27,549 results for Thesis

  • Can Justice be Traded for Democracy?

    Foxcroft, Debrin (2017)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Waikato

    For much of the Twentieth Century, the transition processes of democratizing states have followed a familiar pattern. Outgoing authoritarian regimes relinquished power after extracting the promise of amnesty from the incoming democratic leadership. These authoritarian leaders demanded amnesty for gross human rights violations. The incoming democratic leaders felt like they had no choice. Amnesty has consistently been viewed as a necessary price to pay for democracy. While expedient, in agreeing to amnesty the incoming democratic leaders agreed to sacrifice justice for democracy. This thesis examines the long-term consequences of the amnesty pact on the democratic state and questions whether justice can be sacrificed without ultimately undermining the basis of the democracy. While other studies have focused on the moral implications of amnesty, this work examines the functional realities. Rather than asking whether democratic elites should agree to amnesty, this work asks whether they actually can. Can measures of justice be sacrificed without fundamentally undermining the development and stability of democracy? Can the argument that amnesty is in the interest of the greater good subdue later demands for restoration or retribution? Case study methodology is employed in the examination of the political transitions of Brazil, Chile and South Africa. These countries have each employed different approach to amnesty, though all coming to the same general end. The political and social outcomes in each country speak to the fundamental consequences of amnesty legislation decades after the bargain was struck. The case studies inform my response to the larger theoretical question. This research posits the argument that there are fundamental incompatibilities between the injustice of amnesty and the fundamental requirement of justice that is characteristic of democracy; the current collapse of democracies in Brazil and South Africa, and the fundamental struggles in Chile, are, it is argued, the inevitable results of this impossible trade-off. Building on the data gained from in-country qualitative research, this thesis argues that democratic norms will either be fundamentally weakened by the continued existence and use of amnesty, or, alternatively, democratic norms will be forced to undermine the law or decree itself, compelling leaders to eventually repeal such legislation that ultimately makes democracy, in its basic foundation in justice, impossible. Either situation is highly problematic, creating the potential for instability and the possibility of regime reversal. At its core, this research suggests that the long-term negative consequences of amnesty outweigh the immediate gains made during the transition. For democracy to work, it must be built on a foundation of justice. Amnesty legislation undermines that foundation, and this is simply more than a newly democratizing state can sustain.

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  • The benefits of resistance training on blood lipid profile and body composition in Māori men : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Exercise and Sport Science, Massey University, Manawatū, New Zealand

    Coley, Karl William

    Thesis
    Massey University

    Objectives: The primary objective of this study was to determine whether 12 weeks of resistance training at time periods of three, 30 minute sessions per week would provide enough stimuli to reduce the cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk of blood lipid profile and body composition in sedentary Māori (Indigenous New Zealanders) men. Methods: The study cohort consisted of a convenience sample of 16 Māori males aged 28 – 60y. Participants completed a resistance training intervention consisting of three 30 minute sessions per week for 12 weeks. Measures of pre- and post-BMI, waist to hip ratio (WHR), body composition and fasting lipids were made. Pre-, mid-, and post-intervention assessments of strength, aerobic fitness, body composition and blood composition were also undertaken. Exercise was controlled five days prior to the testing; whilst diet was restricted ~12 hours prior to blood tests. Results: Percentage body fat was significantly lower after the 12 week resistance training intervention (P<0.196) were not significantly different after completion of the intervention. Conclusions: This was the first study to investigate the effect of half hour resistance training bouts, three times per week on male Māori as a modality to alter their CVD risk profile. These findings support the hypothesis that resistance training can improve CVD risk profile through a change in body composition; namely a reduction in percentage body fat, increase in LBM, and a reduction in LDL-c. Although in this cohort this intervention has proved effective, further studies of larger populations are required to get a stronger level of significance.

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  • Environmental decision support systems for Māori landowners : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements of the degree of Master of Environmental Management at Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand

    Orton, Sarah Louise

    Thesis
    Massey University

    Environmental Decision Support Systems (EDSS) have been used to incorporate and transfer scientific knowledge to aid decision making processes since the early 1950s. Within the literature on EDSS there is widespread agreement about the importance of stakeholder participation. In the past, researchers have often failed to carry out extensive or unbiased stakeholder participation, resulting in EDSS that do not necessarily meet user requirements. By using more effective stakeholder participation processes, researchers will be able to better incorporate their knowledge with stakeholder requirements into future EDSS, helping landowner groups remove barriers to land development and aid land use decision making. The aim of this research was to investigate how EDSS can be improved to better meet the stated needs of a particular group of landowners: Maori land trusts and incorporations in New Zealand. Initial research investigated Maori landownership issues, researching with Maori (Kaupapa Maori research) and reviewed current EDSS, concentrating specifically on New Zealand EDSS. Using Dillman’s (2000) work as a guide, a survey was developed consisting of 22 questions designed to determine the decision making needs of Maori landowners, influences on Maori landowners’ decision making, and future EDSS design. Maori landowners from Maori land trusts and incorporations in the Waiariki rohe were approached regarding participation in this research. Of the 50 groups contacted, five groups agreed to participate. In light of this research becoming a case study, further literature was reviewed to consider the strengths and weaknesses of this approach. The data collected from this survey was then analysed and used to make recommendations to aid the development of future EDSS for Maori landowners. Two limitations associated with this research are: 1) that it was the researcher’s first attempt to undertake cross-cultural research, and therefore based on a limited understanding of how to engage effectively with Maori; and 2) that only 14 participants from five Maori trusts or incorporations, all from Te Arawa entities, took part in the study. While the researcher did her best to overcome, or minimise the impact of these limitations, their impact needs to be considered in regards to the key results of this research. There were five key results from this work: 1) Building a relationship with Maori stakeholders can take time and is extremely important for the success of a research project. Researchers need to allow time to develop rapport and to establish a good working relationship with stakeholders in order to facilitate effective participation; 2) For the Maori landowners surveyed, social considerations tend to be more important than economic considerations, with 3 the long term sustainability of different options a key concern; 3) Removing barriers to land use decision making and fulfilling the other decision making requirements of Maori landowners need to be integral parts of future EDSS; 4) Maori values are interlinked, with all the values of equal importance to the Maori landowners surveyed. These values underpin the decision making processes of Maori trusts and incorporations, so researchers need to understand the linkages in order to incorporate them into future EDSS; and 5) The ability to visualise their land was the feature of greatest importance to the Maori landowners surveyed. The ability to share information with others and the ability to connect with experts are also highly desirable EDSS features for respondents.

