1,367 results for Thesis, 2014

  • The effect of the Canterbury earthquakes on alcohol consumption and motivations for drinking among psychologically resilient individuals

    Marie, Leila Michele Anastasia (2014)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Individual responses to natural disasters are highly variable. The psychological and behavioural response trajectories of those who manage to cope well with adverse life events are in need of further investigation. Increased alcohol use is often observed in communities exposed to mass traumas, particularly among those exposed to severe levels of trauma, with males drinking more than females. The current study examined patterns of alcohol use and motivations for drinking among a sample of psychologically resilient individuals with varying levels of exposure to the Canterbury earthquakes (N = 91) using structured and semi-structured interviews and self-report measures. As hypothesised, there was a significant increase in alcohol consumption since the earthquakes began, and males reported significantly higher levels of pre-earthquake and current alcohol consumption than females. Contrary to expectations, there was no association between traumatic exposure severity and alcohol consumption. While participants reported anxiety-based coping motives for drinking at levels comparable to those reported by other studies, depression-based coping motives were significantly lower, providing partial support for the hypothesis that participants would report coping motives for drinking at levels comparable to those found by other researchers. No gender differences in drinking motives were found. As expected, current alcohol consumption was positively correlated with anxiety and depression-based coping motives for drinking. Psychological resilience was not significantly associated with alcohol use, however resilience was negatively associated with depression-based coping motives for drinking. These findings have inter-generational and international implications for post-traumatic intervention.

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  • Characterisation and Control of 3-Deoxy-D-arabino-heptulosonate 7-phosphate Synthase from Geobacillus sp

    Othman, Mohamad (2014)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    3-Deoxy-D-arabino heptulosonate 7-phosphate synthase (DAH7PS) catalyses the first step of the shikimate pathway, responsible for the biosynthesis of aromatic amino acids. This pathway is found in microorganisms, plants and apicomplexan parasites and its absence in mammals makes it a viable target for antimicrobial drug design. DAH7PS enzymes differ in the regulatory machinery that decorates the catalytic (β/α)8 barrel. Some DAH7PS enzymes are fused to chorismate mutase (CM), another enzyme in the shikimate pathway. This fusion protein is allosterically regulated by chorismate (CA) or prephenate (PA), the precursor of tyrosine and phenylalanine. It has been suggested that DAH7PS enzymes evolved these extensions to the core barrel for the sole purpose of regulation. Geobacillus sp DAH7PS (GspDAH7PSWT) is a thermophilic type Iβ DAH7PS enzyme with an N-terminal CM domain fused through a linker region. This thesis describes the functional characterisation work carried out on GspDAH7PSWT, in attempt to help determine how DAH7PS enzymes evolved such diverse methods of regulation. Chapter 2 describes the functional characterisation work carried out on the catalytic and regulatory domains of GspDAH7PSWT. The enzyme demonstrated both DAH7PS and CM activities with the DAH7PS domain determined to be metal dependent and most activated by Cd2+. PA completely inhibited the catalytic activity of GspDAH7PSWT, and AUC demonstrated an equilibrium exists between the dimeric and tetrameric quaternary states of the enzyme in solution. Chapter 3 describes the domain truncation of GspDAH7PSWT carried out at the linker region in order to obtain two separate protein domains, the catalytic domain lacking the N-terminal domain (GspDAH7PSDAH7PS) and the regulatory domain without the catalytic domain (GspDAH7PSCM). Both variants were fully characterised, and information obtained from each domain was compared to the respective catalytic and regulatory domains of the wild-type enzyme, which was also characterised. Like GspDAH7PSWT, GspDAH7PSDAH7PS showed greatest activation in the presence of Cd2+, with other metals having varying effects on activation rates and stability of the enzyme. Both truncated variants followed Michaelis-Menten kinetics where GspDAH7PSDAH7PS was found to be more active than GspDAH7PSWT and unaffected by PA, whereas GspDAH7PSCM was a less efficient catalyst than the CM domain of GspDAH7PSWT. AUC demonstrated that in solution an equilibrium occurs between the monomeric and tetrameric oligomeric states of GspDAH7PSDAH7PS. Chapter 4 summarises the findings of the thesis along with future directions of this research, combining the results obtained and expanding upon them. It is concluded that the catalytic regulatory CM domain supports both protein structure and allosteric regulation of GspDAH7PSWT

