1,368 results for Thesis, 2016

  • Strategic human resource management impacts on local managerial employees’ capacity building in foreign companies in Laos People’s Democratic Republic

    Vilayvong, Sonethavy (2016)

    Thesis
    Unitec

    To succeed in today’s competitive business environment, Strategic Human Resource Management (SHRM) should be integrated with the organisational strategic plan. Particularly, SHRM in capacity building should be taken into account. This is because SHRM in capacity building can enhance the capabilities of the organisational workforce which is a key value of the organisation in performing better work, as well as increasing the productivity of the organisation. In Laos, there are high numbers of foreign investments, thus investors require a competent local workforce to operate their businesses, especially at the management level. Therefore, if business firms wish to survive in the competitive environment, they should implement the right SHRM in capacity building for their local managerial workforce which is a key success factor for organisations. This research project employs a qualitative approach to study some research questions in capacity building of local managerial employees. The main objective is to examine whether foreign companies in Laos possess the appropriate SHRM in capacity building for their local managerial employees. If they do not possess it, what is the effective SHRM in capacity building for the local managerial employees that should be designed and implemented? This research study also applies the semi-structured interview as the main data collecting technique with twelve participants from seven foreign companies in Laos. The findings revealed valuable perceptions of HR professionals toward the SHRM in capacity building which provide positive answers to the research questions. All of the participants from foreign firms in Laos possess SHRM in capacity building for their local managerial employees but its implementation was not executed effectively. From the findings, the effective implementation of outstanding SHRM in capacity building, the so-called localisation strategy, was reported by three participants, whilst nine participants said that there were some obstacles that prevented the implementation and practice of SHRM in capacity building, namely limited budget, less important roles of HRM in strategic level, not sufficient qualification of local managerial employees and unsuitable specific development programmes. Therefore, to conclude the finding of the research, there is a model of ‘SHRM in capacity building for the local managerial employees in Laos’ which has been developed by the researcher. This model aims to guide the suitable steps and implementation of the SHRM in capacity building of the local managerial employees for foreign firms in Laos, to assist them to improve their performance and productivity.

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  • Exploring Multicultural Education and Culturally Responsive Practices in an International School context: A case study of one school.

    Affagard-Edwards, Tiffany (2016)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    In most educational systems around the world, teaching practices are dominated by the majority culture. This means that often the learning needs of minority groups is not taken into account, which can compromise their educational attainment as indicated by trends in national and international data. International schools are an increasingly popular option in what is fast becoming a globalised education system. These schools have significant student diversity in terms of cultural background and languages. This study investigates how multicultural education and culturally responsive practices are implemented in an international school context. Most research on diversity in education is based in monoculture schools. Therefore, this research study sought to understand what is done in international schools to cater for diverse learners. This study was conducted as an exploratory case study of an international school by engaging with a sample of teachers and key administration members of the school. Interviews, fieldwork and classroom observations were conducted to answer the overarching research question: How are multicultural education and culturally responsive practices being implemented in an international school context? As a teacher in the school, I undertook this study from the role of an ‘insider observer’ where I was immersed within the community and able to participate in their daily life. The findings from the study show that while there is some alignment with multicultural and culturally responsive practices, there is little explicit focus on, or support for, these practices by administrators and teachers. These findings suggest there are both implications for practices in international schools and for furthering research within international schools, such as the need to pay more explicit attention to Professional Development, and Data Recording. There is also a need for more research on international schools that examines school and classroom practices.

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  • Hydrothermal alteration and rare earth element mineralisation in the French Creek Granite, Westland, New Zealand

    Morgenstern, Regine (2016)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Alkaline igneous complexes are one of two primary sources of rare earth elements (REEs), which are unique metals crucial for the economic growth of a country. Understanding REE metallogenesis in these systems is often complicated, with evidence of both magmatic and hydrothermal processes present. The A-type French Creek Granite (FCG), located on the West Coast of New Zealand, is a poorly-studied example of such a complex system in which anomalous REEs have previously been reported. The purpose of this thesis was to undertake a comprehensive field, petrological and geochemical study of the FCG, its hydrothermal alteration and, to a lesser extent, the cogenetic Hohonu Dyke Swarm (HDS), in order to better understand the type, style and location of REE mineralisation. Whole rock geochemical analyses of 54 samples using XRF and ICP-MS/AES established that the ca. 82 Ma FCG is a composite granitoid dominated by a ferroan, peraluminous biotite granite that was emplaced into a high-level (ca. 3 km) syn-tectonic setting. A syenite shell and genetically related basaltic–rhyolitic dykes are present, and trace element content, and disequilibrium textures in phenocrysts in dykes, are evidence of magma mixing. Maximum ƩREE+Y content are higher in the felsic FCG (847 ppm) relative to the mafic HDS (431 ppm). Primary REE-Zr-Y enrichment in the FCG is a function of partial melting of an enriched mantle source and subsequent extensive differentiation. Primary REE mineralisation was identified via SEM-EDS and is defined by modal allanite, zircon, apatite, fergusonite, monazite, perrierite and loparite, which typically occur with interstitial biotite. This association, and LA-ICP-MS analyses of REE-bearing giant (500 μm) zircon, indicate REE enrichment in the residual melt was likely due to high magmatic fluorine and late-stage water saturation, in addition to differentiation. Extensive sericitisation, chloritisation, hematisation, carbonate alteration and kaolinisation were identified in the altered FCG using field observations, microscopy and XRD. A zone of propylitic alteration in the Little Hohonu River and a smaller, phyllic alteration assemblage in the Eastern Hohonu River are defined, both of which generally correlate with higher REE anomalies than fresh FCG. Quartz protuberances, microscopic fractures and dyke emplacement indicate the phyllic alteration is structurally controlled, and REEs are hosted in bastnäsite group minerals, zircon, monazite and xenotime. This zone is consistently enriched (607 ppm average ƩREE+Y), indicating remobilisation and secondary REE-Zr-Y enrichment by hydrothermal fluids. Stable 13C and 18O isotopes from secondary carbonates indicate low temperature (~250°C) magmatic-hydrothermal fluids sourced from the cooling FCG, which were likely part of a late-stage porphyry-type system operating during the same mantle degassing and extension episode that was associated with initial Tasman Sea spreading.