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  • Evolution of diversity : analysis of species and speciation in Hemiandrus ground wētā : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Zoology, Massey University, New Zealand

    Smith, Briar Leigh Taylor

    Thesis
    Massey University

    Patterns of biodiversity and endemism in New Zealand are explored, with a focus on the ground weta genus Hemiandrus. I first investigated factors that determined regional levels of endemism using a generalised linear model based on analysis of 2322 species of endemic New Zealand invertebrates. I found that widespread species are uncommon in New Zealand and most invertebrates occupied few regions. Number of endemic species per region was positively correlated with total number of species and size of the region 3 million years ago. Within one clade of Hemiandrus I found that North and South Islands differed in how they were occupied: South Island had many species with small non-overlapping ranges, whereas North Island was largely dominated by a single species. This is likely due to differences in age of different parts of New Zealand, yet this pattern was absent in another clade of ground weta species, showing that properties of species themselves also have a large impact on species ranges and speciation. I applied several strategies to the Hemiandrus maculifrons species complex to test putative species boundaries (chapter 3). I compared morphological methods (Gaps in Continuous Characters across Geography (GCCG)) and genetic methods (Bayesian Species Delimitation, Rosenberg's P(AB), P(Randomly Distinct), P ID(Liberal)). Some of these strategies indicated that all or nearly all mtDNA clades tested represented separate species, while others indicated that no clades were likely to be distinct species. I concluded that H. maculifrons comprises three species (plus an under-sampled microendemic species, chapter 4); a conclusion that is discordant with the results of the “species delimitation” methods but consistent with other genetic, morphological and distributional data. Since the genus Hemiandrus was thought to comprise only nine named species but dozens of alleged species, I tested whether the purported diversity accurately reflected biological diversity in the genus or whether it was exaggerated due to speculative classification (chapter 5). To do this, I applied traditional techniques to search for qualitative or quantitative differences between individuals using a model where species are separately evolving lineages that form separate genotypic clusters with no or few intermediates when in contact (Mallet 1995). Most proposed operational taxonomic units were supported, but some names appear to be synonymies while others appear to encompass more diversity than previously recognised. I concluded that Hemiandrus comprises at least 25 species, but as specimens representing all tag-names1 1 A tag-name is an informal name that indicates an entity that may be a separate species, monophyletic group or separate interbreeding population of uncertain taxonomic rank (Leschen et al. 2009). were not available, additional diversity may exist within Hemiandrus than recognised here. Phylogenetic analysis of mtDNA sequences identified two major clades within New Zealand Hemiandrus. Using nuclear markers and morphological traits I found strong support for these two clades. Derived shared traits were identified that can determine to which clade each species belongs. Concordance between genetic markers (four loci) and morphology resolved evolutionary relationships from which I propose dividing the group into two separate genera.

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  • Te kākahu whakataratara o Ngāi Tūhoe : a thesis submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctorate in Māori Studies, Te Kunenga ki Pūrehuroa, Massey University

    McFarland, Agnes Jean

    Thesis
    Massey University

    He maha nga putake mo taku ara rangahau. He titiro ki te ahua o te whakatakoto i te reo o Ngai Tuhoe me ona tikanga hangai pu ana ki te kawa o Ngai Tuhoe. E wha nga momo reo e ata tirohia ana, ara, ko te reo okawa, ko te reo okarakia, ko te reo opaki me te reo oao e tuhia ake ana i roto i nga rerenga korero. Ma weneki kupu, ma enei whakatakotoranga o te whakaaro mo te whakapuaki korero mo te kaupapa ‘Te Kakahu Whakataratara o Ngai Tuhoe’ hai whakaatu i te rangatiratanga, te umu whakapokopoko o weneki momo korero hangai ki weneki ra ki teneki ao hurihuri ma nga whakatipuranga o Ngai Tuhoe. He whakatipu i te reo, he whakaora i te reo, he whakapakari i te hapu, i te iwi e whai ana i nga ahuatanga o te reo ki nga taumata o te hunga kaikapukapu i te reo rangatira. He painga whakaataata, he huapai whakaatu kai roto i weneki momo korero mo tena whakatipuranga, mo tena whakatipuranga hai tuhonohono i a ratau korero kia titiro whakamua, kia titiro whakamuri. Ko te whakaaro he tauira weneki tuhinga whakapae korero e tareka ai te mohio, te ako ki te whakatakoto, ki te rangahau i te kupu, i te whakaaro auaha ki roto, ki waho kia mau ai teneki momo wananga-matauranga reo a-korero, reo a-tuhi. Koia te kaupapa o teneki kaupapa ‘Te Kakahu Whakataratara o Ngai Tuhoe’ hai whakapuaki i tenei momo auaha e tipu ai he kupu, he whakaaro ka whakatau i weneki taonga, he taonga tuku iho ma Ngai Tuhoe ake. He kaupapa nui rawa weneki momo tuhituhi hai whakatipu i te kiri mohio me te kiritau e ahukahuka ai te taha rerehua, te taha wairua kia topu nga wheako auahatanga o nga korero, o Te Kakahu Whakataratara o Ngai Tuhoe hai whakatipu whakaaro hou, hai whakawhanau whakaaro hou. Ki te rapua te tino putake ki weneki taonga, korero tuku iho, kai kona ka puta te raumaharanui ki a ratau mahi kua rupeke atu nei i te tirohanga kanohi ki nga nohanga matamata. I puta, i hora ai a ratau taonga hai parepare makahu whakaruruhau mo nga kaupapa maha e piripono nei ki o tatau ngakau, ara, ko Te Kakahu Whakataratara o Ngai Tuhoe e rauhi ai ki te wairua a o tatau tipuna. He maioha karangaranga rerehua weneki hai matapono arahi i a tatau katoa ki nga putake korero e tawari, e piki ake nei. Ko weneki taonga to parepare hai taua, hai pare atu i nga whakawai, i nga ngaru whakaporearea e whakahukahuka mai nei ki tai roa, ki tai tawhiti, ki tua mai nei.

