26,375 results for Thesis

  • Source Modulated Multiplexed Hyperspectral Imaging: Theory, Hardware and Application

    Streeter, Lee V. (2009)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Waikato

    The design, analysis and application of a multiplexing hyperspectral imager is presented. The hyperspectral imager consists of a broadband digital light projector that uses a digital micromirror array as the optical engine to project light patterns onto a sample object. A single point spectrometer measures light that is reflected from the sample. Multiplexing patterns encode the spectral response from the sample, where each spectrum taken is the sum of a set of spectral responses from a number of pixels. Decoding in software recovers the spectral response of each pixel. A technique, which we call complement encoding, is introduced for the removal of background light effects. Complement encoding requires the use of multiplexing matrices with positive and negative entries. The theory of multiplexing using the Hadamard matrices is developed. Results from prior art are incorporated into a singular notational system under which the different Hadamard matrices are compared with each other and with acquisition of data without multiplexing (pointwise acquisition). The link between Hadamard matrices with strongly regular graphs is extended to incorporate all three types of Hadamard matrices. The effect of the number of measurements used in compressed sensing on measurement precision is derived by inference using results concerning the eigenvalues of large random matrices. The literature shows that more measurements increases accuracy of reconstruction. In contrast we find that more measurement reduces precision, so there is a tradeoff between precision and accuracy. The effect of error in the reference on the Wilcoxon statistic is derived. Reference error reduces the estimate of the Wilcoxon, however given an estimate of theWilcoxon and the proportion of error in the reference, we show thatWilcoxon without error can be estimated. Imaging of simple objects and signal to noise ratio (SNR) experiments are used to test the hyperspectral imager. The simple objects allow us to see that the imager produces sensible spectra. The experiments involve looking at the SNR itself and the SNR boost, that is ratio of the SNR from multiplexing to the SNR from pointwise acquisition. The SNR boost varies dramatically across the spectral domain from 3 to the theoretical maximum of 16. The range of boost values is due to the relative Poisson to additive noise variance changing over the spectral domain, an effect that is due to the light bulb output and detector sensitivity not being flat over the spectral domain. It is shown that the SNR boost is least where the SNR is high and is greatest where the SNR is least, so the boost is provided where it is needed most. The varying SNR boost is interpreted as a preferential boost, that is useful when the dominant noise source is indeterminate or varying. Compressed sensing precision is compared with the accuracy in reconstruction and with the precision in Hadamard multiplexing. A tradeoff is observed between accuracy and precision as the number of measurements increases. Generally Hadamard multiplexing is found to be superior to compressed sensing, but compressed sensing is considered suitable when shortened data acquisition time is important and poorer data quality is acceptable. To further show the use of the hyperspectral imager, volumetric mapping and analysis of beef m. longissimus dorsi are performed. Hyperspectral images are taken of successive slices down the length of the muscle. Classification of the spectra according to visible content as lean or nonlean is trialled, resulting in a Wilcoxon value greater than 0.95, indicating very strong classification power. Analysis of the variation in the spectra down the length of the muscles is performed using variography. The variation in spectra of a muscle is small but increases with distance, and there is a periodic effect possibly due to water seepage from where connective tissue is removed from the meat while cutting from the carcass. The spectra are compared to parameters concerning the rate and value of meat bloom (change of colour post slicing), pH and tenderometry reading (shear force). Mixed results for prediction of blooming parameters are obtained, pH shows strong correlation (R² = 0.797) with the spectral band 598-949 nm despite the narrow range of pH readings obtained. A likewise narrow range of tenderometry readings resulted in no useful correlation with the spectra. Overall the spatial multiplexed imaging with a DMA based light modulation is successful. The theoretical analysis of multiplexing gives a general description of the system performance, particularly for multiplexing with the Hadamard matrices. Experiments show that the Hadamard multiplexing technique improves the SNR of spectra taken over pointwise imaging. Aspects of the theoretical analysis are demonstrated. Hyperspectral images are acquired and analysed that demonstrate that the spectra acquired are sensible and useful.

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  • Playing with ethics?: A Foucauldian examination of the construction ethical subjectivities in Ultimate Frisbee

    Crocket, Hamish Robert (2012)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Waikato