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  • An evaluation of the New Zealand Advance Pricing Agreement process

    Abu-Hijleh, Mohammed (2016)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Transfer pricing (the pricing of cross border transactions between controlled or related parties) is an important tax issue faced by multinational enterprises (MNEs). The Inland Revenue Department (IRD) initiated the Advance Pricing Agreement (APA) program in 1999/2000 as a more co-operative approach for MNEs to addressing transfer pricing compliance. An APA is an agreement negotiated in advance between a taxpayer and a tax authority that sets the price of cross border intra-firm transactions between related parties over a fixed period of time. This study evaluates the New Zealand APA process with a main focus of gaining an insight of how the program operates. Eight interviews comprising three participants from the IRD and five tax practitioners from the ‘Big 4’ accounting firms were conducted, in order to gain an insight into the New Zealand APA process. This was supplemented beforehand by documentary analysis of the New Zealand APA process and other sources of data. Further, the study reviews the APA processes of other tax jurisdictions, namely Australia, the United Kingdom, and the United States. A comparative case study analysis approach is utilised to see how these tax jurisdictions’ APA processes compare to New Zealand’s APA process. The findings of this research reveal that New Zealand has maintained an informal APA process, where all MNE applicants are welcome to apply regardless of complexity, size or degree of risk involved in any of their transactions proposed to be covered under the APA. This was also seen as a key difference in the approach the IRD maintains towards APAs compared to the APA processes of other comparative tax jurisdictions’ considered in this study. All interviewees perceived the New Zealand APA process well in terms of how it works and what it achieves. It was believed to be an attractive solution for all MNEs operating in New Zealand wanting to gain certainty around their transfer pricing tax affairs. An opportunity for New Zealand Customs to incorporate APAs as an acceptable valuation method for MNEs to price their imports is also identified in this study. However, many obstacles are identified as to why this may prove to be a challenge for New Zealand Customs to implement. All information mentioned in this thesis is up-to-date as at August 2016.

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  • Teachers’ experiences of including children and families from Asian cultural backgrounds in early childhood education.

    Youn, Jung Yoon (2016)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    This thesis investigates New Zealand early childhood teachers’ understanding and experiences of teaching and including children from Asian backgrounds, in particular, Korean, Chinese and Japanese cultures. In Aotearoa New Zealand, participation in early childhood education of diverse ethnic groups is growing every year. Since 2004, the largest growth in enrolments has been among Asian ethnic groups, with an increase of 90%. The New Zealand Early Childhood Curriculum, Te Whāriki, states “there are many migrants in New Zealand, and, as in any country with a multicultural heritage, there is a diversity of beliefs about childrearing practices, kinship roles, obligations, codes of behaviour, and what kinds of knowledge are valuable” (Ministry of Education, 1996, p. 18). It is therefore important that teachers in the early childhood education service sector are able to effectively respond to the holistic learning needs and well-being of children and families from different ethnicities. This research explores what culturally inclusive and responsive teaching means in the New Zealand early childhood setting and looks at some of the barriers to and facilitators of creating learning environments that meet the needs of children from Asian cultural backgrounds. Data was collected through interviews and questionnaires from teachers working in different early childhood centres in Christchurch. The information gathered was reviewed and evaluated using thematic analysis and the findings were considered in the context of a number of themes – from the teachers’ perceptions of Asian parents and families as influenced by their own experience, to their ideas about progressing inclusive education for children and families from Asian cultural backgrounds. This work highlights some strategies that may help progress cultural inclusion. It also outlines current research and identifies the need for more exemplars for teachers and for further research in this area.