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  • SYNTHESIS AND COMPLEXES OF BRIDGING HETEROCYCLIC LIGANDS

    Rajan, Siji (2014)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Ligand–mediated coupling between metal centres is of fundamental importance in inorganic and materials chemistry. Bridging ligands involving azo groups as coordinating π–acceptors can yield complexes with interesting properties. This thesis describes the synthesis of a series of N–heterocyclic compounds containing the azo functionality, designed for potential coordination to the metal through the azo nitrogen and a N–heterocyclic ring. The azo ligands are divided into four categories; ligands based on azobispyridines, ligands containing pyrimidine and fused aromatic azine groups and ligands capable of coordinating in a bis–tridentate fashion to the metal centre. Ligands containing flexible imine subunits connected directly, or through different spacers, are also discussed. Overall twenty one ligands were synthesised, six of which are new compounds. The coordination and metallosupramolecular chemistry of these ligands with ruthenium(II) and silver(I) metal atoms was investigated. A total of thirty five ruthenium(II) and eleven silver(I) complexes were prepared, of which thirty eight were characterised by X–ray crystallography. Mononuclear and dinuclear ruthenium(II) complexes were synthesised and characterised by a combination of spectroscopic and structural techniques. UV/Visible absorption studies and electrochemical methods were used to investigate the nature of metal–ligand and metal–metal interactions. In the mononuclear Ru(II) complexes, N–heterocyclic azo ligands act as chelating ligands forming five–membered chelate rings involving azo–N and heterocyclic–N atoms. The non–coordinated pyridine ring of the azo ligand is twisted with respect to the azo–N atom and is directed towards the adjacent bipyridine rings. Studies reveal that these azo ligands posses extremely low–lying π*–orbitals and are electron deficient. X–Ray structural analysis of the dinuclear complexes revealed short inter–metal separations of ca. 4.9 Å and electrochemical studies indicate that these ligands mediate very strong interactions between the metal centres , due to the excellent π*–acceptor properties of the azo functionality. Varying the pyridine ring of the azo ligand to pyrimidines and fused N–aromatic rings has a considerable effect on the electronic properties of these complexes. Incorporation of a pyrimidine ring facilitates the stabilisation of azo anion radicals and leads to the formation of diruthenium(II) species, bridged by radical species. The X–ray crystal structures of both these complexes were determined. The use of the hexadentate ligands coordinating in a bis–tridentate manner mediate even stronger communication between the two ruthenium centres. Ligands containing bis–pyridylimines result in weaker coupling between the metal centres in dinuclear ruthenium(II) species. A complete absence in the inter–metal communication was observed with increasing the distance and/or flexibility between the two pyridylimine units, contrary to a previous reported claim. Reaction with different silver(I) salts afforded an array of one–dimensional coordination polymers and a discrete dinuclear complex depending on the coordination strengths of the anions. The metallosupramolecular assemblies obtained were characterised mainly by X–ray crystallography, elemental analysis and mass spectrometry.

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  • Whaling In the Antarctic': A Judgment by the International Court of Justice and what could happen in Future due to that

    Curie, Marcus (2014)

    Postgraduate Certificate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    In March this year the International Court of Justice made a judgment about the case 'Whaling In the Antarctic' where Japan is blamed by Australia to hunt whales in the Southern Ocean. The Court decided that Japan's program JARPA II is not conforming to the assumed moratorium of the International Whaling Commission and hence it is to stop immediately. The relation to the Southern Ocean, and that endangered species are a subject, as well as the compliance of international conventions, this case is important for the future of Antarctica and the Antarctic Treaty. After the judgment there were assumptions if Japan will abide to it, and a few weeks later Japan came up with the news to design a new program which will be conform to the judgment and the moratorium. Currently it is unsure what will happen and predictions are not easy to make. This case is unprecedented and there are no other cases to compare it to. This critical review will investigate the major information about legislation, as well as the driving forces and threats for whaling in Japan.

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  • Have Southern Ocean whale populations recovered from the intense whaling of the last century and what is the future of these populations?

