1,334 results for Thesis, 2015

  • The impact of modernising netball umpiring at community and development levels

    Andrew, Joyce Christine (2015)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    Modernisation is a paradigm that values ideals of democratic renewal, continual improvement, alignment, and efficiency (Houlihan & Green, 2009). It has influenced how government and national sports organisations (NSO) manage sport (Grix, 2009; Sam, 2009). This thesis explores how Netball New Zealand’s (NNZ) modernisation has impacted umpiring and its stakeholders (at community and development levels). More specifically, it investigates whether modernisation’s ‘logics’ (e.g., continuous improvement) and its associated technologies (e.g., whole-of-sport planning) have affected how umpiring stakeholders think and act. This research is significant to shed light on: a) the impact of modernisation on the under-researched area of umpiring, and b) what consequences arise from the combination of modernising logics/technologies, such as whether ‘target setting’ reinforces or antagonises the goal of whole-of-sport, joined up delivery. The study employs a qualitative methodology using methods of documentary analysis, semi-structured interviews and focus groups. Interviews were with four national panel members and focus groups were with two zone umpire development groups (ZUDG) which had four individuals in each. This study found modernisation’s ideals are manifest in NNZ’s umpiring structures. Democratic renewal is evident in the establishment of ZUDG’s and centre umpire development groups (CUDG). Alignment is observable in: a) the central objectives and programmes driving ZUDGs and CUDGs, and b) the adoption of similar strategies from player development into umpire development (i.e. targeting youth). Lastly, NNZ’s concern for efficiency and continual improvement has resulted in: a) specialist development personnel/groups, b) more comprehensive development programmes, and c) more squads, levels of accreditation, and fitness testing. These structures were found to: a) create greater expectations for umpiring and umpire coach/assessors, b) emphasise pathways, ambitions and status to recruit and develop umpires, and c) encourage a demographic shift in the umpire population. One major area of discussion was that modernising has increased stakeholder workloads, preventing them from fulfilling other roles such as running umpire development initiatives. High workloads also insulated some stakeholders, hindering communication and potentially preventing consistent standards, quality development programmes, and knowledge transfer between players, coaches and umpires. The high workloads may also have antagonised the sustainability of umpire development. The other main area of discussion was that modernising with ‘best practices’ of accreditation, targets, pathways and targeting youth yield many similar challenges generated by emerging professions. This study found ‘best practices’: a) privileged some over others, b) changed the umpire population’s ethos, demographics, and socio-cultural dynamics, c) created a focus on quantitative targets, and d) put unrealistic expectations on support personnel. Furthermore, this study found some modern ideals were not compatible. Continual improvement antagonised efficiency and alignment because it created large workloads. In addition, ‘best practices’ striving for efficiency, alignment, continuous improvement, democratic renewal and accountability seemed to inhibit efficiency. Overall, this study advances the importance of critically considering the consequences of modern logics and practices on the capabilities of sport organisations.

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  • Novel biomarkers for diabetic patients at risk of developing secondary complications.