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  • Investigations into the nutritional and sensory potential of taewa (Māori potatoes) : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy, Nutritional Science, at Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand

    Wharemate, Zirsha R

    Thesis
    Massey University

    The term Taewa refers to a collection of at least 18 different potato cultivars belonging to the Solanum tuberosum family, which have been cultivated by the Maori peoples of New Zealand for at least 200 years. Due in part to its economic importance worldwide, the chemical and nutritional composition of today’s mainstream potato varieties, and the mechanisms by which composition impacts on their culinary and gastronomic properties, have been extensively researched. However few investigators have studied the nutritional, sensory or potential health properties of Taewa, or which Taewa varieties may be the most preferred for eating. Previous Taewa nutritional research has concentrated on anthocyanin, phenolic or flavonoid content and antioxidant potential, glycoalkaloid content and starch characteristics. The variation in culinary quality and different tuber pigmentation of Taewa suggest that the composition, nutritional and sensory properties of Taewa are diverse and are therefore worthy of investigation. The first goal of the PhD focused on identifying nutritionally beneficial or commercially viable properties of Maori potatoes. This was carried out by quantifying the macronutrient, selected micronutrient, phenolic and glycoalkaloid components and assessing antioxidant activity (using ORAC and FRAP analysis) of four Taewa varieties (Huakaroro, Karuparera, Moemoe, Tutaekuri) and comparing them against Nadine, a potato variety commonly available in New Zealand. Analysis was carried out on tuber flesh, tuber skin and whole tuber components over two consecutive harvests. In addition, the effects of 6 months storage at 4oC in 80-90% humidity and par-boiling on the nutrient content were also explored. The second goal of this research was to ascertain the most popular, commonly eaten and commonly grown Taewa varieties; preferred Taewa cooking and eating practices; the availability of Taewa cultivars across New Zealand and to collate information regarding marketable traits or factors that might affect Taewa consumption. In order to achieve this, group discussions were held with 25 adult participants between 18 to 75 years of age from the Manawatu region. Four key themes emerged from these discussions and were used to develop 20 questions for a larger scale survey from a wider crossection of Taewa consumers. The third goal of the research aimed to assess two characteristics of nutritional or health value (increased resistant starch in potato boiled then cooled at 4oC for 24 h) and antioxidant capacity (by measuring the total phenolic content, DPPH and FRAP potential) in four common Taewa varieties (Huakaroro, Karuparera, Moemoe, Tutaekuri) using a popular Taewa cooking practice (boiling whole with the skin on) to develop a Taewa product with improved health benefits. Consumer acceptance was then measured by assessing the sensory ratings of 56 adult volunteer subjects. Results of the nutrient analysis consistently showed all four Taewa had promising nutritional value with regards to a greater nutrient content, greater accumulation of resistant starch, greater total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity compared to Nadine. The nutrients in Taewa likely to be of most biologically significant nutritional value in comparison to Nadine and other more common NZ potato cultivars included the soluble and insoluble fibre content, the minerals potassium, magnesium and iron and the vitamins thiamine, pyridoxine and niacin. All four Taewa (particularly Tutaekuri) also showed excellent potential with regards to accumulating resistant starch and exhibiting antioxidant potential compared to Nadine. Commonly eaten Taewa varieties included Tutaekuri, Pawhero, Peruperu, Moemoe, Karuparera and Huakaroro. These Taewa varieties were also grown and eaten by residents in a greater number of regions across New Zealand than other Taewa varieties. Cooking and eating preferences included boiling them whole, unpeeled and cooked on their own; eating them hot or warm, with the skin on and seasoned with butter, salt and pepper. If destined to be pre-cooked or served cold, it was suggested that Taewa varieties should be waxy so as to hold together better, be purple or buttery-yellow to add interest with regards to visual appeal, be an appropriate size for the intended dish and have a sweet, nutty, buttery or delicate taste. New Zealanders should be encouraged to both eat and grow Taewa due to their value as a popular inexpensive food of high nutritional quality, their promise as a means through which to develop functional food products with added health benefits and their cultural significance to all New Zealanders as a unique heritage food. Government agencies, those involved in the Potato Industry, research institutions and funding agencies should be encouraged to work with Maori growers, to ensure the increased production and nationwide availability of Taewa and support the development of Taewa-based functional and snack food products in way that will be beneficial to all.