    Brabyn, Mark (2014)

    Postgraduate Certificate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    In 1904 shore based whaling moved to the Antarctic region and in 1925 factory ships began harvesting the open oceans. The International Whaling Commission (IWC) was set up in 1946 by which time southern right whales and humpbacks in the Southern Ocean were commercially extinct. Quotas and management practices were set in place but catches increased until 1962 when populations crashed. It wasn't until 1986, that a full moratorium on commercial whaling took place but there was a loop hole to allow scientific whaling. DNA sampling from whale meats from Japanese markets in the early 1990's showed that the Japanese had been illegally harvesting humpback whales. Records obtained after the fall of the Soviet Union showed they had been undertaking extensive illegal whaling. In recent years, key whale species taken in the Southern Ocean have shown signs of recovery but this varies greatly with blue whales still considered highly endangered. The IWC was not effective with the management of the initial whale stocks and now they are faced with a polarised view amongst members with no areas of compromise. Fundamental issues on how we feed the growing human population are discussed but require further research.

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  • Moss and Lichen as Atmospheric Biomonitors of Anthropogenic Contamination in the Antarctic: A Review

    Asher, Cameron (2014)

    Postgraduate Certificate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Lichen and moss are excellent biomonitors of atmospheric heavy metal pollution as they are geographically diverse, have no waxy cuticles to control intake of nutrients/metals, can accumulate pollutants to levels that far exceed their need without dying, and make up the dominant portion of terrestrial flora in ice free areas of Antarctica. Studies on this subject are generally restricted to areas of highest anthropogenic activity around King George Island at the Antarctic Peninsula, although determining the 'baseline' concentrations of heavy metals in mosses and lichens far away from human activity is essential to understanding the continued impact we have on the environment. Generally, heavy metal concentrations increase as distance to nearest research station decrease, due in part to the large dependence on fossil fuel combustion for transportation and electricity, but also due to the fact that stations are clustered near the coast and on ice free ground, allowing for influence from marine and substrate derived heavy metals. Values obtained from these or any studies are not directly comparable without first establishing the appropriate correlation factor between the species used, as each species accumulates heavy metals to a varying degree, dependant on thallus volume proportions, surface roughness and morphology.

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  • Fiddling While Antarctica Melts? Debates about Antarctica's Role in Sea Level Rise and Implications for Policy Responses

    Miles, Russell (2014)

    Postgraduate Certificate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Sea level is rising'�but, in spite of attention being drawn to this impact of climate change since the late 1970s, the sheer complexity of attempting to quantify and model potential rises mean that it remains unclear by how much sea levels will rise, at what rate, and where it will impact most. This uncertainty has meant that many policy makers have been unwilling to expend the political capital and resources to take action to counter potentially disastrous -but uncertain -affects. Uncertainty fuels inaction. The role of the Antarctic contribution to sea level rise is critically important because, out of all the contributions to sea-level rise, Antarctic melting has the capacity to greatly affect sea levels. It is already happening in a number of areas, and some models project that melting in Antarctica could accelerate over this century. Should this come to pass, many poorer countries may not have the funds or information to respond in time, as making decisions and finding resources can take decades. To some extent, further research, better data and sharing of knowledge about the contribution of Antarctic melting to sea level rise will help address uncertainties. But policy makers also need to appreciate that, owing to the nature of the system studied and the available sources of data, complete certainty or consensus within the scientific community may not be possible, and hard decisions will need to be made. This review considers the science of and the ongoing debates about Antarctica's contribution to sea-level rise -especially the idea of an acceleration of flow off the glaciers in the Amundsen Sea in the West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS)'�and how this information is conveyed to policy makers. It finds that even though much progress has been made by scientists, especially in the past five years, there would be great merit in increasing investments in Antarctic ice sheet research to feed into the next IPCC Assessment Report 6 in five years time. This research should aim to reduce the variance within the scientific community on the issue of WAIS melting, but also help policy makers determine a level of uncertainty at which they would be willing to act, given the risks involved of a possible dynamic response in the WAIS rapidly increasing sea-level rise beyond our capacity to respond. The alternative for the world's scientists, policy makers and planners is neatly encapsulated in one word'�Nero.

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  • The Potential Hazard of Antarctic Ice Shelf Carving in New Zealand Territorial Waters.

