (2009). In addition it provides more information on the transmission in the critical apparatus than both scholars do. A philological-literary commentary follows the text. It emphasises text-critical notes and explanations and attempts to find, substantiate, or delete textual variants. The commentary is divided into six parts: Fragmenta, Fragmenta a Petronio Approbata, the School Episode (§1–5), the Brothel Episode (§6–8), the Quarrel Episode (§9–11), and the Market Episode (§12–15).

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  • Positive Affect and Typicality: An Investigation of Category Inclusiveness.

    Riordan, Benjamin Charles (2014)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    Previous studies have found that individuals rate category members as more typical of their categories in a positive rather than negative mood, but the explanation for this effect remains unclear. In this thesis, four existing accounts were considered: The affective priming account, the mood as information account, the cognitive restructuring account, and the affect misattribution account. In all studies, participants were trained to recognize mathematically distorted dot patterns of two uncommon geometric shapes before judging the typicality of distortions. Studies 1, 2, and 3 attempted to test the affective priming account, an account that relies on positive mood priming emotional dimensions of stimuli, by using dot patterns which lack these emotional dimensions. In Study 1, which induced mood by presenting affective primes briefly before each stimulus, there was no difference in ratings between stimuli preceded by a positive or negative prime, as predicted by the affective priming account. However, Study 2 and 3, which induced mood before the stimulus rating phase by a combination of mood suggestive music and autobiographical recall, revealed consistent (but weak) evidence against the affective priming account. Finally, Study 4, a replication of Study 2 with an added attribution condition, tested the remaining theories. The results showed that there was a main effect of mood, regardless of how mood was attributed, offering evidence against the affect misattribution and mood-as-information accounts. These accounts state that attributing mood should result in no difference between mood conditions. This finding also offered further evidence against the affective priming account. Therefore, by attrition, the cognitive restructuring account offered the soundest explanation for mood-driven category inclusiveness in the current studies.

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  • Valuation of biodiversity and ecosystem services to improve spatial management of near-shore marine areas in New Zealand