    Links between instrumental rationality and problematic sporting subjectivities are well established (e.g., Beamish & Ritchie, 2006; Donnelly, 1996; Hughes & Coakley, 1991). In recent years, however, critical scholars have taken an increasing interest in how athletes and coaches might find ways of problematizing their involvement in sport and thus discover new ways of understanding their participation (e.g., Denison, 2010; Douglas & Carless, 2006, 2009; Markula & Pringle, 2006; Pringle & Hickey, 2010; Shogan, 2007). Markula and Pringle (2006), Pringle and Hickey (2010), and Shogan (2007) have adopted a Foucauldian perspective to examine how those involved in sport and exercise might undertake a process of ethical self-creation. This interest in the formation of ethical sporting subjectivities resonated closely with my own experiences as an athlete and coach, and, in particular, my experiences within the sport, Ultimate Frisbee (Ultimate). Subsequently, I was drawn to ask the Foucauldian question: “what forms of problematization and practices of self underpin Ultimate players’ creation of an ethical self through an aesthetics of existence?” To examine this question I undertook an ethnographic study of Ultimate, comprising two years of fieldwork as a participant-observer, interviews with fourteen Ultimate players and textual analysis of Ultimate media. I specifically sought to analyse my work using Foucauldian theory and the ethical turn within French postmodernism. I found a heterogeneous process of ethical self-creation to be evident amongst Ultimate players. Of particular importance in this process were players’ multiple understandings of Spirit of the Game, which I interpreted as a postmodern telos, and their ongoing engagement in practices of self, which were “not something invented by the individual himself [sic]. [Rather] they are models he finds in his culture” (Foucault, 2000a, p. 291). However, I found that differences in players’ interpretations of these practices of self, in combination with a few players who appeared to reject these practices, meant Ultimate was not free from conflict, disagreement, or controversy. Ultimate, then, was not an ethical utopia; rather, it offered players possibilities to create their selves as ethical subjects. I added complexity to this understanding of ethics by reconsidering Ultimate through the ethics of the Other. Drawing on Derrida’s tactics of clôtural reading, aporia and justice, I theorized ethically problematic aspects of Ultimate which had not been revealed within my Foucauldian analysis. In this thesis I support moves to integrate postmodern ethical perspectives and subjectivities within sociological studies of sport. Such analyses take seriously the ethical perspectives that individuals and groups have and seek to examine how these understandings influence their sense of self. At the same time, however, ethics is revealed to always be partial and incomplete. In this sense, ethics is a performative project without end. The sociology of ethics which I undertake in this thesis offers possibilities not only for understanding questions of how sporting subjectivities are currently created, but also for considering possibilities of how these subjectivities might be formed differently in the future.  

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  • Drama Drones: An Investigation Into Integrating Drones Into Real World Filmmaking in New Zealand

    Cleveland, Peter

    Masters thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    The use of drone technology is a topical issue for contemporary filmmaking. The fast paced innovation of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) or drones has opened up a new realm of camera movement available to all levels of filmmakers, including the novice. This expedient growth fuelled by amateur open source development has outstripped the ability of many governments to legislate. The film industry itself has been equally slow in reacting to these new possibilities. This has resulted in advancing technologies being underutilised and has limited uptake of drone technology within dramatic film production. This research engages with these issues and explores the use of drones as a motion controlled cinematographic tool, specifically as it relates to the practice of filmmaking in New Zealand at both a novice and a professional level. A practice based methodology serves as a platform to demonstrate how to utilise advancing technologies in an original way that is consistent with the current mode of filmmaking. The outcome is evidenced by an innovative blend of open source ground control software, autopilot firmware, DIY1 crafted drone and early adoption of Real Time Kinematic GPS2 hardware. Can an innovative approach to the use of emerging creative technologies influence the way in which they are integrated into the New Zealand on-set filmmaking idiom by using drone technology to develop a proof of concept system for predictable and repeatable camera path?

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  • A cross-cultural study of country and bank selection by Asian international students : a New Zealand perspective : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Business and Administration at Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand

    Chin, Arthur In Sing

    Thesis
    Massey University

    Internationalisation of education and increasing wealth among a growing middle class population in North Asia are two reasons for a growing number of students travelling overseas for their tertiary education. New Zealand is a popular destination-of-choice, where income derived from international education exceeds NZ$2bn annually. Ownership of a New Zealand bank account is a mandatory requirement for international students. This thesis assumes there is a service gap in banks’ value proposition to international tertiary students as a result of differences in retail patronage expectations. Bank selection is the domain focus of this research, which examines the questions of “when do students consider bank selection questions when travelling overseas for their tertiary education?” and “what are the influencing factors behind bank selection?”. The research demographic comprised students from South Korea, India, and the Greater China countries of China, Taiwan and Hong Kong. Prior research on bank selection is examined. Overall, the review identified limited research on the consumer segment, and on Asian international students in particular. Consequently, there is an identifiable gap between academic research and bank practice. A qualitative approach using focus groups helped identify topics and vocabulary appropriate to the research. Findings from the focus group discussions led to the development of an online questionnaire which was eventually completed by 582 international tertiary students currently studying in New Zealand. While findings showed that the majority of international students are satisfied with their main bank relationships, services offered by New Zealand banks do not fully address what international students want from their banking relationship. Further, convenience, low service fees and the adoption of mobile banking applications are three factors that appeal to the research demographic, and findings also call for banking officers to be familiar with Asian cultural nuances, where cultural familiarity has precedence over Asian language proficiency. The implications for university international student recruiters and bank marketers include familiarity with when international students decide to travel overseas for their tertiary education and the influencing reasons why they choose to study in New Zealand; when and how Asian international students identify bank relationships in New Zealand; and, recognising the critical success factors to developing deep and meaningful relationships with the Asian international tertiary student segment.

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  • Examining Facebook practice : the case of New Zealand provincial rugby : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Masters in Sport and Exercise at Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand

    Cole, Jason

    Thesis
    Massey University

    Social media have become a defining feature of 21st century communications. Conceived in 2004 Facebook has risen from relative obscurity to become the most visited website in the world. While social media use has grown exponentially, so too has its influence. Sport organisations were quick to capitalise on Facebook’s popularity particularly with the introduction of brand pages in 2010. The trend is no different particularly in New Zealand Rugby’s (NZR) National Provincial Championship (NPC). However recent research indicates a lack of understanding and consistency in evaluating effectiveness within the context of Facebook. Scholars have further acknowledged a need to move beyond simple metrics as measures of performance. Using a mixed method approach this case study of four NPC rugby teams investigated the understanding of effective Facebook practice. Thematic analysis of qualitative questionnaires completed by each page’s main administrator explored their understanding of effective Facebook practice. The researcher also utilised an auto-ethnographic journal to document his own experience of managing one of the participating brand pages. Page performance was also investigated through analysis of Facebook insights data to establish how it may be more accurately interpreted to inform best practice. Results reveal that administrators perceive lack of control, maintaining credibility, guaranteeing reach and resource allocation to be the most prominent challenges faced by these brand pages. Such issues provide further tensions when attempting to justify social media use and effectiveness within sport organisations. Furthermore, teams are faced with commercial obligations to post sponsor content that may negatively impact user engagement. In addition, findings suggest that contrary to popular belief, greater total network sizes do not guarantee greater reach and engagement. It is proposed that teams consider proportional measures of performance when seeking to measure Facebook performance. Holistically the research sets a platform that can be used in future studies to tangibly connect Facebook effectiveness to organisational strategy and objectives.