    Rowan, Errin (2014)

    Postgraduate Certificate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The Antarctic Peninsula is the one region of the Southern Ocean that has experienced large temperature changes over the past century resulting in the release of large ice bergs into the Southern Ocean. The glacial calving process is based on glacier ice flow dynamics as breaking rates are controlled by ice velocity changes and retreat. With increased continental warming and consequently melting there will be an increase in ice-berg calving frequency and movement from the Antarctic continent. GIS satellite monitoring of the Antarctic has provided useful images of the migration of icebergs. Recent advances in the use of geographic information systems and the ability to monitor the movement of icebergs and changes in ice sheets makes the potential for predicting the impacts on the Southern Ocean easier. This literature review considers the question - with increased iceberg frequency what are the potential impacts of ice-berg migration on Southern Ocean logistics.

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  • Antarctica and manned missions to Mars: Antarctica as a natural field study for psychological changes in an isolated and confined environment (ICE).

    de Hamel, Stephanie (2014)

    Postgraduate Certificate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    This review covers literature related to both Antarctic psychology and potential manned missions to Mars. By studying the effects on human health and behaviour when personnel winter-over in Antarctica, it is possible to use this data to predict the behaviours that would be seen in a long duration space flight and would allow a suitable selection process to be implemented in order to reduce the risk of serious interpersonal conflict or psychological issues. This review aims to cover (briefly) the history of psychology in Antarctica, the common effects seen as well as the patterns observed, and then use this information as a starting point to delve into the psychology of other isolated and confined (ICE) environments - namely a long duration shuttle mission to Mars. Personnel views expressed are my own and I draw conclusions about my thoughts on the future based on the reviewed literature.

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  • To whale or not to whale, that is the question

    Vanderhaven, Beth (2014)

    Postgraduate Certificate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Scientific whaling in the Southern Ocean has been a topical issue through scientific, political, economic, cultural and ethical aspects. Scientific whaling began after the International Whaling Commission (IWC) announced the moratorium on commercial whaling. Many of the main objections and campaigns against the Japanese scientific whaling in the Southern Ocean are related to the Japanese agenda behind their research. This critical review evaluates the four main aspects and their evidence towards the Japanese agenda. There is no significant scientific certainty that the agenda for the Japanese scientific whaling is one to eventually re-establish commercial whaling. Future research is needed to be undertaken by concerned nations to solidify the research being produced and allow management decisions to be made with greater knowledge and evidence.

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  • Management and Disposal of Anthropogenic wastes and its Effects on the Antarctic Environment

    Dobson, Sophie (2014)

    Postgraduate Certificate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    As Antarctica is the only continent on Earth that does not maintain a permanent resident human population it is important to gain an understanding of how humans impact upon the local environment so the best management strategies and approaches can be defined. Throughout this review it was found that despite its vast land area and recent, comparatively low human population the necessary activities required for humans to inhabit Antarctica had a noticeable impact on Antarctic ecosystems as pathogens were found to be released from human waste products to infect local fauna and the community make up of several benthic and soil communities were altered via exposure to contaminants via fuel spills and leakage from abandoned station waste sites . Legacy waste left over from less environmentally focused periods in Antarctic history is a big problem for current managers. A more effective range of environmental measures may be required to ensure the Environmental Protocol is implemented efficiently. Many waste water treatment installations are still relatively new and the effects on the environment are as yet unknown.

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  • Prince Harry and other surface issues: Antarctic issues in UK and US newspapers

    Brundin, Hanna (2014)

    Postgraduate Certificate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Due to climate change, the fishing industry, tourism and resource extraction Antarctica has become and increasingly more common topic in mass media around the world. Despite this, and the importance given to mass media in terms of impact on public awareness and policy making, little is known about how Antarctic issues are portrayed and its influence on the public arena. This essay looks at how four newspapers in the UK and the US portray Antarctica by comparing a sample test with existing literature on quantitative journalistic norms and values. It also compares the results with the findings of studies made on the relationship between climate change coverage and its influence on public knowledge. There is a consensus that the general public lacks knowledge and interest in Antarctic issues, however, this assumption has no statistical evidence to back it up. This essay demonstrate that there is a possibility that the general public is uninformed, only has superficial knowledge about Antarctic issues or simply doesn't consider them to be important. But, it stresses that the need and urgency for further, in depth studies are crucial to our understanding of medias influence on the knowledge of the general public.