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  • Associations between language, false belief understanding and children's social competence

    Buehler, Daniela (2016)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The current longitudinal study explores associations between language and social competence. Specifically, I examine whether language variables, such as using and hearing mental state words and specific aspects of communication, are linked to social competence through the social skill of perspective-taking and the ability to understand that other people might hold a false belief. A cohort of 67 children were assessed at three time points. The initial assessment took place at ages of 24–30 months; and the first follow-up assessment occurred at ages of 41–49 months, and the outcome assessment took place when the children were aged 52–60 months. Data were collected through standardised tests of language and cognition, coded spontaneous play-based language samples, a nonverbal false-belief task and parental questionnaires that represent aspects of Cavell's (1990) social competence model. The findings indicated that mothers' connected communication played a role in their children's social development. Mothers who more often referred to their 2-year-old child's utterances, reformulated, elaborated or answered to them in an appropriate manner described their children as socially more advanced later in development compared to mothers who were less connected in communication with their child. However, mothers' connectedness in communication with their children was no longer a significant predictor once the children's expressive and receptive language abilities were added to the regression model. Children's expressive vocabulary including words to refer to mental states at the age of two years was a predictor of their social competence at five years. Children who produced more words in general and more often used words to refer to their own and others’ mental states such as emotions, desires or cognition at two years had fewer social difficulties at five years than children who produced fewer words and made fewer references to mental states. No relationship was found among mental-state talk, communication connectedness and false-belief understanding and between false-belief understanding and social competence. These findings indicate that being able to express oneself and to refer to mental states helps young children to interact more effectively in the social world. Therefore, considering the impact that early language competency has on social development identification of children with language difficulties becomes even more important.

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  • Making the most of work resources: the moderating effect of regulatory focus on resilience development

    Connell, P. K. (2016)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The ever changing, volatile business world calls for resilient organisations and resilient employees. While past research suggests the need to identify factors that contribute to employee resilience development, there is limited empirical research that clarifies these factors. Drawing from Conservation of Resources (COR) theory, the purpose of the present study was to examine the relationship between social- and feedback-related resources, and resilient employee behaviours, and to explore the moderating role of regulatory foci (prevention and promotion) in this relationship. A survey was conducted among 162 participants from four organisations. Moderated multiple regressions, considering 3-way interactions, were conducted to test the theoretical assumptions. Findings from this study suggest that: 1) individuals with a high promotion and high prevention focus display higher levels of employee resilience, irrespective of resource levels, 2) the resilience of employees with a low promotion and low prevention profile is impacted by resource availability, and 3) mismatch in regulatory foci (i.e., individuals exhibiting high levels of one regulatory focus and low levels of the other) accounts for unique relationships between resources and resilient behaviours. This is the first study to examine the interaction between promotion and prevention, and to assess the prevalence and role of regulatory foci in workplace factors.

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  • Test-retest reliability of the SSQ-12 questionnaire: for hearing-aid wearers using pen-and-paper administration method

    Cox, Bethany (2016)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The aim of this study was to determine if the SSQ-12 (Speech, Spatial, and Qualities of Hearing Scale – Short form) is a reliable questionnaire to assess hearingaid benefit for experienced hearing-aid wearers using the pen-and-paper administration method. Twenty-eight experienced hearing-aid wearers were recruited from the University of Canterbury’s audiology clinic database and from the general public. Participants were sent the SSQ-12 questionnaire 3 times at 6-week intervals. The participants’ responses across the three different administration times (T0, T1, and T2) were compared using a repeated measures ANOVA to determine if their answers remained stable over time, when no intervention was occurring. The results showed there were no significant differences between the SSQ-12 total or sub-scale scores for each participant’s T0, T1, and T2 data. Critical change scores were calculated for total, and sub-scale scores, to facilitate clinicians identifying whether a change in score is clinically significant. In conclusion, the results of this study indicate the SSQ-12 has good test-retest reliability for experienced hearing-aid wearers using the pen-and-paper administration method.

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  • Self-care in the age of neoliberalism : an auto-ethnographic exploration by a counsellor.

    Multhaup, Michael (2016)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    This thesis explores the self-care of a counsellor, myself, in the age of neo-liberalism. The underpinning structure is Dewey’s developmental spiral (1933) that enables me to use the writing of this thesis as a reflective process. This practice consists of reflecting on past experience, exploring and critiquing the influence of neoliberalism as a significant hindrance in maintaining effective self-care. I also deconstruct relevant discursive formations by employing the theoretical approaches that are positioned in the social constructionist arena, and consult the writings of Foucault, De Certeau, Wittgenstein, and other theorists. I revisit personal historical occurrences linking them to societal settings. For this I use auto-ethnography as the methodology, exploring my adoption of early discursive formations and in particular the way I used work as a coping mechanism. For the conceptualisation that describes new constructive ways of being, I use the solution-focused therapeutic approach to overcome the problems of being enmeshed with the discussed hegemonic discourses. The last part of the Dewey’s developmental spiral explores new experiences that have been influenced by the reflective process described earlier. The aim of this thesis is to develop a framework of understanding to advance self-care practices that may also serve as an inspirational tool for others to use in their own unique situations.

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  • Developing a flood hazard analysis framework in the Cuvelai Basin, Namibia, using a flood model, remote sensing, and GIS.