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  • 1942, the Pacific War, and the defence of New Zealand : a thesis presented in fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Philosophy in Defence and Strategic Studies at Massey University, New Zealand

    Wilkins, Peter C

    Thesis
    Massey University

    During 1941-1942 New Zealand expended vast amounts of capital and labour building in-depth defences against the perceived invasion threat from Japan that today is often regarded, especially by academic historians, as non-existent. This thesis looks closely at the background of such a Japanese threat and the subsequent realities. It examines the failures of the existing, indeed traditional political alliance with the British ‘family of nations’ and its associated myths against the Realpolitik of New Zealand’s enforced absorption into the new American power block. The origins of today’s opinions are teased out to examine their realities and the drivers of the New Zealand government’s actions at the time are reviewed. These actions along with the experience, perceptions and, above all, the circumstantial knowledge that formed the opinions drove the decisions to act are established. The conclusion of this thesis is the threat to New Zealand of being raided, isolated, even possibly invaded, was geopolitically and militarily real at the time. The margins by which any of these possibilities were avoided were narrow.

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  • "You can't leave your life to chance" : transitioning from offending in emerging adults : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in Psychology at Massey University, Albany, New Zealand

    Chong, May-Lee A

    Thesis
    Massey University

    There is currently limited very research about how emerging adult’s transition out of crime. This study interviewed nine emerging adults who successfully transitioned out of crime by the age of 25. Semi-structured interviews were conducted and transcribed verbatim. The data was analysed using interpretative phenomenological analysis. Participants described their experience of transition as a build-up of distress combined with reasons to stop, shifts in perceptions around offending and their identity, a challenging process that they felt fortunate to have accomplished, a noticeable improvement in their lives and ongoing temptation or thoughts about offending. The results suggested three main findings; that the process of desistance is similar in emerging adults and adult populations, that there could be a universal mechanism of change underlying all behaviour, and that control theories may better explain desistance behaviour than dominant models of behaviour change such as the transtheoretical model of change.

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  • A framework to evaluate the impact of ICT usage on collaborative product development performance in manufacturing firms : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Engineering at Massey University, Auckland, New Zealand

    Silva, C W Chathurani

    Thesis
    Massey University

    Manufacturers are increasingly adopting collaborative product development (CPD) to achieve competitive advantage through joint synergies. Information and communication technology (ICT) is the major enabler of communication, collaboration, product designing, development, knowledge and information management, project management, and market research activities involved in CPD. Most ICT implementations incur a significant cost for firms, thus a deeper understanding of the impact of ICT usage on CPD performance would be immensely useful for managing ICT resources effectively in innovation programmes. However, existing evidence for the direct relationships between ICT usage and performance dimensions are counterintuitive (negative or insignificant). Not considering the different aspects of ICT usage was identified as a key reason for the lack of strong empirical evidence. Furthermore, the impact of ICT usage on collaboration-based product development performance and indirect impact through this collaboration performance on new product performance, as well as moderating effects of project characteristics on the direct and indirect ICT impact have largely been ignored in the literature. Therefore, drawing on relational resource-based view and organizational information processing theory, this study develops and utilizes a model including multidimensional ICT usage and CPD performance measurements, and possible moderating project characteristics, for better evaluating the impact of ICT usage on CPD performance. Initially, product development professionals from manufacturing firms and knowledgeable managers from ICT vendor firms were interviewed for a preliminary qualitative evaluation of the suggested model with industry perspectives. In addition, a quantitative investigation of secondary data obtained from the PDMA’s (Product Development and Management Association) 2012 comparative performance assessment study was conducted prior to the main survey in order to assess the significance of the proposed model with a different source of data. In the final main quantitative study, data collected from 244 CPD projects via an online global survey were used to test the research hypotheses. The study contributes to the current body of knowledge by revealing a positive direct impact of ICT usage on new product performance in terms of quality, commercial success, and time performance, and collaboration performance, which also in turn increases new product performance. In addition, moderating effects of project characteristics (complexity and uncertainty) on these associations have been explored. The study implies that manufacturers need to value not only the direct project benefits of ICT use, but also the collaboration-related outcomes that significantly increase the likelihood of achieving higher performance in their present and future CPD projects. Adequate attention must be paid to individual ICT usage dimensions as well. Particularly, other than frequency of ICT use, manufacturing firms need to improve the utilization of available features and functionalities of the tools (intensity) and the ICT proficiency of R&D staff, to gain the desired results in CPD projects.