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  • Human impacts on breeding success of Antarctic penguins: A review

    Tersteeg, Jodie (2014)

    Postgraduate Certificate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The changing climate and its potential future impacts on the ecosystems of the planet, highlights the need to better understand factors which can leave a species vulnerable to change. In Antarctica, the wildlife is specially adapted to extreme environments, but many species are restricted to a limited latitudinal range, hence making them particularly vulnerable to a change in climate. At the same time, there is rapid growth in tourism, and continued growth in other activities in Antarctica. As wildlife is likely to come into contact with humans more and more, it is important to obtain as much information as possible on the potential effects of this interaction. The breeding success of a species is critical for a healthy population and therefore anything affecting breeding needs to be fully understood. Penguins are an iconic and abundant Antarctic species and this paper investigates what is known about human impact on their breeding success. The papers reviewed have very differing results so there is still uncertainty about the significance and magnitude of human impacts on breeding penguins. What has become clear however, is a need for more species specific studies, and also further understanding of other factors that may affect breeding success.

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  • AVIATION ACCIDENTS in ANTARCTICA -A review of literature and examination of dimensions.

    Patterson, Mary (2014)

    Postgraduate Certificate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Antarctica and its isolation relies heavily upon aviation for accessibility. For accessibility to, and scientific and artistic advancement of the Continent. The rapidly changing extreme weather, which creates environmental in-hostility and inaccessibility give rise to aviation presenting as a challenge in Antarctica. With this challenge come risks from an already high-risk mode of transport. This literature review examines aviation accidents in Antarctica from both the fixed wing and helicopter data. This data is presented in a Table format, from the first accident on 15 March 1929, up to 4th December 2013. The review answers the following dimensions. Firstly the spatial dimension; where do accidents occur commonly and why? Secondly the causal dimension; what are the main reasons behind aviation accidents? Thirdly the impact dimension, the environmental, political, economic and socio-cultural consequences of accidents. Finally, examination of the temporal dimension, thru asking; has aviation has become safer over time? The review is introduced with a brief contextual historical overview of Aviation. Followed by the International Geophysical Year-IGY, and its significance to Aviation. The tabulated aviation accident data follows; this is structured in pre International Geophysical Year (IGY), IGY and post IGY. Discussion of dimensions followed by conclusions complete the review.

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  • Climate change effects and the future for Antarctic krill

    Kiley, Heather (2014)

    Postgraduate Certificate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Climate change effects are already being observed in some regions of the Southern Ocean, where reduced duration and extent of winter sea-ice, ocean warming and ocean acidification threaten the survival of Antarctic krill. This species is critical to the Antarctic ecosystem, where most marine mammal and bird species depend on it as a food source. Whilst there may be some positive effects from the impacts of climate change, their combined effect is likely to be negative and threaten the life cycle and distribution of krill. Long term studies in the southwest Atlantic have linked decreased krill abundance with reduced coverage of winter sea-ice. The Southern Ocean is particularly vulnerable to ocean acidification, which is likely to disrupt the hatching success of krill larvae, and ocean warming may have implications for the range and distribution of krill populations. Recorded catch levels in the krill fishery have also seen recent increases, and fishing pressure coupled with climate change implications may place the future of Antarctic krill in jeopardy. This review will examine current predicted climate change effects and their potential impacts on krill, and whether the combined pressures of increased fishing and a changing environment in the Southern Ocean are effectively managed within the current CCAMLR framework.

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  • The Distribution and Deposition of Radionuclides over Antarctica

    Lowther, Nicholas (2014)

    Postgraduate Certificate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The production of artificial radionuclides from the atmospheric thermonuclear testing of the 1950s onwards has been detected in Antarctica. The presence of these pollutants has been utilised by science to produce meteorological information about the Antarctic continent. Accurate analysis of radionuclide stratospheric residence times, air to ice radionuclide concentration ratios, fallout characteristics of radionuclides and snow accumulation rates are made possible by their presence in Antarctica. The artificial radionuclides of 137Cs and 90Sr and natural radionuclide 210Pb have ideal decay properties for analysing the meteorological applications. By understanding the processes that current pollutants follow in Antarctica we can plan effectively for new and emerging pollutants that threaten the continent.