    Chhun, Sophal (2014)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    Ecosystem-based management (EBM) is a holistic approach that is most reliable for achieving sustainability of complex, coupled social-ecological systems. An EBM approach to marine fisheries can be put in practice by implementing marine reserves and Customary Protection Areas (CPAs) in addition to conventional fishing regulations (input and output controls). Marine reserves are ‘no-take’ areas where all fishing is completely banned; whereas CPAs provide a flexible mechanism that enables local indigenous people and communities to enact responsibilities and protect their long-term interests. Spatial conflicts between these additional management tools with existing uses (especially fishing) and between the tools themselves have been a major obstacle to practical application of EBM. This has resulted in conflicts of interest and a ‘race for space’ for prime sites chosen for marine reserves and CPAs. This thesis reports analyses of testimony from forty interviews and four focus groups involving key stakeholders to two case-study marine ecosystems in New Zealand. The results show that polarisation of goals and values, the race for space, and social conflicts have actually been induced by perceived declines in fish stocks and biodiversity. Marine reserves are perceived to be more reliable than CPAs (Taiāpure and Mātaitai) for protecting existing and restoring declining biodiversity and fish stocks. Biodiversity is highly coveted for its own intrinsic value and for long-term human benefits. However, Māori have vigorously opposed marine reserves due to the concern over the cumulative loss of traditional fishing grounds, the loss of opportunity to gain control over these areas, and the threat to cultural practices. Recreational and commercial fishers have opposed any greater restriction that has potential to accumulatively threaten their fishing. These fishers tend to support taiāpure in a way that forms a coalition with its proponents to make more effective opposition to a marine reserve that has greater impact on fishing. Impact assessment tests are insufficient for making sound decisions about the allocation of space in marine areas. Therefore, information about the large public’s preferences for the trade-offs between reductions in current uses and a greater chance of achieving sustainability induced by implementation of marine reserves and/or CPAs are needed. An online survey-based choice experiment was implemented using 1000Minds software to obtain information about relative values held by the public towards four major competing uses of marine resources (i.e. socio-ecological attributes) under debate. They include commercial fishing, recreational fishing, Māori cultural management, and biodiversity. A tax attribute was also included in the choice experiment to allow estimation of values in dollars. One thousand and fifty five New Zealanders participated in the choice experiment. Each individual respondent made on average twenty seven choices. Each choice puts the respondent in a situation where he or she must trade-off one better level of an attribute of a near-shore marine area for a better level of another attribute. Data from choices made allow estimation of a complete set of ‘part-worth utilities’ for each respondent using a linear programming routine. The results reveal that improved biodiversity is, on average, the change most valued by the general public, whereas restoring Māori cultural practices is roughly as important as maintaining the current relatively light restrictions on recreational and commercial fishing. Logistic regression analysis identifies some of the influences on the variation across respondents in the relative values of each socio-ecological attribute. This information allowed estimation of population-weighted average utility values. These values were used to estimate net changes in welfare from implementation of various management scenarios currently under consideration. The results suggest that any management alternative that restores either biodiversity or both biodiversity and Māori culture will yield a substantial welfare gain. The functional relationship between changes in taxes and utility values estimated from the choices made by each respondent allows estimation of willingness to pay (WTP) for any change in any other attribute. WTP constitutes the dollar value to the respondent of such a change. The results are highly correlated with those based on the utility values discussed above. Annual population-weighted WTP is estimated at roughly NZ$224/household (NZ$370 million for the nation) or NZ$128/household (NZ$212 million for the nation) for improving biodiversity from poor to good or from poor to medium condition, respectively. Mean population-weighted WTP to maintain Māori culture or current light restrictions on commercial or recreational fishing is almost half as large. By applying these WTP estimates, an annual net benefit equivalent to roughly NZ$165 million or NZ$66 million at a minimum can be generated by policy that either restores biodiversity or both biodiversity and Māori culture. With dollar values, it is possible to suggest that there is potentially sufficient money to buy back commercial quota required for the policy implementation, while still making New Zealanders ‘economically’ better-off. The results from this general study provide a strong justification for the joint implementation of marine reserves and taiāpure (or mātaitai in areas of greater cultural significance for Māori). This joint implementation in the form of Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) or more broadly Biosphere Reserves offers perhaps the best chance of success in achieving sustainability of the complex, coupled social-ecological marine systems and resolving the race for space over the long-term. These results provide support for implementing New Zealand’s MPAs Policy, which has been delayed for almost a decade. Choice experiments are a developing type of valuation technique that can generate information about social preferences for aspects of competing policy options and contribute to improving the efficiency and sustainability in resource allocation. However, there is still much to be learned about the limitations and possibilities of choice experiments, so future applications should routinely include methodological experiments as part of their study design. Both monetary and non-monetary metrics may be used to complement each other because each has its own strengths and weaknesses. For instance, dollar values are easier to interpret, but estimating them requires more effort and care about associated uncertainty. For guiding public policy, results from choice experiments or any economic modelling need to be complemented by those from biological/ecological and sociological studies to achieve a sustainable and desirable future.

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  • Whales and Whale Bone Technology in New Zealand Prehistory