    Orban, Thomas (2015)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Diabetes is a chronic, incurable disease characterized by chronic hyperglycemia. Patients who control their diabetes poorly are at risk of developing long-term complications, such as cardiovascular diseases, renal failure and retina damage. Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), formed by the reaction of glucose with hemoglobin, is considered the gold standard for the monitoring of glycemic control, but it does not discriminate between the different types of secondary complications associated with diabetes. Diabetes and its complications are linked to oxidative stress and the resulting lipid peroxidation produce reactive aldehydes including acrolein. Acrolein forms adducts with nucleophilic residues of proteins, which can be used as biomarkers of oxidative stress. It is hypothesized in the present study that specific adducts of acrolein with hemoglobin could be used as reliable biomarkers for secondary complications linked with diabetes. In this context, reactions of acrolein with the two nucleophilic amino acids cysteine and lysine have been studied. The formation of adducts was confirmed for both of these amino acids, and lead to the discovery of the novel compound FTT-cysteine. Studies on hemoglobin itself were conducted in order to understand how acrolein influences the structure and function of this protein and where the preferential sites of modification were located. It was concluded that acrolein does not significantly alter the structure of hemoglobin and actually tends to stabilize it due to the formation of internal cross-links. MS studies revealed that both the single addition of acrolein and the formation of the aromatic compound MP-lysine, arising from reaction with two molecules of acrolein, occur in hemoglobin samples. ELISA tests were developed that could successfully determine the presence of naturally forming hemoglobinacrolein adducts in vivo. X-ray crystallography could show the presence of extra electron density in the vicinity of Cys 93 on the β subunit. A proteomics search determined the sites of preferential reaction on hemoglobin, one of which is Cys 93. These results paved the way for the design of two novel synthetic hexapeptides, Ser-Ala-Gln-Val-Lys-Gly and Leu-His-Cys-Asp-Lys-Leu,whose reactivity towards acrolein was then studied. Both peptides were successfully modified by reaction with acrolein: MS studies revealed the formation of MP-lysine for Ser-Ala-Gln-Val-Lys-Gly and of a single cysteine Michael adduct for Leu-His-Cys-Asp-Lys-Leu. Future work will include the synthesis of 16-residue peptide chains as determined by the results from the proteomics search, against which antibodies will be raised. The antibodies will be used to develop highly specific ELISA assays that will hopefully correlate with secondary complications of diabetes. The outcome of this research could lead to the development of a convenient product that could be used to evaluate the risks that diabetic patients have of developing specific secondary complications.

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  • Antarctica: The world's last wilderness?

    Stone, James (2015)

    Postgraduate Certificate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The term 'wilderness' is explicitly mentioned in the Antarctic Treaty's Environmental Protocol, both in relation to protection of the wilderness values of Antarctica, and the consideration of these values when conducting any activity in the Treaty Area; yet no formal definition is provided. A definition is required to enable identification of potential wilderness areas in the Antarctic, to ensure their subsequent protection. That Antarctica contains wilderness seems in little doubt, but expansion and diversification of human activity creates impacts which are eroding and fragmenting the area of the continent that could be classified as wilderness. This paper reviews several possible definitions of wilderness previously submitted to the Antarctic Treaty Consultative Parties and used in wilderness protection elsewhere in the world, from the complex to the simple, and the inverse relationship between footprint and wilderness. Suggestions on ways to map, monitor and better protect wilderness into the future are investigated, using both the existing framework of the Treaty System, and other management tools such as Strategic Environmental Assessment and Landscape Character Assessment. Consideration and implementation of these recommendations should then safeguard Antarctica, so that it can continue to remain the world's last large contiguous wilderness.

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  • Antarctic Specially Protected Areas as tools for conservation: An assessment of purpose, placement and effect

    McNeill, Bridget (2015)

    Postgraduate Certificate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Offering the highest level of protection under the current Antarctic Treaty System, Antarctic Specially Protected Areas are often considered a key tool in the conservation of terrestrial Antarctica (Shaw et al 2014). However as conservation science evolves, and approaches to conservation planning become more systematic, the capability of these areas to meet long-term Antarctic conservation objectives has been questioned. To address this, both the placement and management of existing Antarctic Specially Protected Areas is reviewed, in order to assess whether, as a system, Antarctic Specially Protected Areas 1) designate adequate area, representative Antarctic biodiversity, and 2) effectively separate it from threatening processes. Finding that in the short term, stricter compliance with management guidelines and monitoring is required by Treaty Parties, and in the long term, that meeting representativeness and comprehensiveness requirements is impeded by both a gap in available data and the placement of existing system, it is clear that both the management and designation processes of ASPA's requires review if Antarctic conservation objectives are to be achieved.

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  • Critical review on anthropogenic environmental changes and the effects that this may have had on Emperor penguin populations in Antarctica.