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  • The gender dimensions of environmental change : an exploration of the experiences and perceptions of rural men and women in Zimbabwe : a thesis submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Development Studies at Massey University, Manawatu, New Zealand

    Shumba, Dorcas Stellah Tsitsi

    Thesis
    Massey University

    Processes of environmental change have taken place for centuries both as a result of natural variability and anthropogenic forces. As a concept however, environmental change continues to be used narrowly to refer to environmental changes which are biophysical in nature, and mostly those with global precedence. In recent times incidences of environmental change have become more complex as new patterns of change are threatening the livelihoods of those living in developing countries, undoing many development gains. As such, there is an increasing desire to understand the implications of environmental changes, particularly for those whose livelihoods are natural resource dependent, many of whom live in rural areas, and many of whom are poor. Despite this growing interest, rural people and especially the rural poor are little seen or heard; their environmental change experiences are thus misunderstood, and solutions proposed do not take into consideration the local context or experiences. There remains also a normative perspective which positions women as automatically vulnerable to environmental change, specifically vis-à-vis men. In doing so women’s experiences of environmental change are homogenised and men’s experiences are rendered invisible. Drawing on the case of Zimbabwe this study critically considers the experiences and perceptions of rural men and women to environmental change so as to ascertain gendered impacts and differential vulnerabilities. To capture fully the subjective lived experience of both men and women to environmental change, this study lends itself to qualitative research. Thus research methods such as semi-structured interviews, focus group discussions and gender analysis are central to the methodology. In terms of findings, this study argues against looking at environmental change as a technocratic subject accessible only from a global frame and accessed only by a technocratic few, proposing that the people experiencing environmental change at a local level should determine the environmental changes of communal concern. This study also highlights the importance of understanding the vulnerabilities of rural men and women within a well-conceived notion of context, taking into account rural disadvantage resulting from colonialism, and the current Zimbabwean crisis.

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  • Investigating and Enhancing Willingness to Communicate and Motivational Self-System of Yemeni Rural EFL Learners

    Al-Murtadha, Mutahar Ahmed (2017)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    A major problem in second language (L2) learning and teaching is learners’ low willingness to communicate (WTC). WTC refers to the extent to which an individual is ready to initiate communication with others. Some L2 researchers have argued that enhancing L2 WTC should be the fundamental goal of the L2 learning process. However, although previous studies have identified some factors that influence WTC, most, if not all, did not go beyond exploring the factors to promoting WTC through interventions. This thesis has two main aims: to understand the factors that influence the WTC of Yemeni rural secondary school English students and to promote their WTC based on understanding the factors that influence it. These two aims were achieved in a mixed methods project of four studies in which the factors influencing WTC were first identified in three studies, and then based on those factors, an intervention program to enhance students’ WTC was conducted in a fourth study. The first study used a large survey of 564 students. Quantitative data analysis indicated that L2 WTC inside the classroom was predicted by L1 WTC, ideal L2 self, L2 learning experience, L2 intended learning effort, and gender. Study two was an observational study of twelve students who had participated in study one. Data were collected through weekly classroom observations in L1 and L2 classrooms. Quantitative data analysis confirmed the significant relationship between L1 and L2 WTC found in study one and revealed significant gender difference in L2 observed WTC, with males demonstrating higher WTC. However, no significant relationship between self-reported WTC and observed WTC was found in both L1 and L2. The self, learning experience, and learning effort appeared to influence students’ observed WTC. Study three focused on students’ perceptions of their L2 WTC inside the classroom. It involved the same students from study two, but data were collected through interviews and weekly journals. Qualitative data analysis revealed three types of factors that influenced WTC: contextual, affective, and cognitive. The ideal self most influenced WTC through the mediation of topics related to students’ future careers. Study four was an intervention that promoted WTC and its four predictors–ideal self, learning experience, learning effort, and linguistic self-confidence–over a six-week period. Two-hundred six students were assigned to either an experimental group (N= 104) or a control group (N = 102). The experimental group received one forty-five minute visualization and goal-setting lesson a week, whereas the control group received a regular lesson. Quantitative and qualitative data analysis indicated that the intervention enhanced WTC and its predictors. The thesis concludes with three contributions. Theoretically, it shows that WTC can be influenced by the ideal self, learning experience, intended learning effort, and gender. Methodologically, it shows that mixed methods research leads to a deeper understanding of WTC and how to promote it. Pedagogically, the intervention practically shows English teachers how visualization and goal-setting activities can enhance students’ WTC and its predictors.

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  • Development of a New Multi-channel Electrode and Signal Processing for Surface Electromyography Signals Feature Extraction