    Cunliffe, Emily A. (2014)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    This thesis explores the use of whales as a material resource, and the role that these animals played in the Māori lifeway during New Zealand prehistory. The research examines the methods used in procuring and processing whale bone, and discusses the sorts of items that prehistoric Māori manufactured from whale bone. Two approaches to the analysis of the role of whales as a resource are taken in this thesis: the first is a distributional study which compares the relationship between whale stranding hot-spots and the geographical distribution of archaeological sites at which whale bone has been reported. It was hypothesised that a strong correlation between these two datasets would indicate that people were locating their settlements near to whale stranding hot-spots to take advantage of the high rate of whale strandings. Secondly, a taphonomical analysis of an industrially worked whale bone assemblage from Kahukura, Murihiku, was undertaken to identify the methods used in processing the bone and to determine the tools being used and the artefacts that were being manufactured. Industrially worked whale bone occurring in New Zealand archaeological sites was processed using tools which were not intended for the specific use of processing whales. Adzes were the most commonly applied tools, although the use of anvil stones to provide a solid platform for bone working is unique to this resource. Whale bone in archaeological sites does not correlate strongly with the geographic distribution of whale stranding hot-spots, showing that although Māori were taking advantage of whale strandings whenever they were encountered, they were not a resource which was relied on or factored into their subsistence strategy. The overall finding of this thesis is that Māori utilisation of whale strandings was opportunistic. Communities were not locating their settlements to be close to whale stranding hot-spots, nor is there evidence for a specialist whale bone working tool-kit. However, Māori clearly had a good understanding of whale strandings and the physical properties of whale bone, and were efficiently processing and utilising this resource whenever it was encountered.

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  • The Archaeology of the New Zealand Stamp Mill

    Petchey, Peter Graham (2014)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    This thesis is an archaeological study of the stamp mill, often referred to as a ‘stamper battery,’ that is one of the iconic features of New Zealand’s historic goldfields. After the Otago gold rushes started in earnest in 1861 thousands of men flocked to the alluvial diggings, and they were soon searching for the quartz reefs that they were sure were the source of the river and stream gold. Hard-rock mining started in 1862 in Otago and Coromandel, and machines were erected to crush the rock and release the gold that it (hopefully) contained. These machines were stamp mills, a mechanically simple hammer mill that raised and dropped heavy weights onto the quartz in order to reduce it to the consistency of sand. The first few mills were improvised locally from materials at hand, and these were soon followed by a number of ‘engineered’ stamp mills imported from foundries in Melbourne. A local manufacturing industry quickly grew up, and other mills were imported from Britain and America. Today many examples of these mills survive in the old goldfields in varying states of preservation. They constitute archaeological evidence of two important aspects of the goldfields: technology, and a place of work. Much Industrial Archaeology has traditionally focussed on technological details, and this is the starting point for this research. Contemporary industry literature is used to describe and understand the engineering of the stamp mill, and this understanding is then applied to the archaeological record. The results of a wide-scale survey that covered sites from Fiordland in the south to the Coromandel in the north are considered in terms of technological adoption, adaption and innovation in order to determine how and why gold milling technology came to New Zealand. The results indicate that the majority of the technology was imported, with Australia acting as a source of conventional technology, and Britain and America as sources of more innovative designs. However, far from being completely technologically dependent on these places, it is argued that New Zealand was a technological participant in the international mining industry. There is ample archaeological evidence for local agency in New Zealand, whereby technology was chosen and adapted to suit local requirements, with some local designs then being re-exported. New Zealand was admittedly never more than small player in this international field, but it was nevertheless an active one. The thesis then turns to the second issue: the stamp mill as a workplace. Since the 1970s commentators have pointed out that Industrial Archaeology should take note of social issues in the industrial world, but much subsequent work has been criticised because of its focus on technology and structures. By taking the same engineering analysis of the archaeological evidence of the New Zealand stamp mills as used in the discussion of technology, the mill as a place where people worked is considered. Evidence of wear, repair, modification and pragmatic adaption is discussed to identify the work that was actually carried out by the mill workers, and detailed volumetric analysis of various mill parts is used to quantify some of the tasks in relation to contemporary records of workmen’s abilities. Finally, the workplace environment is also considered, including hazards such as noise, dust and poisons. The results of this, unsurprisingly, find that the battery house was by modern standards a very dangerous place. However, it is also observed that in a world without social welfare, the battery house represented employment and income that was vital for the working man and his family. In conclusion, the stamp mill is part of an archaeological landscape that has both international links and individual social meaning. Modern New Zealand society evolved in melting pot of the nineteenth century, and the gold mining industry played an important role in that development. The combination of evidence of international influence and local agency in mining technology, and the role and experiences of the mill workers, provides a small insight into the emergence of the complex modern world.

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