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  • A Critical Analysis of a Culturally Responsive Pedagogy Towards Improving Māori Achievement

    Richards, Stephanie Moana (2017)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    The research task presented in this thesis examines how one English medium school, provides a culturally responsive practice that ensures the improved educational achievement of Māori students. The thesis begins by looking at some of the discourses that have transpired concerning Māori and the disparity in education that has affected Māori students’ educational outcomes. It investigates kaupapa Māori approaches and interventions that came about to combat Māori education disparity and gave Māori autonomy over their own outlooks. It also focuses on Te Kotahitanga and culturally responsive pedagogy as a response in raising Māori educational achievement. This study was conducted in a kaupapa Māori and culturally responsive manner with a mixed method approach that included the triangulation of qualitative and quantitative data. Qualitative data included student, their parents and teacher voice as semi-structured interviews and quantitative data comprised of student achievement data and Te Kotahitanga teacher observation data. The discoveries are discussed as to the influence of the culturally responsive discourses that affected Māori student achievement. This study suggests that when teachers implement culturally responsive practices in their classrooms, students improve educationally. Therefore, to combat the disparity that Māori students in English medium schools experience a change in school and teacher practice needs to occur so that it reflects a culturally responsive pedagogy of relations.

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  • Treating Water Using a Perforated Electrode Flow Through Cell

    Hettiarachchi, Jayani (2017)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    Perforated Electrode Flow Through cell (PEFT cell) is an undivided electro –chlorination cell designed by the University of Waikato. A new design was developed that consists of two sets of perforated electrodes assembled in a 3D printed casing. The aim of this research was to test the new PEFT cell for chlorine production, trial it for E-coli disinfection and iron and manganese removal by coupling it to a DMI-65 column. Maximum chlorine concentration was achieved at 0.1 mol/L NaCl concentration at a flow rate of 1.8 ml/s at 5 volts and 10 amps, and a current density of 44 mA/cm2, resulting in a chlorine concentration of 510 mg/L. Chlorine production increased with increasing salt concentration but decreased with flow rate. Maximum chlorine production rate was at 0.14 mg/s.amp at 7.41 ml/s flow rate. Total inactivation of E-coli bacteria was achieved for all conditions tested. Iron and manganese removals of 92.5% and 90% respectively were achieved for synthetic bore water when the PEFT cell was coupled to a DMI-65 column.

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  • User preferences for the design of interfaces for library search pages

    Feng, Chun (2017)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    As the digital revolution continues and the use of the Internet further develops, digital libraries have become an important tool for communication and development of digital culture during the Internet era. Digital libraries will also play a more important role in the future development of digital culture and society. Searching for both printed books and E-books is now frequently done through a digital library interface. This is important when considering the development of digital media and mobile devices. People will have a preference for how they interact with a mobile device to search a digital library. How do people search for books? What is required in a digital library interface on a mobile device? Do people have a preference for how they search for books on a mobile device? What are the factors that affect people's preferences for library search interfaces on a mobile device? These are the main issues that need to be explained and studied in this thesis. The features of a digital library interface on a mobile device can affect people's preferences. There are nine features that could help to improve library search interface design, which involves book title, author, publisher, time, little book cover, bigger book cover, introduction, location, and price. This research concerns on assessment of people’s display preferences for digital library interfaces on a mobile device. The researcher investigates examples of different library search interfaces to assess people’s display preferences for a library search interface on a mobile device. By analyzing and discussing the results of this research, the researcher investigates the factors that affect people's preferences for library search interfaces on a mobile device. This thesis shows different preferences of readers for different library search interfaces. The conclusion is that people who participated prefer different factors of the digital library search interfaces on a mobile device. People with different backgrounds tend to prefer the traditional library search interface with book title, author, publisher, time, and little book cover. This trend is not affected by the order of examples of different library search interfaces.

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  • An Anatomy of Feedback - A phenomenographic investigation into undergraduate students' experiences of feedback

    McLean, Angela (2012)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    Feedback is considered to be a fundamental part of the learning process and is a critical link that connects students’ and teachers’ activities. However, definitions of feedback in the higher education literature are problematic. For example, views of feedback seem to be mechanistic in nature and isolated from the learning context; there is minimal contribution of students’ perspectives in these views; and, there is an assumption on the part of researchers of a common understanding as to what feedback actually is. In addition, the ways in which students respond to feedback are not well understood. Therefore, an objective of this research was to investigate students’ experiences or conceptions of feedback, in order to determine the underlying meaning that feedback has for students. A further objective was to investigate students’ responses or ‘approaches’ to feedback. Data were collected from 28 undergraduate physiotherapy students via individual, semi-structured interviews and then analysed using a phenomenographic approach in order to determine the ‘what’ or referential aspects, and the ‘how’ or structural aspects, of students’ conceptions of feedback. The focus was on the variation across the data, as well as on the relationships between the different experiences in the data. The ways in which students responded to or approached feedback were also analysed with regard to these relationships. One main finding of this study was the identification of a superordinate notion across the data of feedback as ‘information’. However, results indicated that students experienced feedback as ‘information’ in four qualitatively different ways. These differing experiences or conceptions were designated as A: Feedback as ‘telling’, B: Feedback as ‘guiding’, C: Feedback as ‘developing understanding’ and D: Feedback as ‘opening up a different perspective’. These four categories of description represent the outcome space for the research. Each category was subsumed by the next and what was emphasised changed as the categories expanded, demonstrating a relationship of increasing inclusivity and complexity between the categories. Another finding of this study was the variety of factors identified by students as influencing their responses or approaches to feedback. If sufficiently significant, these factors formed barriers to responding to feedback. Furthermore, results revealed a relationship between students’ conceptions of feedback and their responses or approaches to feedback. The relationship was inverted: the more inclusive the conception of feedback, the less barriers there were to responding to feedback. Several conclusions emerge from this research. The results of this research validate the assumption made by researchers of a common understanding of feedback as ‘information’. This feedback information, however, is experienced and responded to in differing ways, relating to students’ underlying conceptions of feedback. In presenting students’ voices, this study provides a view of feedback that is integrally connected to students’ learning contexts. This research also has implications for teachers. Understanding how students conceptualise or experience feedback provides teachers with insights on how to engage students with meaningful feedback. Engagement with feedback, including reflecting on feedback, is a crucial part in developing self-regulation of learning.