    Persendt, Frans C. (2016)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Worldwide, more than 40% of all natural hazards, and about half of all deaths, are the result of flood disasters. In the Cuvelai River Basin (CRB), northern Namibia, flood disasters have increased dramatically over the past half-century, along with associated economic losses and fatalities. The increase in hydro-meteorological hazards such as floods are mainly attributed to intense urbanisation, changing land-use patterns and a changing climate. These hazards are exacerbated in semi-arid and data-sparse (SADS) regions such as the CBR, because of declining and/or non-existent hydro-meteorological infrastructure. In addition there is a lack of long-term continuous records that is needed to enhance the implementation of traditional flood risk management strategies, whether structural or non-structural, to mitigate hydro- meteorological hazards. This thesis developed a systematic framework that has quantified the uncertainties associated with the hydrological cycle that preclude the development of flood risk management strategies. The framework is based on free-data and open-data and software that is available online. It used remotely sensed data validated against ground-based observational data, where available. The particular components of the hydrological cycle that are assessed are: precipitation, surface runoff (discharge), surface water extent and surface water movement pathways (drainage networks). Hydrologic modelling was used to model the water fluxes in order to derive basin as well as flood characteristics of the study area. The framework can be used as a benchmark for the development of flood risk management policies that will enable SADS regions to mitigate the severe effect hydro-meteorological disasters in the Anthropocene. The flood hazard analysis framework (FHAF) developed for this study consists of two steps: (a) preliminary analysis and (b) hazard estimation. The preliminary analysis enable the development of a hydro-meteorological (floods and droughts) archive using different data sources as well as identifying where more analyses are needed to reduce uncertainty while hazard estimation provide the frequency and magnitude of the hazard. As a result of the growing concern about flood risk, identifying the extreme precipitation events that cause hydro-meteorological disasters is essential. Hence, the preliminary analysis step of FHAF developed a database (a). An up-to-date and broad analysis of the trends of hydro-meteorological events within the CRB was performed. The derived events were also validated against data from other sources. The risk estimation step involved components of the hydrologic cycle that are crucial in determining flood risk and that play an important role in enhancing uncertainty. Precipitation is one of these crucial components, to estimate and validate, especially in the trans-boundary SADS CRB. Four commonly used operational satellite-based rainfall estimation (SBRE) products were rigorously validated and inter-compared on monthly, seasonal, and annual timescales. Rainfall data from gauged stations were compared against SBREs as well as simulated data from a Regional Climate Model (RegCM4) model. Point-to-nearest-pixel and pixel-to-pixel methods were used to validate gauge data against high spatial resolution (0.25o) SBREs data for a period from 2008 to 2014. Validation was performed on a monthly, seasonally, and annual basis as well as taking the long-term mean, whilst error statistics were used to determine the accuracy of the SBREs when compared to the observed rainfall gauge values. Results indicated good statistical relationships between the ground-based gauge stations for some SBREs. Results will help to understand, and ultimately expand, our understanding of the climatologies within this SADS region and will also provide valuable information on the error structures of SBRE products that might be ingested into hydrologic models for water resource management. The results also help to quantify the improvements (bias correction) that are needed for these SBRE products to be useful for water resource and risk management applications. The second component, surface water pathways (drainage networks), is imperative to determine flood inundation extent, which relate to hazards. Also, accurate delineation of drainage networks is crucial for hydrological modelling and hydraulic modelling, and the comprehension of fluvial processes. Channels from topographic maps (blue lines) were compared to those from hydrologically corrected and uncorrected light detection and ranging (LiDAR) DEMs (digital elevation models), heads-up digitised channels from high-resolution digital aerial orthophotographs, field-mapped channels and auxiliary data. The maximum gradient deterministic eight (D8) GIS algorithm was applied to the corrected and uncorrected LiDAR DEMs using two network extraction methods: area threshold support and curvature/drop analysis. Results will aid national mapping agencies in SADS regions to modernise their national hydrography datasets and to account for changing land surface conditions that can affect channel spatial arrangements over time. The third component, deals with the amount, frequency, and magnitude of surface water runoff (discharge). Sustainable management of water resources as well as mitigating hydro- meteorological natural hazards such as flooding and drought requires the precise understanding of the spatio-temporal distribution of water especially in SADS regions where data from various global datasets are used to compensate. Results suggested that input data be ingested in hydrological models especially if the data are to be used especially for water resources estimations and for understanding flood-producing processes. The last component, surface water extent (flood inundation), was also estimated in this study. The mapping of spatial inundation patterns during flood events is important for environmental management and disaster monitoring. This study detected and compared the spatial extent of flood inundation at the peak of three major flood events (2008, 2009, and 2011) in the CRB. The study follows a multi-spectral and multi-sensor approach to identify the flood inundation for each flood event at peak modelled discharge. Results indicated that the quantification of flooding spatial extent can help to provide valuable information to FHAFs and hence potentially improve hydrologic prediction and flood management strategies in ungauged catchments. Furthermore, given the globally availability of satellite- based precipitation and river discharges, this proof-of-concept study can have substantial implications on flood monitoring and forecasting in ungauged basins throughout the globe.

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  • The financial implication of the three design guidelines used during the Christchurch rebuild.