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  • Literature review: The effects of climate change on Ross Sea primary production and flow on effects to food webs.

    McLean, Lydia (2014)

    Postgraduate Certificate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The Ross Sea is the most productive area of ocean in Antarctica, yet it is vulnerable to the effects of climate change. An increase in Southern Annular Mode wind cycles has resulted in oceanographic changes including increased sea ice and enhancement of the Ross Sea polynya. The change in sea ice affects timing of phytoplankton blooms and proportions of species of primary producers in the ecosystem, with a possible favouring of the algal species Phaeocystis antarctica. This may lead to further changes in the ecosystem, including altered biogeochemical cycling, and an altered food web, due to the fact that P. antarctica is relatively inedible compared to other primary producers. The effects of the change in phytoplankton blooms in the Ross Sea community may lead to alteration of the food web, right through to top level predators.

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  • What are the limiting survival factors of microbial life in continental terrestrial Antarctica?

    Dobson, Wills (2014)

    Postgraduate Certificate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Despite the extreme conditions of inland terrestrial Antarctica, life still manages to survive in microbial form. Exploring and understanding how it exists has important implications in understanding evolutionary processes, modelling early earth life and astrobiology. The most extreme environments that harbour microbial life in continental Antarctica are the Dry Valleys of the Transantarctic Mountains and the protruding Nunataks of the Ice sheet expanse. Conditions in these environments are harsh, with water in low supply, extreme temperature variation and either too much or too little sunlight. Life exists in a variety of shapes and forms. Nematodes and Tardigrades are some of the hardiest micro fauna known, able to survive total desiccation and freezing. Mosses, Algae and Lichen make up the photosynthesis capable organisms and can survive in a wide variety of environments. These organisms strive against the odds and form habitats not just in soil or on rock surfaces, but also under or within the rock. This helps to manage their moisture supply, and protect from harmful exterior forces such as extreme temperature variations and UV radiation. The major limiting forces for microbial life in terrestrial continental Antarctica are varied. Unsurprisingly water availability is the most important as it controls all organisms ability to live and grow. Temperature is also important due to its effect on the freezing point of water and controls on photosynthesis. Light plays a major part as it helps control the growth of the photosynthetic organisms as well as varies the temperature. Surface type is also important due to the slow growth rates in Antarctica, coupled with the environments required in which to survive.

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  • Southern Ocean acidification and the effect on pteropods and krill

    Schwalger-Smith, Briar (2014)

    Postgraduate Certificate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Increasing anthropogenic carbon dioxide in the atmosphere decreases the pH of the ocean and the carbonate ion concentration. Colder temperatures and winds causing the upwelling of deep sea water are two factors that will increase the rate of ocean acidification in the Southern Ocean, relative to lower latitudes. Pteropods and krill are both important species in Antarctic ecosystems and this review outlines the current understanding of how they are affected by projected changes to ocean chemistry. All species of thecosomata (shelled pteropod) experienced degrees of shell dissolution as a result of ocean acidification and aragonite undersaturation. Other physiological factors and survival rate varied between pteropod species but predominately showed a negative impact. Aragonite undersaturation is projected to occur in the Southern Ocean by 2050 and by 2030 in winter. The effects of ocean acidification on pteropods have been more widely researched than the effects on the key ecosystem species, krill. Increased carbon dioxide levels detrimentally affected the hatch rate of krill eggs and population collapse is projected for 2300, with severe and widespread consequence to the entire ecosystem. This review highlights current gaps in the research and identifies the urgent need for a more comprehensive understanding of the ecological impacts of declining or disappearing pteropod and krill populations.

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  • What on Earth Could Live on Mars?

    Dobson, Wills (2014)

    Postgraduate Certificate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    This project explores the similarities and differences of climate between the Antarctic Dry Valleys and Mars. Specifically looking into possible locations where the cyanobacteria Chroococcidiopsis could survive. It goes on to explain the limitations of the knowledge around this cyanobacteria and the Martian climate. Following this the question is posed, if we can colonise Mars, should we? It then explores the reasons why we should/should not colonise space both as humans and with organisms we place there. This is presented via a video in combination with a referenced script and explanation.

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