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  • The individual child : study of the development of social services in education in relation to the first Labour government's educational policy

    Goodyear, Rosemary Katherine (1987)

    Undergraduate thesis
    University of Otago

    The subject of this study is the effect which the policy of the individual child, as expressed by the Labour Government in 1939, had on the development of social services in education. This development was examined chiefly from 1935-1948, but the requirements of the study meant that the inclusion of material from outside this time period was necessary. Social services have been interpreted to mean those services which developed to cater for the emotional and physical well being of a child. The emphasis of this study is on the services which developed in the context of the primary and secondary school systems : health services in schools, Vocational guidance and careers advisory service, the Visiting Teachers service, and lastly the Psychological service. Since the Child Welfare Division of the Department of Education comes outside this definition, it is not specifically included in this study. A variety of primary sources form the basis of this work. The Appendices to the Journal of the House of Representatives proved a valuable source, and gave the basic facts of the development of social services in education. The substance of my essay was largely derived from the Education and Health Department files at National Archives in Wellington. Examination of these files was time consuming due to the large volume of material which had to be sifted through. This effort was amply rewarded by the insights gained into the inner workings of the services, the problems, personalities, and developments. Letters from the public included in these files also gave an account of how the community viewed these changes. Some of the material in Chapter IV was based on an oral history exercise on the development of the Visiting Teachers Service in Otago, which I researched in 1986. I placed great importance on my interview with Dr C.E. Beeby, and on his article in the Listener because he was Director of Education at the time. His contribution to the development of social services in education was decisive. Allowance had to be made for a natural bias, but he gave an insight into the changes in education, and contributed a sense of the personalities of the time. Some secondary sources were very useful in checking information. Education Today and Tomorrow provided a clear statement of the Labour Government's policy on education. Ralph Winterbourn's Guidance Services in New Zealand Education was a good reference book, since he was another important personality in education during this period. The development of the policy of the 'individual child' was extremely important since it set the theoretical basis in education until the present day. In 1986 Dr C.E. Beeby wrote "For me, the most important discovery in education over this century has been the discovery by the school system of the individual child".

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  • Predisposition to Non Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Preterm Guinea Pigs

    Barnes, Heather (2017)

    Undergraduate thesis
    University of Otago

    Background: Preterm birth accounts for ~10% of all births and is now an established risk factor for the development of metabolic syndrome, a cluster of conditions responsible for significant morbidity and mortality in New Zealand. The mechanisms underlying the development of Non alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD, the hepatic manifestation of metabolic syndrome) in the ex-preterm are unknown at present. This project investigated potential differences between term and preterm born guinea pigs in the biological pathways believed to be associated with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, including metabolism, and molecular and physiologic changes within the liver. Methods: Guinea pigs were delivered spontaneously at term (~GA69days), or prematurely by pharmacological induction of labour (GA62; equivalent to 32 weeks in humans). Fasting blood sugar levels (BSL) were taken at birth, and weekly thereafter. At corrected postnatal age (CPNA) 28 days (equivalent to early childhood in humans), glucose tolerance tests were performed, followed by euthanasia and collection of tissues. The prevalence of NALFD at CPNA 28 days was investigated using a NAFLD activity score based on histological methods and stains to visualise steatosis (oil red o), fibrosis (Masson’s trichome) and inflammation (H&E) in the liver. To observe hepatic alterations at a molecular level, amino acid profiles were assessed by liquid chromotography-tandem mass spectroscopy (LC-MS/MS). Results: Lower BSL at birth was observed in preterms compared to terms (p=0.001), however, BSL was higher in preterms than term counterparts at TEA (p<0.001) an amino acid associated with hepatic steatosis. Conclusions: Prematurity results in significant changes to hepatic metabolic function in the neonate. This deficit is reduced upon reaching term equivalent age, however molecular and physiological changes within the liver persisted into early childhood. In identifying metabolic, molecular and physiological alterations in the preterm guinea pig this study has begun to elucidate the pathways involved in preterm susceptibility to NAFLD and provided a solid platform for treatment.

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  • Arts, Peacebuilding and Decolonization: A Comparative Study of Parihaka, Mindanao and Nairobi

    Ayindo, Babu (2017)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    In the last two decades, research on the ‘power of the arts’ in building peace has increased to a level where one can legitimately make the claim that there now exists an emerging, or perhaps even a resurgent, academic field of arts-based peacebuilding. However, very few studies examine the ‘power of the arts’ in resolving conflicts with emphasis on the particularities of ‘post-colonial’ environments. Specifically, there is a dearth of literature that examines the differences and continuities between historical and arts-based contemporary practices for peace, considering how such factors as colonialism and neo-colonialism have influenced and continue to impact upon practices. Deploying a decolonizing lens, this study seeks to contribute to filling this gap in literature by exploring how arts-based initiatives, while composing works and processes of meaning, beauty, and imagination, simultaneously work towards breaking the apparent cycles of violence in ‘post-colonial’ contexts. The study focuses on arts-practices and approaches in three ‘post-colonial’ sites: Parihaka/Taranaki in Aotearoa/New Zealand; Mindanao region in Philippines; and urban Nairobi in Kenya. It is my thesis that the nature of Indigenous arts practices provides a platform and resource both for a (re)discovery of Indigenous wisdom from colonial legacy (particularly of artistic and cultural destruction) and creative decolonizing responses to conflicts in ‘post-colonial’ environments. To operate at full potential and contribute to epistemic diversity and plurality of arts-based practice, the process of decolonization needs be an integral part of building JustPeace through context-specific initiatives that focus on rediscovery, resistance, conscientization, healing and dialogue. In addition, this manuscript provides valuable insights into peace and nonviolence cultures that predated and have survived colonialism, and continue to constructively explore creative responses within a pervasive colonial matrix of power. As the findings from three case studies show, these Indigenous cultures of peace and nonviolence were, and continue to be, encoded in orature and other hybridized arts. In this spirit, this thesis also reexamines dominant assumptions on the ‘power of the arts’ in building peace and establishes the need to validate, elevate and amplify Indigenous Peacebuilding. The thesis also provides practical suggestions and recommendations to scholars and practitioners engaged in arts-based peacebuilding in ‘post-colonial’ contexts.