    Kilby, Jeff

    Doctoral thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    The overall aim of the research reported in this thesis was to build a new multi-channel electrode and to investigate and develop signal processing techniques for sEMG signals, in order to enable the extractions of more useful-features. Analysis of these signal features will assist in the creation of a more effective database for diagnosing muscle ailments and conditions. The investigation was carried out by observing the fatiguing characteristics of surface electromyography (sEMG) signals collected from the vastus lateralis muscle of the quadriceps of the dominant leg of 40 healthy participants performing an endurance (or fatiguing) task of 50% of their maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC). The signals were collected using a new multi-channel electrode and analysed using an overlapping sliding window algorithm that extracted signal features of the mean frequency (MNF) and muscle fibre conduction velocity (MFCV). The new multi-channel electrode had 11 pins and each was pre-amplified with a voltage gain of 484 and bandpass filtering from 6.8 Hz to 1.02 kHz to collect monopolar signals. The monopolar signals were then configured by the software as either linear array or Laplacian configuration. A better signal definition in terms of motor unit action potential was achieved with the Laplacian configuration. This research also investigated a number of different signal processing techniques to extract features for classification purposes of sEMG signals during an endurance or fatiguing task. These included the use of Fast Fourier Transform, Short Time Fourier Transform and Wavelet Transform. Using the Fourier power spectrum, spectral features such as MNF, median frequency (MDF), and temporal features such as root mean square (RMS) and MFCV were determined. The results showed that, of all the signals analysed, the MNF and MDF values showed similar trends and the RMS values showed a linear relationship, which increased over the time period of the signal. The MFCV values meanwhile showed also a similar trend to those of MNF and MDF. The MNF feature was selected over MDF as it produced a more accurate trend line that closely correlated with the measured values. Statistical analysis was performed on all 40 participants to produce the mean values for determining the range and fatigue times, and determine how much the MNF and MFCV values dropped over the contraction time. The results showed that fatigue times for the 40 participants ranged between 41.6 to 78.8 seconds when performing 50% MVIC. The mean trend lines of the MNF and MFCV features showed a drop in values in the initial and the final fatigue stage. The initial value of MNF dropped by 20.3% of the maximum value during the first 29.8% of the contraction period. The MFCV meanwhile dropped by 20.9% of the maximum value during the first 28.2% of the contraction period. The MNF value dropped by 17.4% at the final fatigue stage whereas the MFCV value dropped by 18.1%. The findings of this research, which demonstrates new methodologies that can be used for extracting features of sEMG signals, also identify directions for future work in the field of signal classification.

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  • The impact of selective attention mechanisms on the longevity of repetition priming in a lexical decision task

    Rochford, Kristin S. (2017)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    This study investigated repetition priming effects in a lexical decision task, and was designed as a follow up to a negative priming experiment conducted for my Honours’ project last year. Similar to the previous experiment, a priming task was used whereby participants were required to make a verbal naming response to a prime target word, flanked by a distractor word, followed by a lexical decision response to a probe target word or nonword, flanked by a distractor word. The longevity of the repetition priming effect was explored in short and long lag conditions wherein stimuli were presented once and only once, except in order to fulfil the attended repetition conditions. The results evidenced a large immediate repetition priming effect. However, contrary to the results of the previous experiment where the negative priming effect was sustained for over eight minutes with many intervening trials, there was no evidence of facilitation in the current experiment after the same delay. Due to the perhaps surprising absence of long lag positive priming, further supplementary analyses involving compatibilities among the surface features between prime and probe displays were also conducted. The implications of the collective results for the understanding of selective attention and memory mechanisms are discussed.

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  • Human peroxiredoxin 3: the shape-shifting peroxidase as a versatile protein tecton

    Yewdall, N. Amy (2017)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The biological realm contains numerous examples of nano-scale molecules that can self-assemble into a diverse array of architectures, making them attractive building blocks (or tectons) for applications in bionanotechnology. Proteins are one such biological molecule able to assemble into various three-dimensional structures. Exploring the mechanism and conditions in which these protein structures form is not only useful for the understanding of its biological role, but is also a prerequisite for their use in rational materials design. Human peroxiredoxin 3 (HsPrx3) are ubiquitous antioxidant proteins that can form a plethora of protein architectures: from homodimers that reversibly assemble into dodecameric rings (or toroids), and rings that can further associate into protein tubes. This thesis examines the high molecular weight protein tube structure of HsPrx3 (Chapter 2) and its assembly mechanism (Chapter 3). A 2.8 Å crystal structure of HsPrx3 was elucidated for the first time and was displayed as a short tube composed of three rings. This structure, together with a cryo-electron microscopy reconstruction obtained with collaborators, enabled a novel hypothesis for the biological role of these protein tubes as having a self-associating chaperone function. Using native mass spectrometry, protein tube formation was demonstrated to be formed via a non-commutative mechanism. Protein tube formation was also shown to be reversible, increasing the appeal of HsPrx3 proteins as tectons for bionanotechnology. HsPrx3 proteins react with hydrogen peroxide and upon oxidation, the reduced dodecameric rings disassemble into oxidised homodimers. The relationship between this quaternary structural switch and peroxidase activity was investigated (Chapter 4). Point mutations at the dimer-dimer interface were generated, creating an obligate dimer (S75E HsPrx3) and a stabilised toroid (S78C HsPrx3). Intriguingly, the obligate dimer was minimally active, suggesting that the ring structure is important, but not vital, for active site positioning. This raises interesting questions as to the biological function of this redox-induced structural change. On the other hand, the stabilised toroid was crystallised and the 2.4 Å structure provided a detailed understanding of the interactions that stabilise the dimer-dimer interface. S78C HsPrx3 will be a useful tecton as componentry for future applications. Having gained a deeper understanding of HsPrx3 self-assembly, functionalisation of the protein surface with novel chemistries was explored (Chapter 5). An unnatural amino acid, p-azidophenylalanine, was chosen for in vivo incorporation into HsPrx3 via an E. coli expression system. Although, not entirely successful, this marks a promising initial venture at functionalising HsPrx3.