    Botha, P. S. (2016)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    With the occurrence of natural disasters on the increase, major cities around the world face the potential of complete loss of infrastructure due to design guidelines that do not consider resilience in the design. With the February 22nd, 2011 earthquake in Christchurch, being the largest insured event, lessons learnt from the rebuild will be vital for the preparation of future disasters. Therefore the objective of this research is to understand the financial implications of the changes to the waste water design guidelines used throughout the five year rebuild programme of works. The research includes a study of the SCIRT alliance model selected for the delivery that is flexible enough to handle changes in the design with minimal impact on the direct cost of the rebuild works. The study further includes the analysis and compares the impact of the three different guidelines on maintenance and replacement cost over the waste water pipe asset life. The research concludes that with the varying ground conditions in Christchurch and also the wide variety of materials in use in the waste water network up to the start of the CES, the rebuild was not a ‘one size fits all’ approach.

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  • An integrated water-electricity market design for multi reservoir, mixed operation.

    Mahakalanda, Indrajanaka (2016)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Water markets are often regarded as the most promising method of managing this increasingly important natural resource, but the literature on water market concepts is only emerging. Most of the focus is on physical trading arrangements, but financial property rights appear both conceptually and practically appealing, as a way to develop commercial and organizational arrangements to improve liquidity and ultimately increase efficient resource use. This thesis focuses on market arrangements to manage hydrology dependent surface water supplies, where consumptive and/or non-consumptive use occurs in a network with storage. Binding resource constraints create temporal and locational price differences. Moreover, the uncertainty about price differentials creates barriers to trade. Participant bids, reflecting their marginal use values, are assumed to be cleared by a benefit-maximising optimisation, such as Stochastic Linear Programming. This also creates price differences between locations, and time periods, and causes the market to accumulate a “settlement surplus” of rents associated with resource constraints. This thesis draws on the Financial Transmission Right (FTR) concepts developed for electricity markets to outline a general structure of financial hedging instruments that could be used to deploy this settlement surplus to hedge against price risks, across space and time. We also consider a swing option based approach, which bundles the above rights to create a virtual “slice of system” model that could be practically and conceptually appealing to both aggregated and disaggregated hydro reservoir systems. While only preliminary, our discussion of these options suggests that developments along these lines may be important in creating a water market environment that is acceptable to potential consumptive and non-consumptive participants. The remainder of this thesis is about the problem of intra-period consumptive and non-consumptive water allocation in a mixed-use catchment. We develop a deterministic nodal Constructive Dual Dynamic Programming (CDDP) procedure which implicitly clears a market determining both consumptive and non-consumptive water allocations, across all nodes in a catchment with a single reservoir. Consumptive users extract water from the system, so each unit of water flow can only be used for a single consumptive use. A non-consumptive user transfers water from one node to another, extracting some benefit, or incurring some cost. Arc flow bounds may limit the opportunities for using water at the nodes. Costs can be associated with arc flow bounds and distributary demands to represent in-stream and environmental reserve flows enforced using penalty costs. The algorithm constructs the intra-period demand curve for release by sequentially forming marginal water value curves at each node, passing these curves towards the reservoir. This approach can generate net demand curves representing all possible market-clearing solutions at nodal and user levels. It can also be used to construct net demand curves for water release from the reservoir, in each period, which could then be used in a stochastic inter-temporal CDDP model to construct marginal water value curves stored in the reservoir over an appropriate time horizon. Several variants on this approach are explored. We discuss extending the procedure to assess the marginal value of water stored in two inter-connected reservoirs in a mixed-use catchment. A “lower level” intra-period CDDP is applied to construct a two dimensional “demand surface” for transfer, representing the marginal benefit from net release into either end of the inter-reservoir chain between the two reservoirs. Then a higher level inter-period CDDP demand-curve-adding method could be deployed to strike the optimal trade-off between the current release demands for the inter-reservoir chain and other sub-trees leading from the two reservoirs and the future storage demands.

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  • Scott’s and Shackleton’s huts : Antarctic heritage and international relations.

    Lintott, B. J. (2016)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Three British wooden huts remain on Ross Island, Antarctica from Scott’s and Shackleton’s expeditions: the Nimrod Hut and the Terra Nova Hut were operational bases with accommodation, laboratories, darkrooms and used as workshops while Discovery Hut was a general purpose storeroom, workshop and shelter. In 1957, the New Zealand Government decided that it would retain and maintain the huts in situ as a geopolitical statement to the United States of America that New Zealand remained firm in its Antarctic territorial claim. Throughout the Huts Project (1957 onwards) there have been two central issues. The first are the technical and financial challenges of retaining the huts (temporary wooden buildings) in their historical settings given that the Antarctic environment is one of the most hostile on the planet, and how they should be interpreted. Associated with this is a prevailing myth that items in the Polar Regions can remain frozen in a state of “timelessness”. This thesis argues that this misinformed the “Huts Project” in its early years (once removed from the ice, artefacts quickly began to decay) and that in the latest restoration many artefacts have been treated so as to reproduce their original appearance, removing the patina of age and compromising their authenticity. The second is how New Zealand has conducted its interrelationships regarding the huts with the United States of America and the United Kingdom. The United States is New Zealand’s strategic ally and provides logistical support for its Antarctic endeavours and whilst it respects the huts as being historic it does not accept that they could enhance a future Antarctic territorial claim by New Zealand. The United Kingdom retains a strong cultural interest in the huts and has diplomatically, morally and – to a limited extent – financially supported the Huts Project. The Huts Project has been successfully utilized in cultural diplomacy since its beginnings however, since 2000, two activities proposed by New Zealand related to the huts have not proceeded due to diplomatic concerns. This thesis provides the cultural and historical background to New Zealand’s decision in 1957 to retain the huts and the subsequent external factors which influenced the project. A review of how the concept of “timelessness” was developed and deployed leads onto the substantive chapters about the heritage aspects of the project. The huts are then considered in the context of international relations and how they have been utilized and affected by diplomatic concerns. The thesis concludes by considering the possible futures of the huts, e.g. climate change, and areas for future research on Antarctic heritage and international relations.