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  • A novel central pathway for sympathetic activation in the early stages following an acute myocardial infarction

    Roy, Ranjan Kumer (2017)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    Acute myocardial infarction (MI) initiates an adverse and sustained increase in cardiac sympathetic nerve activity (SNA), which begins as early as 30 min after the infarct, provoking arrhythmias and is a leading factor for the high mortality rate within the ensuing hours. The mechanism(s) responsible for the increase in cardiac SNA following MI remain to be fully elucidated, however, increased cardiac SNA likely culminates from interactions between various peripheral neural reflexes and the central integration of these signals, involving several hypothalamic and brainstem nuclei, in particular, the paraventricular nucleus (PVN), supraoptic nucleus (SON), subfornical organ (SFO), nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS), rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM), and area postrema (AP). The primary aim of this study was to determine the relative role of these brainstem and hypothalamic nuclei in triggering sympathetic activation in early stages of acute MI. Once the adverse increase in cardiac SNA is fully established, in chronic heart failure, it is essentially irreversible. However, in the early stages following acute MI, it appears possible to effectively prevent or reverse the initial increase in SNA. However, this “early period” is not well defined in the literature. Hence, the first objective of this study was to establish a precise time course of cardiac SNA in early stage of acute MI. The advanced technique of electrophysiology recording directly from the cardiac sympathetic nerve was used to record SNA continuously before and then for four hours following acute MI so as to establish a precise time profile for the increase in SNA following acute MI. The results showed that cardiac SNA began to increase within min following acute MI, reaching significance by 14 min post-MI (34 ± 8% increase in SNA) (n = 8, F (15, 180) = 5.20, P < 0.0001, two-way RM ANOVA). The second objective of this study was to ‘map’ the key brain nuclei responsible for sympathetic activation, in particular the PVN, SON, SFO, AP as well as the NTS, RVLM. Fos protein expression was used as a marker of neuronal activation. Interestingly, as early as 90 min post-MI, all nuclei of interest showed increased neuronal activation. In particular, the parvocellular division of PVN, which comprises pre-autonomic neurons that are heavily implicated in sympathetic activation, showed a higher degree of neuronal activation. e.g. neuronal activation within the parvocellular division of PVN for MI rats was 100% higher than that of sham rats (P = 0.0012, unpaired t-test). Given that the PVN comprises a diverse population of phenotypically different neurons, the third objective of this study was to identify the phenotype of the activated parvocellular neurons using double-label immunohistochemistry. Pre-autonomic parvocellular neurons express oxytocin, vasopressin, endorphin, dynorphin, somatostatin, enkephalin, corticotropin-releasing hormone and growth hormone-releasing hormone. The results revealed that there was increased activation of the parvocellular oxytocin neurons in MI rats (19 ± 2 cells / section, n = 8) than in sham rats (11 ± 2 cells / section, n = 8; P = 0.002, unpaired t-test). Only a sub-population of the parvocellular pre-autonomic oxytocin neurons project to the RVLM, and it is these neurons that have the potential to modulate SNA. Therefore, the fourth objective of this study was to determine whether those parvocellular PVN oxytocin neurons that are activated following MI do project to the RVLM. To do this a retrograde tracer was injected into the RVLM one week prior to the experimental induction of an MI. We then used double-label immunohistochemistry to show that, of all parvocellular PVN oxytocin neurons that project to the RVLM, ~30% are activated following MI (compared to ~0% for sham rats), suggesting that these activated oxytocin neurons likely contribute to the observed increase in SNA following acute MI. To test the final hypothesis that activated oxytocin neurons significantly contribute to sympathetic activation following MI, the technique of electrophysiology was once again used to record changes in cardiac SNA following MI. Importantly, one cohort of MI rats were injected with Retosiban (3 mg / ml), a potent oxytocin receptor antagonist, within 10 min of the acute MI. Remarkably, in those MI rats injected with Retosiban, the increase in cardiac SNA was completely prevented (n = 8, F (2, 15) = 12.37, P = 0.0007, two-way RM ANOVA) and, importantly, mortality rate was reduced from 40% to 11% (P < 0.05, Kaplan-Meier survival analysis). In conclusion, this study provides compelling evidence that PVN oxytocin neuronal activation play a crucial role in triggering an adverse increase in SNA in the early stages following acute MI. Importantly, the results from this study advocate oxytocin receptor blockers as a promising and novel therapeutic strategy for the immediate treatment of MI.

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  • A Case Study of Industrial Injury Reduction: New Zealand Aluminium Smelters Limited

    Young, Stephen Alan (2013)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    Research aim: To assess the safety performance of New Zealand Aluminium SmeltersLimited (NZAS), 1971-2011. Research objectives sought 1) to quantify the NZAS safety improvement, and 2) to describe interventions used to achieve that improvement. Method: NZAS quantitative data was interrogated for statistical significance. Qualitative data was gathered from NZAS staff (N=23) to substantiate the decrease in lost-time injuries (LTI) and to identify the interventions used. Results: The LTI decrease was significant. Key interventions identified were automation, personal protective equipment, incident investigation resulting in workplace alterations, and proprietary behavioural programmes. The interventions were consistent with hierarchy of controls methodology. An ergonomic focus was the most prominent moderating effect on the success of the interventions. This was demonstrated by plotting interventions on a hazard intervention effectiveness matrix. Summary: NZAS achieved a significant decrease in LTI’s primarily through ergonomically-focused interventions, representing a successful manifestation of thehierarchy of controls methodology.