    Richards, Wilma Faye (2015)

    Postgraduate Certificate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    This literature review takes into consideration of different aspects of reporting, which include the use of; books, journals, online articles and published scientific articles, to get the overall feeling on people's attitudes on environmental change and its effect on Emperor penguin populations in Antarctica. Emperor penguins (Aptenodytes forsteri) are the largest of all penguins and it is thought that these ice-obligate species are particularly susceptible to environmental changes in the southern ocean conditions. The Emperor penguins due to specialised adaptations is able to survive the extreme weather conditions of Antarctica, and there are concerns that with a rise in atmospheric temperatures the sea-ice is melting and will cause extinction to many colonies reducing their total population. There has been a report of an Emperor penguin colony utilising floating ice shelves during years when sea-ice formed much later than usual. This new habit would appear to be the answer, excepting the rising atmospheric temperature combined with rising sea water temperatures has already claimed part of the Larsen Ice Shelf. Another oppressing factor is their food source mainly in the form of krill becoming subject to be seriously affected by rise in temperature, which is causing limitations of the available surface area of the underside of the sea-ice for algae. Commercial fisheries are now targeting the Emperor penguins food source the krill and squid, putting extra pressures on their survival.

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  • The Effect of Climate Change on Antarctic Seals

    Kelman, Emma (2015)

    Postgraduate Certificate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Climate change will have a significant impact on the seals of Antarctica, the Weddell (Leptonychotes weddellii), crabeater (Lobodon carcinophagus), leopard (Hydrurga leptoynx), Ross (Ommatophoca rossii), southern elephant (Mirpunga leonina) and Antarctic fur seal (Arctocephalus gazella). It is likely to affect food supply, habitat availability and reproductive rates, altering population size. Survival will depend on seals' ability to change behaviour and adapt to changing conditions but the severity of the impact will vary with different species. It is important to determine how seals wil react to climate change as they can be used as indicators of sea ice condition and prey availability. Crabeater populations are likely to decline due to the loss of sea ice affecting krill abundance, habitat availability and protection from predators. Leopard seals have a very diverse diet so may not experience the same decline due to loss of food sources, however juvenile mortality may still cause a population decline. Populations of Weddell seals may decrease due to a lower breeding rate. Populations of Ross seal may also decrease due to loss of sea ice and increased forgaing costs from changing distribution of squid. Whilst southern elephant seals and Antarctic fur seals will not be negatively affected by loss of sea ice (indeed, this may lead to population expansion), loss of food sources may still cause a population decline. The declining population numbers is a very serious issue as it reduces the species ability to adapt to the changing conditions. Seals are an important part of the Antarctic biota therefore changes in their lifestyle characteristics will affect the whole marine ecosystem.

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  • Antarctic Infrastructure - Co-operation, Challenges and Opportunities

    Schroeter, Ben; Phillips, Clive; Stone, James; Curie, Marcus (2015)

    Postgraduate Certificate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    This paper discusses the current state of international collaboration in Antarctica including the various mechanisms already in place to facilitate sharing, such as shared infrastructure, resources and logistics pooling. We discuss the barriers, catalysts and models of successful international collaboration through global analogues and a case study, aspects of which might be applied to the Antarctic in order to reduce the environmental impact of human activity in the region. Remote sensing opportunities are examined as a means to reduce environmental impact through an absence of physical presence on the continent, while highlighting a number of critical issues surrounding data access and sharing that should be addressed to encourage open sharing of data between nation states. We conclude with a number of high-level recommendations for policy makers pertaining to the implementation of the initiatives discussed.

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  • The Antarctic and Southern Ocean Horizon Scan

    Burn, Courtney; Richards, Faye; Route, Gail; Thame, Florence (2015)

    Postgraduate Certificate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    In April 2014 in Queenstown, New Zealand, the Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research (SCAR) conducted a horizon scan to set priority research questions for Antarctica and the Southern Ocean that are relevant for the next twenty years and beyond. A group of 75 leading Antarctic researchers and policy makers refined a list of 866 questions gathered from international open online solicitation rounds to a final list of 80 questions. The use of the horizon scan methodology was effective in setting a directive for future Antarctic and Southern Ocean research but there were limitations to this process that could be remediated. Further prioritisation of the final list of questions is necessary. There is also scope for capacity building within both the framework of SCAR and the horizon scan which will provide vital mechanisms to facilitate the research that will ultimately answer the 80 research questions identified by the horizon scan

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  • Antarctic Futures: Governance, Scientific Expeditions, Commercial Tourism, Resource Exploitation and Climate Change