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  • Longitudinal relationships between phonology and the lexicon in typically developing toddlers and late talkers : a psycholinguistic perspective.

    Ahmat, Hamimah (2016)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Background: Research spanning more than two decades has emphasised the lexical deficits of late talkers. However, late talkers have been found to have associated delayed phonological acquisition. Given the close connection between these two linguistic domains, it may be that the late language emergence often observed in these children, arises from deficits in their underlying phonological processing system. This thesis explored the longitudinal relationships between the phonological and lexical development in typically developing toddlers (TD) and those who fit the criteria of late talkers (LT), in light of a psycholinguistic speech processing framework. Methods: The cohort comprised 168 children aged 2;0 (years; months) at intake who were reassessed when they were about 3;6 and 5;0 years, on measures of phonological accuracy and expressive language. Phonological accuracy (expressed in terms of a percentage of consonants correct) was used as the main behavioural indicator of children‘s phonological development and was measured in two conditions; in a test of nonword repetition (NWR), and a standardised picture naming/articulation test. Children‘s lexical development was assessed using standardised tests of language. Relationships between phonology and expressive language were derived based on correlation and regression analyses of groups‘ scores, as well as in the varied clinical profiles characterised by children‘s abilities in one domain of language relative to the other. With the dataset, analysis of concurrent correlations was conducted in order to identify and compare statistical significance between individual measures of phonological accuracy and the lexicon at each time-point for TD children and LTs. Regression analyses were conducted to identify the proportion of variance in expressive language explained by each measure of phonological accuracy in TD children and LTs. Differences between TD and LT groups in mean scores for phonology and expressive language at each time point were analysed to determine statistical significance. Results and conclusions: Late talkers‘ performance on a range of measures was significantly different to that of their typically developing peers at all time points. Results indicated that the patterns of individual and combined relationships between phonological accuracy and expressive language also differed between TD and LT children across development. Sufficient phonological representations and motor programs were prerequisites for expressive language development at age 2;0. By age 3;6 and 5;0 continued vocabulary acquisition and expressive language development increasingly relied on their ability to employ phonological units for generating new / nonwords (i.e., the motor programming facility of their speech processing system). The LTs were found to form a heterogeneous group with varied profiles across development. The emergence of subgroups of LTs and observed shifts in their patterns of phonological relative to expressive language over time, suggested differential underlying deficits in terms of access to different levels of the processing system depending on their phases of development and profiles at different ages. By age 5;0 although the early language difficulties for a majority of LTs resolved, more than half manifested delayed phonological development indicating persistent immaturity in motor programs. The corollary of persisting phonological difficulties in children is that it places them at risk for literacy difficulties at school age. Implications for clinical practice and research were discussed.

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  • A geospatial approach to measuring the built environment for active transport, physical activity and health outcomes.

    Donnellan, Niamh Marie (2016)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Active transport and physical activity behaviours are recognised as important determinants of a number of health outcomes, including obesity. Over the last decade, there has been a significant amount of research focused on the need to quantify the ‘walkability’ of neighbourhoods or urban environments as a means of predicting physical activity behaviours. The most common methods used to create indices of walkability focus on a combination of land use mix, street connectivity and dwelling density, as developed by Frank et al., (2005). What is largely missing in this research, however, is a focus on other modes of active transport (such as cycling) and a related recognition of how different delineations (Euclidean and network) of neighbourhoods may affect results. This thesis investigates the influence of the built environment at a number of spatial levels and different neighbourhood delineations, using both standard and novel methods. This research advances and improves our current understandings of the built environment by being the first to use a novel method based on kernel density estimation, to measure associations between the built environment, active transport, physical activity, and health outcomes in a city in New Zealand (Wellington City). This novel method is used to create an Enhanced Walk Index, improving on standard walk indices by including measures of slope, street lights and footpaths and tracks. In addition, this research is the first to test and validate indices of bikeability and neighbourhood destination accessibility (NDAI), based on the novel method. Results of the study suggest that the novel Basic and Enhanced Walk Indices had strong significant positive associations with active transport and overweight/obesity. In comparison the standard method had weaker significant associations, potentially indicating previous research has underestimated the effect of the built environment on active behaviours and health outcomes. In addition, the novel indices of bikeability and NDAI also showed significant positive associations with active transport and overweight/obesity, however effect sizes were small. Furthermore, results varied depending on the type of neighbourhood delineation and spatial scale used. However, in general, the network buffer showed stronger associations between indices of the built environment and active transport, physical activity and overweight/obesity. This research thus strengthens current international and national evidence on how the built environment affects active transport, physical activity behaviours and health outcomes. It expands a preoccupation with walkability to encompass other modes of transport, such as bikeability. Furthermore it provides an alternative, and potentially more nuanced novel method to assess the relationships between the built environment, active transport, physical activity and health outcomes.