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  • The Origins of Cook Island Migration to New Zealand, 1920-1950

    Anderson, Rosemary Ellen (2015)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    It is a little known fact that New Zealand was both a British colony and imperial power in the Pacific during the twentieth century. From 1901 to 1965, under the pretext of a civilising mission, New Zealand exercised moral responsibility for the Cook Islands. Beneficent overtones concealed the colony’s quest for territory and power, and political rhetoric continues to ignore the deficiencies and injustices of their former rule. As patriotic British subjects, and nominal citizens of New Zealand, the Cook Islanders looked to their colonial rulers for a pathway into the modern world. Contact with administrators, teachers, traders and missionaries instilled a sense of kinship, and mass movement to New Zealand in the post-war era is a recognised consequence of these historic ties. This migration is generally regarded as an immediate response to employment opportunities at that time. This thesis explores the social realities of New Zealand’s colonial relationship with the Cook Islands. It draws primarily on the records of the Island Territories Department to address issues of citizenship and status in relation to the Cook Islands’ people. Efforts to control population movement and monitor Cook Islanders in New Zealand bring the powers of New Zealand officials under scrutiny. This approach uncovers the nature of New Zealand rule, and exposes the political and socioeconomic forces that fostered Island discontent. Focusing on the dissemination of knowledge, this history traces the Islanders evolving awareness of the wider world from the time of European contact. The writings of early commentators, newspaper accounts of social exchanges, and the stories of early migrant women reveal the range of interactions influencing new patterns of movement and early permanent migration. Political, familial and cultural associations between New Zealand and Cook Island Māori are highlighted as influential in promoting a sense of belonging to Aotearoa New Zealand, and encouraging and facilitating movement to and from the Islands. This thesis demonstrates the potentially liberating effect of war on the Cook Islands psyche. World War One soldiers returned to the Islands with heightened social and political aspirations, but were forced to resubmit to white hegemony. During World War Two, young Island women recruited for domestic service in New Zealand unwittingly challenged colonial power relationships by choosing permanent residence. Their newly-acquired status confirmed the reality that Cook Islanders could only attain the full rights and privileges of New Zealand citizenship by making a new home in the metropole. This thesis contributes to the history of female immigrants (migrants) and their settlement in New Zealand, and reveals single women as the original promoters of chain migration from the Cook Islands in the twentieth century. It uncovers a sound knowledge base informing Cook Islanders of potential lifestyle opportunities in New Zealand, one formed well before 1950. It thereby confirms that post-war migration to the metropole was a more measured and premeditated response than previously thought.

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  • Policing the boundaries : issues of identity and community in New Zealand lesbian newsletters 1973-1992 : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Philosophy in Women's Studies at Massey University

    Ward, Mary-Helen

    Thesis
    Massey University

    The concept of identity was taken for granted as a basis for political activity by lesbian feminist communities worldwide in the 1970s and 1980s. An examination of the history and implications of this concept, using the writings of Fuss, Cohen, Stein, Phelan and Alice, reveals that it has sometimes been deeply implicated in narrow, rigid, essentialist thinking. There is little evidence of attempts during those decades to deconstruct the notions of identity on which were based key theories such as the political implications of the personal, political correctness, and a notion of lesbian 'purity'. In New Zealand, some of the implications of understanding 'lesbian identity' as universal can be examined through the lesbian newsletters. The collectives which put together these newsletters from 1973 to 1992 wrote with an implicit faith in the notion of 'lesbian identity politics' and in the dictum 'the personal is the political'. This belief limited what they could see as in possibilities of relationships with other lesbians, with other feminists, with gay men, and with the wider community of New Zealand society at the time. A careful, detailed reading of the nationally available newsletters gives a picture of the emergence of 'political correctness', although there are also traces of evidence of other lesbians for whom the idea of political correctness is unacceptable. The presentation of the issues of the place of separatism, expressions of sexual desire, relationships with heterosexual feminists and with other 'queer' groups, reveals how the 'personal' was politicised in terms of narrow notions of identity. Political issues which the newsletters represented as especially affecting lesbians include Homosexual Law Reform and widening amendments to the Human Rights Legislation, some of the policies of the Ministry of Women's Affairs, and issues around race and racism. Examination of how these issues were dealt with in the newsletters shows how the framework of lesbian identity politics limited how these 'political' issues were made personal for readers.

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  • O le Soga'imiti: An embodiment of God in the Samoan male body

    Maliko, Tavita (2012)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Much of the discourse especially the church sermons in my church denomination or at least the ones that I have attended, constructs the body as only a material thing, sinful, bad and evil as opposed to the divinity and purity of the spirit. On the other hand, the body is valued and greatly celebrated in the Samoan culture; this is a vitally important dilemma because while inside Church the body is evil and is to be wrapped and covered, outside it the body is more meaningful when visible and exposed. This thesis was borne out of the need to explore that struggle—one between the sinfulness of bodily and material life, as opposed to the godliness/holiness of spiritual life as reflected in church theological messages on one hand, against a culture that celebrate the body and everything material about it as good and divine, on the other. If, according to Christian theology, humans are created in the image of God, how is it that the body is often ridiculed in Christian theology as sinful and evil? This study examines the pre-Christian concept Atua (God) and the current Christian concept God and how the two are socially constructed, merged or differentiated and embodied through a Samoan male body. The thesis draws upon a number of different sources of "text" including over 600 written works, two short documentary films, and interview with fifteen Samoan men and women that includes two fa‘afafine. Drawing primarily upon the interview data a number of themes were identified for closer analysis. These themes include the construction of the Samoan male, the construction of the male role of tautua (one who serve) and his relation to the family and community, the construction of God as creator and as a Samoan matai (chief), and how these socio-theological values and meanings are embodied and help shape the life of the Samoan male. The findings of this work reveal the social construction of a particular version of God, his message, his work, and his will, and a particular version of the Samoan Christian believer through theological discourse. The social construction and embodiment of the Christian God in theology and practices, is markedly different from those of the pre-Christian Atua(s) and belief in deity and spirits which to some degree, many Samoans still hold onto in their embodiment of God. A soga‘imiti is symbolic of the ultimate Samoan male: he is brave, fearless, has wisdom and knowledge, the provider and protector of his family, church, village and country. His tatau (tattoo) is a literal inscription of his socio-religious identity, beliefs and duties; the motifs of which are visual depiction of his embodied life; this constitute the embodiment of his environment, family and God. Soga‘imiti is synonymous with embodied cultural pride, beauty, bravery, ability and potentiality. In contemporary Samoa, not all males have a tatau, but all males are expected to live the same embodied life and have the same embodied qualities as those of soga‘imiti described above, to enable them to serve their families and communities. A man without a tatau is not a lesser man relative to a soga‘imiti but the term soga‘imiti is nevertheless used in this thesis as representative of Samoan male with or without the tatau. This thesis is a deconstruction of the embodied life of the Samoan male as seen through the lens of the social construction of cultural and theological discourses.