    Knott, Michael; McNeill, Bridget; Thurston, Lorna; Udell, Hannah (2015)

    Postgraduate Certificate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Assessing and managing future effects is an inherent problem in environmental management and law applications. Antarctica is no exception. To assist with this problem, trend analyses are applied to understand the potential future impacts of scientific expeditions, commercial tourism, mineral resource exploitation and climate change on the Antarctic environment in 5-10 years and 30-50 years. Together with an understanding of the Antarctic Treaty System (“ATS”), this information is used to determine that the existing governance regime is expected to withstand the next 50 years; albeit considerable modification of legal instruments under the Antarctic Treaty (1959) (“Treaty”) being recommended in light of instability. Such modifications are principally required to address the impacts of scientific expeditions and commercial tourism. Refinement of existing policy is necessary to reduce the risk of a move towards mineral exploitation, which is not expected to occur within the next 50 years owing to stringent policy and decision-making processes already in place. Improved coordination of multilateral international agreements is also required to address the impacts of climate change. Sovereignty issues remain frozen, but unresolved under the ATS. They are likely to come to the forefront of decision-making processes at some stage over the next 50 years.

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  • Communicating Antarctic Climate Science

    Schroeter, Serena; Lowther, Nick; Kelman, Emma; Marcus, Arnold (2015)

    Postgraduate Certificate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Many societal-political aspects of climate change act as barriers to positive climate change action. Despite the efforts of scientific researchers, stakeholders and the media, effective and accurate communication of Antarctic science is below an acceptable standard. The findings and implications of high-quality Antarctic climate change science are failing to resonate with civil society and policy makers, dictating the need to reevaluate how members of society cognitively approach the contentious issue of climate change and how current Antarctic science communication resources are distributed. An individual’s worldview, cognitive mindset and religious dogmas in conjunction with misreporting and misinterpretation of climate science are all factors influencing how an individual responds to the climate change message but rarely have they been analysed together as a complete overview. In this report, we introduce a new approach, advising that climate scientists, policy makers and other relevant stakeholders are involved in all stages of science acquisition, legislation and decision making through a targeted boundary committee, strongly integrated with a thorough education, outreach and communication (EOC) approach, within SCAR, and tasked with communicating Antarctic science and its global teleconnections. We draw on the barriers identified through literature investigation to establish this recommendation. The incorporation of a strong EOC approach in climate science communication will provide the catalyst required for substantial climate change action.

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  • Delving into the deep: uncovering the ecology of subglacial lakes in Antarctica

    Thame, Florence (2015)

    Postgraduate Certificate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Beneath the Antarctic ice sheets there is an aquatic subglacial ecosystem which consists of a complex network of subglacial lakes and interconnecting water courses. The possibility of microbial life surviving in extreme environments has led to the direct sampling of several subglacial lakes. To ensure the validity and integrity of results, rigorous risk management planning and clean methods of sampling must be adopted to prevent the risk of contaminating both the samples and the natural biodiversity of these isolated ecosystems. Following the Code of Conduct for the environmental stewardship of these environments and the application of clean sampling methods such as hot water drilling are the safest option currently available. All current and future research projects should be undertaken only after undertaking a detailed risk analysis, and research operators should practise their methodologies on small scale lakes so that they can learn from this baseline information and thus reduce the environmental impacts of their exploration methods.

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  • Future Developments in Land Traverse Resupply Operations in Antarctica.

    Phillips, Clive (2015)

    Postgraduate Certificate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Logistic support to inland bases and field parties in Antarctica consumes a large part of the budgets of National Antarctic Programmes. In recent years, significant cost savings have been made by replacing parts of some previously entirely air resupply operations with overland traverses. Since the first resupply of South Pole Station in 2005, incremental improvements to load carrying systems and sled design have improved the efficiency of traverses significantly by increasing the load each vehicle can pull. Autonomous vehicles carrying Ground Penetrating Radar systems and semi-autonomous tractor vehicles in the final stages of development and testing, offer the potential to further enhance the efficiency of traverses by improving route finding, increasing crew safety, and enabling crews to operate for longer periods, reducing mission length. The use of renewable energy sources to power small autonomous vehicles carrying Ground Penetrating Radar systems represents a further opportunity to improve the efficiency of traverses by reducing the amount fuel carried for use during the traverse. The use of renewable energy sources to power larger polar vehicles is being investigated, but reducing traverse fuel demand further by using of this type of technology in tractor vehicles is not likely in the short term.