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  • Perceptions of Chinese People in New Zealand Towards Nature and Possums

    Niu, Bo (2016)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    This study explores perceptions of Chinese people in New Zealand toward nature and the environment, particularly towards possums, an introduced pest species that people have been trying to eradicate from New Zealand for decades. Perceptions of possums by Chinese people and other people living in New Zealand have been compared and contrasted in the study as well. Chinese people who have never been to New Zealand were excluded from the research. Before the research, previous research studies on topics relating to public perceptions of various ethnicities towards nature or pests in New Zealand, were investigated as supportive backgrounds for this study. Only a few studies were found. Out of those studies, there were either no Asian people separated as one ethnic group, or they were under-represented. This research, through the combination of quantitative survey research and qualitative research interviews with Chinese academics in New Zealand, has deduced that: Chinese people in New Zealand have no less knowledge about possums in terms of their effects than New Zealand people have; also, Chinese people have more neutral perceptions towards possums compared with those of New Zealanders. However, as the survey received rather limited respondents, even with the complementary data from qualitative interviews with Chinese academics, we cannot conclude that the survey results represent all the Chinese people in New Zealand. My small non-representative sample was of people with higher average education and with more outdoor activities than the Chinese population in New Zealand as a whole. As a case study, this research can still help guide future research in New Zealand in terms of differences between ethnicities and quantitative research surveys. Further research could focus on using quantitative research methods with available data in New Zealand, to differentiate the perceptions among different ethnicities, in order to help future policymaking and policy execution.

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  • Trustworthy and participatory community-based disaster communication : a case study of Jalin Merapi in the 2010 Merapi eruption in Indonesia.

    Gultom, Dwie Irmawaty (2016)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Less attention has been paid to the information receivers in disaster communication, particularly the way disaster information is considered to be trustworthy by the affected community and how it can increase collective participation in disaster communication, both at research and practice levels. Meanwhile, a lack of trust will prevent the transformation of information into usable knowledge for an effective disaster response because people are unlikely to pay attention and act on information provided by someone with whom they have a lack of trust. Thus, this study aims at gaining an in-depth understanding of community-based disaster communication by conducting a qualitative case study of Jalin Merapi (Jaringan Informasi Lingkar Merapi - Merapi Circle Information Networks) in the 2010 Mt. Merapi eruption with 35 in-depth interviews and 2 focus groups in Mt. Merapi surroundings. Data analysis was conducted with constructivist grounded theory in order to construct a theoretical understanding of how disaster communication is regarded as trustworthy and able to encourage collective participation. by the affected community, and the combined usage of traditional media and new media in disaster communication. This thesis explains that the perception of the affected community of trustworthy and effective official communication is strongly related to the government‘s promptness in sharing complete and accessible official disaster information, and willingness to engage the affected community and their local knowledge. Thus, this thesis argues that the affected community is worth to be engaged in disaster communication for their culturally-embedded communication and tie strength of the social network, which can encourage trust and collective participation. In order to effectively facilitate community participation, disaster communication needs to engage multiple media, both the advanced internet-based and traditional media, based on the local communication behaviours. Moreover, this thesis details important roles of the affected community as reliable sources, couriers, and on-the-ground verifiers of local information about the needs of survivors and the affected areas during a disaster response. Finally, this thesis acknowledges the challenges of disaster communication with a bottom-up communication approach by involving local communities, based on their knowledge and vulnerabilities in responding to a disaster. Also, this thesis has a number of important implications for the future practice of disaster communication, especially in facilitating effective and trustworthy disaster information for the affected community.

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  • Motivation for hearing aid uptake amongst Malay adults in the Klang Valley, Malaysia.