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  • PKCε Phosphorylation of RyR2: A Novel Link between Diabetes and Arrhythmia.

    Wong, Alexander (2017)

    Undergraduate thesis
    University of Otago

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in the world. Arrhythmia is a type of CVD which can be caused by store overload induced calcium (Ca2+) release (SOICR) in cardiomyocytes. SOICR occurs through the cardiac ryanodine receptor (RyR2). RyR2 phosphorylation is known to be a cause of SOICR. Patients with diabetes (DM) have an increased risk of arrhythmia as well as an increase in RyR2 phosphorylation by certain kinases. One kinase activated in DM is Protein Kinase C (PKC). PKC isoforms; α,ε, β2 and δ have an increased activity in the DM heart. Our study aimed to determine the effect of PKC on RyR2 in regard to SOICR. We hypothesised that activation or overexpression of PKC would result in an increase in SOICR consistent with RyR2 phosphorylation by other kinases. SOICR was examined in HEK293 cells expressing RyR2 with or without PKC overexpression in the presence and absence of a PKC activator (Dic8) and inhibitor (Go6983). Dic8, as well as Go6983, resulted in an increase in the occurrence of SOICR. Recent studies in the lab show that ATP analogues directly affect RyR2 resulting in SOICR, making the results of Go6983 hard to interpret. Overexpression of PKCα, with or without Dic8, resulted in small increase in the occurrence of SOICR. However, overexpression of PKCε, with or without Dic8, resulted in a large increase in the occurrence of SOICR. The propensity for SOICR is determined by the sensitivity of RyR2 to sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca2+. To study if PKC altered the sensitivity of RyR2 to SR Ca2+a SR targeted Ca2+ sensing protein, D1ER, was used. Overexpression of PKCα resulted in no change in the sensitivity of RyR2 to SR Ca2+, however, consistent with the increase in the propensity for SOICR, PKCε resulted in an increase in the sensitivity of RyR2 to SR Ca2+. Our data indicate that akin to other kinases, PKCε can increase SOICR through the RyR2 due to an increase in RyR2’s sensitivity to SR Ca2+. These findings may represent a novel link through which DM mediated changes in cell signalling increase the risk of arrhythmias.

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  • The Military Character of Plato???s Republic

    Carpenter, Richard (2010)

    Masters thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    This thesis examines the military character of Plato???s Republic, and is driven by two key concerns: First, to demonstrate and explain warfare???s importance as both an influence on, and factor within, the argument of the Republic; second, to explore the way in which Plato, as a fourth century BC Greek intellectual, engages with his social, cultural, military, and intellectual context with regards to warfare. I begin with an overview of the Republic???s argument, emphasising the prevalence of military content in the text. I then proceed to the question of Plato???s participation in and experience of warfare, offering a tentative account of his life to the time of the Corinthian War. Finally, I situate the Republic within its military context at the date of its composition, whilst emphasising key points of historical interest. In Chapter One I discuss the influence of warfare on the social structure of Plato???s just city. I look at the evolution of Kallipolis from Socrates??? first and second cities, and I emphasise warfare???s role as a driving force enabling the city to achieve the condition of true justice. I then discuss the three-class ordering at Kallipolis, emphasising the lifelong military participation of the guardian class generally, and the guardian-rulers particularly. In Chapter Two I look at the importance of warfare to Kallipolis??? educational system and distinguish the two forms of education conducted at Kallipolis: The first, cultural and physical training targeted at the entire guardian class; the second, mathematical and dialectical instruction targeted at the guardian-rulers. I also look at the question of the philosopher-kings??? motivation to rule, which, I suggest, is connected to the quality of selfsacrifice developed over the course of their military participation. In Chapter Three I take an explicitly historical approach to the Republic???s military content as an aid to understanding better Plato???s philosophical purposes. In this chapter I consider the following points: Plato???s largely traditional approach to military training; the operational concerns of Kallipolis??? army; the inclusion of females as warriors; and, finally, the limitations Socrates imposes on warfare in Book V.

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  • Young Pacific Male Athletes and Positive Mental Wellbeing

    Marsters, Caleb (2017)

    Masters thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Background: Recent studies and increased media reporting across Australasia have linked young Pacific male elite athletes to depression, suicide, and other adverse mental health-related events. Despite these events, little is known about positive mental wellbeing and young Pacific male athletes. Aim: This research aimed to explore young Pacific male athletes??? perceptions of what contributes to positive mental wellbeing and peak performance at an elite level of sport. It is believed that this research will provide useful information to better support the mental health and wellbeing needs of young Pacific male athletes. Methodology: This qualitative study conducted in-depth face-to-face interviews with 20 young Pacific males (16-24 years) engaged in elite rugby league or rugby union programmes in Auckland. Interviews were semi-structured and underpinned by the Health Research Council of New Zealand???s (2014) Pacific Health Research Guidelines. A grounded theory approach was used for data analysis. Findings: Participants defined positive mental wellbeing as being holistic and emphasised the importance of family support and reciprocity, a well-balanced life, performing well, and personal development. Risk factors for athletes??? mental wellbeing included familial pressures, a lack of alternative activities and interests away from sports, difficulties transitioning to an elite level of sport, performance-related issues such as dips in form, injuries, alcohol misuse, and stigma around mental illness. Key protective factors for positive mental wellbeing for these athletes included family support, the support of their significant other, Christian faith and spirituality, the ???brotherhood???, a secure ???Pacific athlete??? identity, personal development, and supportive sports organisations. This study recognised that sports organisations, schools, Pacific families, and Pacific communities need to engage more actively with young Pacific males to reduce stigma around mental illness, increase awareness of mental health, and openly discuss issues around mental wellbeing. Conclusion: Recommendations from this study provide evidence-based strategies for promoting and supporting positive mental wellbeing among young Pacific male athletes. This research may be of benefit for elite sports organisations and their staff, schools, sports coaches, sport administrators, mental health professionals, health services, researchers, Pacific communities, and Pacific families to ensure the young Pacific males of this country thrive and flourish.