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  • A Comparison of Maternity Care Models and Their Relationship to Adverse Fetal and Neonatal Outcomes: A Retrospective Cohort Study Based in New Zealand.

    Moon, Elwyn Jane (2015)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    Background New Zealand has an internationally unique midwife-led maternity system where four out of five pregnant women have a midwife as their lead care provider. The system was established in 1990 with the passing of legislation that allowed midwives to care for a pregnant mother without medical involvement. Before this the main care provider was typically a doctor and autonomous midwifery was illegal. The midwife-led maternity system that was enabled through this legislation has been the subject of frequent debate with supporters saying it is a model to be copied internationally and opponents questioning its safety. The debate has been ongoing since the inception of autonomous midwifery in 1990, and it has often been fuelled by media reporting on individual cases of adverse events where the blame has been put on midwifery or maternity system failures. Despite the continuous debate there has been little in the way of systematic evaluation that specifically investigates safety related outcomes in relation to New Zealand’s maternity system framework. Thesis aims • To provide a historical overview of the development of New Zealand’s maternity system • To review New Zealand based and international literature that evaluates the safety of midwife-led models of care • To investigate whether there are differences in adverse fetal and neonatal outcomes dependent on the model of maternity care provided (midwife-led or medical-led), within New Zealand. Methods The study was a retrospective cohort design using nationally held data. All pregnancies where the delivery occurred between the 1st of January 2008 and the 31st December 2011, and where the pregnancy met the following inclusion criteria were included: lead maternity carer recorded as midwife, obstetrician or general practitioner, a gestation of equal to or greater than 37 weeks, a singleton pregnancy, and where no major fetal or neonatal congenital, chromosomal, or metabolic abnormalities were identified. Patients were categorised into the exposure groups midwife-led care or medical-led care based on who their lead maternity carer was at first registration. Outcomes included perinatal related mortality, stillbirth, neonatal mortality, a low Apgar score at five minutes post-delivery, intrauterine hypoxia, birth related asphyxia, neonatal encephalopathy, neonatal hospital admission within the first week of life, and low birthweight. Potentially confounding patient characteristics that included age, ethnicity, socioeconomic position (NZDep), body mass index, smoking status, parity, timing of registration with carer, and the presence of pre-existing hypertension and/or diabetes were also measured. Results There were 371 case of perinatal related mortalities in our study giving a rate of 1.93 per 1000 total births. After adjusting for age, ethnicity, socioeconomic position, body mass index, smoking status, parity, trimester of registration with carer, and presence of pre-existing diabetes and/or hypertension the odds of this outcome were similar when comparing medical-led care with midwife-led care (midwife-led care as the reference group) OR=0.88 (95% CI 0.59-1.32). Examining stillbirth and neonatal mortality individually showed no difference in odds of stillbirth, adjusted OR=0.97 (95% CI 0.62-1.51) and lower odds of neonatal mortality for the medical-led births which were not statistically significant, adjusted OR=0.59 (95% CI 0.21-1.62). The medical-led group had significantly lower odds of low Apgar, intrauterine hypoxia, birth related asphyxia, and neonatal encephalopathy, respective adjusted OR=0.54 (95% CI 0.43-0.68), OR=0.74 (95% CI 0.56-0.99), OR=0.45 (95% CI 0.31-0.63), and OR=0.55 (95% CI 0.32-0.95) compared with the midwife-led group. The medical-led group had elevated odds of neonatal admission compared with the midwife-led group, adjusted OR=1.32 (95% CI 1.24-1.40), which was confined to level 1 (lowest level) neonatal units, adjusted OR=2.91 (95% CI 2.65-3.19); the medical-led group having lower odds of level 3 (highest level) admissions, adjusted OR=0.41 (95% CI 0.35-0.49). There was no difference in adjusted odds of low birthweight between groups, adjusted OR=1.04 (95% CI 0.91-1.20), which was included as a negative control. The two groups had statistically significant different demographic characteristics with the medical-led group consisting of older, less deprived, more often European mothers. Māori, Indian, and Pacific Island ethnicities, deprivation, high BMI, smoking, nulliparity, grand multiparity, late booking of care provider, and mothers having pre-existing diabetes and/or hypertension were all associated with increased odds of perinatal related mortality and neonatal morbidity. Discussion It is reassuring that there was no detected difference in odds of perinatal related mortality when comparing midwife-led and medical-led care. However the study was limited by sample size, a larger study population would be necessary to categorically state that there is no difference in odds of neonatal mortality. Other findings show a consistent increase in odds of adverse fetal and neonatal outcomes for midwife-led deliveries. The several findings demonstrating worse fetal and neonatal outcomes for midwife-led deliveries mean that more research is urgently required to identify the reasons for the differences observed. This study was not comparing midwifery care with medical care but rather the models of care, the intention was not to isolate the individual practitioners but rather compare actual constructs within the New Zealand maternity system. A major limitation of the study was the use of National Minimum Dataset data (of which covariates and some morbidity outcomes were based on). These data rely on the accuracy of clinical coding and there are questions relating to some fields completeness and accuracy. This study only focused on fetal and neonatal outcomes, not other indicators that measure a maternity systems safety, such as maternal mortality and morbidity and maternal satisfaction.