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  • Mouri Tu, Mouri Moko, Mouri Ora! Moko as a wellbeing strategy

    Penehira, Mera (2011)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Waikato

    This research has been undertaken within the Health Research Council funded International Collaborative Indigenous Health Research Partnership (ICIHRP) program, “The role of resiliency in responding to blood borne viral and sexually transmitted infections in Indigenous communities”. Some Indigenous communities in Australia, New Zealand and Canada have been shown to experience higher rates of blood borne viral infections. There are a number of categories of health intervention that have been shown to be effective in prevention and enhancing access to treatment for blood borne viral infections, including various forms of health promotion, enhanced diagnostic and treatment services, and harm reduction measures related to injecting drug use. The present research was undertaken with the understanding that development of effective responses of this kind among Indigenous people would benefit from a better understanding of the social and cultural factors that might protect against these infections and their consequences. It is argued that such factors are linked in various ways to Indigenous resistance and resiliency, which is described as the means by which people choose to make use of individual and community strengths to protect themselves against adverse health outcomes and enhance their health and wellbeing. In this thesis I explore how people and their identity are affected when you are part of a marginalised or vulnerable population – namely, Māori women who have contracted the Hepatitis C Virus (HCV). I argue that traditional knowledge and healing practices are central to Māori getting well and keeping well, and that the use of cultural frameworks and practices have potentially restorative, therapeutic and healing values that are not yet researched or understood by the health field. I argue that a Māori framework of wellbeing, namely ‘Mana Kaitiakitanga’, provides the context in which tā moko (Māori traditional tattoo) fits naturally as a healing intervention. I share the stories of Māori women with HCV who have applied this (tā moko and other forms of tattoo) in their lives and in their journeys back to wellness. Tā moko is a process that penetrates the flesh and marks the skin; it is a process that involves both blood and pain, which may seem incongruous with healing. It is argued however that through pain comes understanding; through pain comes a RE-membering of strength; through pain comes joy; and finally through marking comes identity of who we are and how well we have been and can be again. Issues and intersections of identity, marginalisation, gender, health, and wellbeing are at the forefront of this research story and of the journeys of the three women whose case studies are presented in this thesis. What makes this thesis unique is that it researches all three of these potential cornerstones of health: identity; wellbeing (spiritual and emotional), and physical wellbeing, in relation to a specific health problem, namely HCV. It is intended that this work will add power to what might be viewed as a particularly Indigenous solution to a virus that disproportionately affects our Indigenous population. This is not about rejecting Western health solutions, but it is about recognising and returning to Indigenous health solutions.

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  • Lipid metabolism of mammalian erythrocytes with special reference to cellular aging : a thesis presented in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of PhD in Biochemistry at Massey University