    Ali Hanafiah, Nurlin (2016)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Hearing rehabilitation is not a straightforward process as evident from established factors influencing adults’ rehabilitation decision. However, it cannot be assumed that the factors identified apply to Malaysian malay adults due to differences in culture, religious belief, health belief, social support, and service delivery. The objectives of this study were to: 1) describe the audiometric and demographic profiles of adults consulting for audiological services at the Hospital Sungai Buloh (HSB) and Hospital Tengku Ampuan Rahimah (HTAR), in the Klang Valley, Malaysia, 2) explore the internal and external factors perceived to influence hearing aid uptake amongst the adults with hearing impairment, and 3) apply the World Health Organisation’s International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF) terminologies in describing the internal (personal in ICF terminology) and external (environmental in ICF terminology) factors perceived to influence hearing aid uptake. A sequential quantitative-qualitative mixed method research design was selected to achieve the research objectives. A retrospective cohort study design was selected for the Part 1 study in order to identify profiles of adults consulting for audiology service at the HSB and HTAR. One hundred data points from each hospital containing demographic and audiological information were analysed and described quantitatively. The result served to guide participant selection criteria for the Part 2 qualitative study. Twenty-two Malay adults, 11 from each hospital, participated in the Part 2 study. The participants recruited from HSB aged between 40 and 69 years, while those from HTAR were aged between 50 and 69 years. In the Part 2 study, two-stage semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted: 1) Stage 1 interviews were carried out following the participants’ hearing assessment, and 2) Stage 2 interviews were conducted following the participants’ hearing demonstration. Through qualitative content analysis, categories generated were grouped into eight factor groupings, developed using the ICF terminologies, delineating personal factors, environmental factors and factors associated with activities and participation. While many of the results corroborated findings from previous research, new categories found included those associated to hearing aid demonstrations, perceptions of hearing aids and its use, stage of life, cultural practice, and religious belief. Hearing aid demonstration session was found to be an important factor facilitating hearing aid uptake. In summary, this study showed that Malaysian malay adults with hearing impairment who seek hearing help for the first time perceive a multitude of factors that influence their decisions to adopt hearing aids. The identified factors inform audiologists to be more perceptive of the clients’ needs and issues regarding hearing aids. This study also demonstrated that these factors can be contextualised using the ICF terminologies, providing a common language for clinical applications and future research. Areas for improvement for the audiology public service were identified and gaps of knowledge highlighted for future studies.

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  • Controversies, instabilities and (re)configurations : an actor-network account of abortion in Christchurch, New Zealand.

    Meadows, Letitia (2016)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Abortion is an object of enduring controversy. Perhaps not surprisingly, abortion has been the focus of a significant body of research and academic debate. This body of research has addressed abortion prevalence, methods and circulation across different localities, legislative frameworks, as well as cultural and social practices. Despite this plethora of academic literature there is an absence of material that addresses the complexities of abortion networks by considering the relationships between the human and non-human actors. This study joins an emerging trend in social work research that looks beyond the traditions of centring the person as the focus of the research endeavour to explore non-human agency. Such approaches offer new methodological possibilities for understanding human/non-human relations and the non-human actors that populate ‘social’ worlds. In this thesis, Actor-network theory (ANT) is the methodological toolkit for exploring the assemblages of abortion. ANT-inflected research is distinct in the way it takes seriously the analytical currency of both human and non-human actors. Its sensibilities of ‘slow research’ have aided this study to closely follow the controversies that can be found where heterogeneous relationships are formed. In this way, this research has been responsive to multiplicities and contradictions that thread through articulations of abortion, and its practices. This ethnographic study provides rich descriptions and ‘snapshots’ of practices at Lyndhurst Day Hospital (Lyndhurst) in Christchurch, New Zealand. The observations, interviews and document analysis on which this thesis is based were generated from the concurrent activities of research fieldwork and social work practice at Lyndhurst from 2008 to 2011. Even with a local focus, this research shows that abortion is not a stable phenomenon, but mutable, multiple, and uncertain. The descriptive text of this thesis reveals glimpses into some of the complex abortion practices and (re)configurations that emerge in and through the relational work between human and non-human actors. The ANT-inflected descriptions in this thesis reveal that abortion controversies can be followed, and that descriptions of these controversies can extend beyond a dichotomous split. Controversies emerge in the relations between human and non-human actors, through their interests, their disagreements, and the compromises they make. Moreover, that they can be traced to reveal multiple abortion ‘truths’, realities, and networks.

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  • Mental health and factors related to mental health among Pakistani university students.

    Irfan, Uzma (2016)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    This study investigated potential factors contributing to mental health in university students in Pakistan. The specific factors selected for investigation were fathers warmth, extraversion vs. introversion, self-esteem, and peer relationships. Two demographic factors, gender and socio-economic status (based on parental income), were also examined to determine potential relationships with mental health problems. A quantitative research design was utilized and data were obtained through participants completing five different standardized surveys. The participants were 314 undergraduate students from different departments, attending one university in Karachi. The age of participants ranged from 18 to 24 years, and 149 were female and 165 were male. The findings of this study revealed a positive correlation between extraversion and mental health, fathers warmth and mental health, and self-esteem and mental health, along with significant gender differences: male students reported more positive mental health levels than female students. There was also a trend for those students from the lowest parental income category to report lower mental health levels. Additionally, of the factors assessed, fathers warmth predicted most variabilityin mental health scores. These findings provide insights into students perception of their mental health and factors that maybe related to these self-reports. Such work highlights the importance of raising awareness of mental health among university students, their families, and university administration, particularly in cultures where these is potentially less acceptance of mental health problems. The findings should support the planning and development of effective interventions and strategies, not only for university students experiencing mental health problems, but also universityadministration: the influence of fathers warmth on mental health self-reports in this context suggests a need to consider parental involvement in effective interventions, for example. Findings are also discussed in terms of potential gender differences and cultural factors that influence students perceptions of their psychological well-being.

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