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  • Sea ice algae no more?

    Burn, Courtney (2015)

    Postgraduate Certificate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Primary productivity is an essential part of all ecosystems. Primary producers are important for starting the carbon cycle. In areas such as the Antarctic which is known to face climate changes, understanding how these changes will effect primary producers is of high importance. Wider ecosystem effects also needed to be considered. The main primary producer in sea ice communities is sea ice algae. Dramatic cooling or warming events will result in changes in sea ice extent. These changes could potentially have negative effects on sea ice algae populations and the wider marine ecosystem. More work is needed to fully predict the potential effects of Antarctic warming and cooling on the wider marine ecosystem

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  • Antarctic sea-ice extent in global coupled climate models

    Schroeter, Serena (2015)

    Postgraduate Certificate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Antarctic sea ice plays a key role in the global climate system, moderating heat and moisture exchange in the Southern Ocean, reflecting solar radiation, and maintaining global thermohaline circulation. However, the trend of increasing Antarctic seasonal sea ice extent observed during the past few decades is not currently reproduced by the majority of climate models. A key question has emerged: Is this disparity due to problems within the physics of the models, or due to drivers of sea ice extent that are not yet incorporated in the models? Accurate representation of sea ice dynamics and processes is vital to inform regional and global climate predictions, and a large body of publications investigating this disparity has developed in the past decade. This paper summarises academic literature on modelling sea ice extent, concluding that while the models contain biases and poorly represent some climate processes, particularly in ocean components, substantial uncertainty remains as to the processes driving sea ice extent increases, which could limit the capacity for accurate representation in models. Further research into the processes driving the increase in sea ice extent is therefore highly recommended.

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  • Sea ice observation in Antarctica Status and Outlook

    Schroeter, Ben (2015)

    Postgraduate Certificate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    There are known deficiencies in contemporary sea ice observation techniques. Manual methods are physically laborious and subject to human-induced observation error, as are ship-based methods. Upward Looking Sonar (ULS) allows the subsurface mapping of ice floe topography, though it is subject to acoustic propagation errors. Electromagnetic Induction Sounding (EM) is principally impaired by device size, weight and flight height. Visible/near-IR (VIR), thermal infrared (TIR) and laser altimetry are challenged by atmospheric interference and/or require solar illumination, limiting their applicability at night or in the polar winter. Microwave methods (Radar Altimetry, Passive Microwave) can penetrate cloud and snow cover, albeit at lower spatial and temporal resolutions. This paper provides a summary of current observation technology, and highlights future research directions in this field.

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  • To What Extent Can Acidification in the Southern Ocean Impact on Marine Biodiversity?