    Winterbourn, Christine Coe

    Thesis
    Massey University

    Aspects of the lipid metabolism of mammalian erythrocytes, with special reference to changes in aging cells, have been investigated. Bovine erythrocytes and leukocytes have been incubated with labelled palmitic acid, and the incorporation of the fatty acid into each cell type has been followed. A high level of incorporation was observed with leukocytes, mainly into the phospholipids and triglycerides. Incorporated palmitate took part in chain-lengthening processes and some 14CO2 was produced during the incubations. Incorporation into the lipids of erythrocytes was very much lower than that observed for leukocytes and low leukocyte concentrations in red cell preparations accounted for a significant proportion of [1-14c] palmitate uptake into the cell lipid. The importance of accounting for the metabolic activities of residual leukocytes has been stressed. After allowing for leukocyte contributions, a significant incorporation of palmitate into erythrocyte phospholipids, in particular phosphatidyl choline and Phosphatidyl ethanolamine, was demonstrated. However, no significant uptake into the small quantities of triglyceride or cholesterol esters present in the erythrocytes could be detected. Experiments have bean carried out to examine variations in lipid content with cell age, in bovine erythrocytes fractionated by serial osmotic hemolysis. Only slight differences in cellular phospholipid or cholesterol content were found, and cholesterol:phospholipid ratios were constant in all fractions. No marked variation in cholesterol ester, triglyceride, or free fatty acid concentration with cell age could be detected. Human red cells have been fractionated according to age by ultracentrifugation over discontinuous albumin density gradients. The efficiency of such age separation was examined by following the radioactivity distribution in the gradient when rat cells were fractionated at intervals after administration of reticulocytes labelled with [14c] glycine. Considerable localisation of cells of particular ages in specific density bands was observed. Variations in lipid composition and in fatty acid uptake into the cells have been investigated. A small decrease in lipid content with cell age was detected, the decrease being most marked between the youngest and all the other fractions. It is suggested that all the changes in lipid content which occur in aging red cells could take place during the transition fron reticulocyte to erythrocyte. Incorporations of labelled linoleate into intact red cells, and linoleate and palmitate into ghosts enriched with ATP and CoA have been examined. The major cell lipids which took up the acids were phosphatidyl choline, phosphatidyl ethanolamine, components tentatively identified as phosphatidic acid and diglyceride, and an unidentified non-polar lipid. A wide range of behaviour has been observed for different normal cell populations, both in total uptake, and in the distribution of the incorporated acid. In most cases uptake was predominantly into phosphatidyl choline, but in others uptakes into phosphatidyl choline and phosphatidyl ethanolamine were comparable. The observed range of behaviour can be explained as arising from differences in concentrations of the substrates required for fatty acid incorporation in the plasma in which the cells or ghosts were incubated. Fatty acid uptakes into red cells and ghosts were also studied as a function of cell age. A wide diversity of behaviour for different blood samples was apparent. In some caseś, uptake into all components was essentially independent of cell age, but in others, uptakes into specific components showed definite trends with age. Most noteworthy were a marked increase with age in uptake into phosphatidyl ethaolamine, with essentially constant uptake into phosphatidyl choline, and a decrease in uptake into phosphatidyl choline with uptake into phosphatidyl ethanolamine remaining constant. To account for the diversity of behaviour, it is suggested that changes in either enzyme availability or conformation, affecting cellular enzyme activity, occur as the cells age, and that only for certain plasma concentrations of the substrates required for fatty acid uptake, are these changes in enzyme activity evident. In a single study, bovine erythrocytes have beon labelled in vivo with [14c] acetate, and levels of activity in the cell lipids followed. A decline in free cholesterol activity, arising from rapid equilibration with plasma cholesterol, has been demonstrated. A fall in activity that could be interpreted in terms of red cells being able to exchange some but not all of their phospholipids with plasma counterparts has also been found. Roles for triglycerides and cholesterol esters in the erythrocyte, and properties of the erythrocyte phospholipid transacylation mechanism have been discussed. The possible importance of changes in lipid constitution and lipid metabolism in red cell aging has been considered.

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  • Anarchists, Punks and Vegans - oh my! Ethnography of an anti-capitalist Community of Dissent

    Foote, David Mitchell (2009)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    Although ethnographies dealing with anti-capitalist activism, veganism or the punk scene are far from uncommon, until recently the temptation has been to view these groups as separate and distinct, rather than diffuse and overlapping. Using data gathered during interviews and participant observation in some parts of urban New Zealand, this study offers a sketch of the boundaries of the Community embodied by that overlap. Participants' own definitions for key terms such as anarchism, punk and capitalism/consumerism are presented and scrutinised in order to provide a starting point for this analysis. A lineage of thought is juxtaposed with each of these terms, with the intention of contesting some of the popular stereotypes surrounding them. The Community's own sense of difference is then explored through the responses of participants, which are analysed and some commonalities suggested. The most critical of these is the perception amongst participants of a greater engagement with their choices than they generally considered to be the case within the mainstream. Finally, some internal divisions within the Community are noted and a model for the radicalisation and mediation of dissent is suggested to explain this.

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  • Access to Marriage for Same-Sex Couples in New Zealand: A Matter of Human Rights

    Christie, Nigel (2009)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Waikato

    Scope of work undertaken: This thesis focuses on access to marriage as a fundamental human right, and the premise that there is no justifiable reason, in terms of New Zealand law, why same-sex couples should be excluded from this right. Method of investigation: This thesis is the result of participatory action research and academic analysis. I have been centrally involved with the issue of equal access to same-sex marriage and, therefore, this thesis has been an experiential exercise involving engagement with key protagonists in human rights issues in New Zealand - proponents and detractors. However, I have also considered a great deal of primary and secondary material, particularly in relation to human rights law and family law, and have considered key developments regarding relationship recognition in a range of overseas jurisdictions. Main divisions of the thesis: Part I provides introductory information, setting the objectives and the parameters of the thesis. This part also includes the methodology used in the gathering and analysis of information in the writing of this thesis. In Part II, I provide a range of information to set the context in which I have considered the issue of same-sex marriage. This includes a personal perspective, an analysis of the human rights imperatives, and a commentary on a range of issues relating to New Zealand's constitutional and social arrangements. In Part III, I consider developments in the law in New Zealand and overseas. I examine the response of the New Zealand courts, the United Nations Human Rights Committee, and the Government and Parliament of New Zealand to the call for same-sex marriage in New Zealand. I also examine legislative initiatives and court challenges in a range of overseas jurisdictions and the extent to which these have been successful in providing equal access to marriage for same-sex couples and the impact these might have on future developments in New Zealand. Finally, Part IV provides a summary of the key themes of the thesis, a consideration of options for possible future action, and suggestions with regard to ensuring future success. Conclusions reached: My conclusion is that there is no valid justification for denying full marriage equality to same-sex couples in New Zealand, and that there are steps that we can take to ensure the achievement of full and equal treatment under the law. It is my thesis that there is no valid justification for denying full marriage equality to same-sex couples in New Zealand. Contribution to knowledge of the subject This thesis provides a comprehensive analysis of law and historical fact relating to the recognition of lesbian and gay relationships in New Zealand, and in that sense, provides a cultural and historical tool for immediate use. The thesis also, however, provides a platform for future progress. I consider that it will be able to be used as a reference to shift attitudes. Much of the material in this thesis has been used already, both in New Zealand and internationally, in helping to bring about change.

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