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  • Departures, Wanderings and Homecomings

    McFadyen, Marc (2016)

    Masters thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    This essay discusses filial-??father relationships in the biographical accounts of artists, and considers the life and work of these artists from both allegorical and psychological standpoints. Such filial precedents have informed my own art making in relation to past experiences with my late father. In a sense, my art asks to what depths do we create out of, or are influenced by our father experiences? Part One looks at Eastern and Western artists who give experiential and aesthetical form to filial-??father relationships. My observations are framed as both a metaphorical and literal type of filial-??father journey, invoking departures, schisms, wanderings and reconciliations. The 'journeys' acknowledge, historical, cultural, political, and spiritual influences, and addresses the constant shifting climate causing the 'filial-??father journey' to simultaneously diversify. Part Two looks at fathering from the perspectives of different fields of social science. It reflects on the possible direct and indirect connectivity between father experiences and an artist's disposition. In order to delve into the topic's psychological underpinnings, attention is given to early childhood development in recent research findings; the positive and negative repercussions of fathering experiences in correlation to cognitive and emotional functioning. It focusses on the relevancy of traumatic father experiences in connection with a person's identity, emotional make up and creative articulation. It touches on topics such as abuse, trauma, self-??esteem, trust, and validation. The focus on fathering and father figures is in no way meant to diminish the important role a mother plays in a daughter's or a son's life. The substantiated biological and emotional knowledge of mother-??child research is vastly ahead of what scientists and therapists know about fathering impacts. Science journalist Paul Raeburn laments the recent historical perspective disparaging the roles of fathers in his 2014 publication, "Do Fathers Matter?" Raeburn reports on the general consensus during the 1970's that, "the irrelevancy of fathers had become an article of faith among researchers." (Raeburn 6) This 'irrelevancy' has slowly begun to be rethought, and this essay in some ways attempts to contemplate and address that imbalance through certain parallels in the creative arts. Furthermore, the single paternal focus stems from a 2015 photographic research project I began in order to find out about my Fijian-??European father who passed away in 1997. The research included interviewing family and friends that knew my father, including three half-??brothers and two half-??sisters from my father's first marriage. The fact that we had different mothers but shared the same father meant there was a discernible set of experiences and consistent characteristics, which appeared plainly traceable back to our father. Additional research involved a first time trip to Fiji to meet my family relatives and explore Suva, Fiji, where my father came from. Aside from the interviews, a lot of the photographic documentation is situated around a Rotuman welcoming ceremony called "Mamasa", which literally means 'to be dry'. It has traditionally been a celebration for welcoming back those returning from seafaring journeys. Because of the large percentage of Rotumans living on the main Fiji Islands of Viti Levu and Vanua Levu, the ceremony has gradually been adapted to welcoming family kin who may have been born abroad but who make the passage back to visit or reunite with relatives. Photography has been an important medium for my 'journey', not only in documenting this family reconnection but also in a metaphorical contextualisation. The photographic processes of receiving light, photosensitivity, and fixing of images, mirror the processes of my attempts to bridge the familial and personal psychological expanses, and fix an image of my own familial belonging. The chemical wet processes of analogue photography, such as washing and fixing negatives, also find various parallels in the Mamasa's ceremonial symbolism. The journey I embarked on was with an intention to make sense of earlier experiences with my father and how that has affected my identity. Though the record of my sojourn in Suva reveals moments of clarity, it also acknowledges the indistinct opaqueness through which paternal experiences and family histories often veil themselves.

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  • Nonlinear Techniques for Optical Wavelength Conversion

    Provo, Richard (2010)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    This thesis describes the studies performed for the implementation and characterisation of various nonlinear optical wavelength conversion techniques. The experimental work presented within this thesis is accompanied by discussion of the practical considerations necessary for the successful implementation of the nonlinear wavelength conversion techniques described. The primary focus of this thesis and the largest body of experimental research is on the experimental characterisation of the four wave mixing effect of Bragg Scattering in optical fibers. Experimental and numerical characterisations of this process have been performed. The studies have enabled the phase matching condition, conversion efficiencies and bandwidth to be measured for this effect in a highly nonlinear fiber. The phase matching curve has been measured for two fibers with opposite sign ??4 dispersion coefficients and an experimental implementation of a transparent high-speed optical switch based on this effect has also been demonstrated for the first time. The interfering effects of competing nonlinear processes have been investigated and the impact of zero dispersion wavelength fluctuations have been studied. Additionally this process has been used to recover the dispersion parameters for two highly nonlinear fibers and the error free transmission of a 10Gb/s data signal over 33nm has demonstrated. The four wave mixing effect of Bragg Scattering has also been investigated in the active medium of nonlinear semiconductor optical amplifiers. Several experimental procedures are outlined for the use of this effect for wavelength conversion applications. A direct experimental comparison has been performed between Bragg Scattering and Modulation Instability for wavelength conversion of data signals in these devices with Bragg Scattering demonstrating an improved performance over the single pump process. Bragg Scattering has been used to effect the wavelength conversion of both multiple data channels and high speed data signals. Two 10Gb/s data channels spaced at both 50 and 100GHz were successfully converted and single channel conversion was demonstrated at speeds as high as 80Gb/s. The third topic investigated concerns wavelength conversion in nonlinear crystals. The construction of two 10Gb/s sources has been demonstrated for the characterisation of novel micro-structured plastic fibers. Sum frequency and second harmonic generation were both used for the generation of a 10Gb/s source in the visible. This source was used to demonstrate the first successful transmission of a 10Gb/s data signal through a micro-structured polymer optical fiber.

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