    Route, Gail (2015)

    Postgraduate Certificate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Ocean acidification is regarded as one of the most recent threats to the global environment resulting from unprecedented absorption of elevated anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions. The emerging research on the effect of acidifying oceans on marine organisms collectively indicates a potential detrimental effect on biodiversity, particularly for aragonite-derived organisms. This in turn affects marine food webs that can impact on the livelihood of humans. An urgent need for multidisciplinary research is highlighted which, ideally, needs to be internationally coordinated. This will enable a better understanding of the predictability and effects of ocean acidification on marine biodiversity and can be implemented in mitigation and policy-making.

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  • The Future of Iron Fertilisation Experiments

    Udell, Hannah (2015)

    Postgraduate Certificate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The Iron Hypothesis put forward by J. H. Martin (1990) is behind the development of artificial iron fertilisation as a geoengineering method which could be used to draw down anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) levels. The Southern Ocean, which is rich in macronutrients but iron limited, is a focus for experiments on iron fertilisation. The past experiments (1999 to 2009) have shown that iron increases phytoplankton bloom productivity, and utilised surface water CO2, which would promote draw down of atmospheric CO2. What has not been proven to a climatically relevant extent is the export of carbon to the deep ocean, and over what time scale it could be stored for. These are key components of a CO2 removal method. Also poorly monitored as a result of increased productivity, were side effects such as ecosystem community structures, local food web impacts or the production of other greenhouse gases such as nitrous oxide (N2O). Future experiments should be conducted to understand these side effects and increase monitoring and validation of carbon export, if iron fertilisation is to be considered a legitimate method for CO2 removal.

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  • Antarctic Connections: Christchurch & Canterbury

    Stone, James (2015)

    Postgraduate Certificate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Christchurch has a long history of involvement with the Antarctic, from the early days of Southern Ocean exploration, as a vital port during the heroic era expeditions of discovery and the scientific age of the International Geophysical Year, through to today as a hub of Antarctic research and logistics. There are five key ‘Gateway’ cities in the Southern Hemisphere for travel south to the white continent, of which Christchurch is one. The stopping off point, port, and home to some of the most influential figures in Southern Ocean and Antarctic history, including Cook, Scott, Shackleton and Hillary, Christchurch, Lyttelton and the surrounding region of Canterbury are full of links to Antarctica. These links continue to this day, with Christchurch hosting the Antarctic programs of not only New Zealand, but also the USA, Italy and South Korea. Beyond the historical, exploratory and scientific connections, Antarctica permeates the city’s people, cultural, artistic and economic heart. Come and explore Canterbury’s ties to the great white South...

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  • A Pilot Framework and Gap Analysis Towards Developing a Fluvial Classification System in the Ross Sea Region

    Thurston, Lorna (2015)

    Postgraduate Certificate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    An integrated literature review has been undertaken with regards to the hydrological regime and fluvial geomorphology of the Ross Sea Region, Antarctica. The findings have been applied to develop a pilot framework for a process-based classification system of channels, ponds and lakes, and to identify gaps in knowledge that need to be addressed in order for the classification system to be developed further. The intention of the process-based classification system is that, once developed, it will be applied as a tool to help understand fluvial response to climate change and an increasing human footprint in the Ross Sea Region. In this regard, it would contribute towards a contemporary project - Assessing the Sensitivity of Dry Valleys to Change. It may also be useful for other applications, such as ecological research, and applicable to other regions of Antarctica. Several gaps in research have been identified that need to be addressed in order to integrate knowledge of the hydrological regime and fluvial morphology and subsequently develop a process-based classification system. In no particular order, these gaps include knowledge of: the spatial distribution of channel morphologies; fluvial morphological behaviour under heavily transport- and supplylimited conditions; the formation and desiccation of ponds, and their associated impact on the land’s surface; the significance, timing and origin of hill-slope processes; whether the spatial variability of melt, and the proportion of this melt that eventuates as surface flows, drive fluvial morphologies, or whether other processes exert a greater control; and whether events that are not directly climate/melt-driven, including when a glacier flows into and displaces a lake, jökulaups (ice-dam floods), and basal meltwater drainage of wet-based glaciers, have a transient or evolutionary effect on fluvial morphology.

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