27,161 results for Thesis

  • Self-Regulation During A Reading-To-Write Task: A Sociocultural Theory-Based Investigation

    Wall, Bunjong (2015)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    Most composition studies focus on students’ writing processes and written products without integrating reading into their research activities. More recently, researchers have acknowledged the reciprocal reading-writing relationship and begun to examine reading-to-write or discourse synthesis processes. Research shows that discourse synthesis is cognitively demanding and that most second language writers lack linguistic, mental, and sociocultural resources to perform this task effectively. Existing studies have not emphasised the role of self-directed speech as a self-regulatory strategy while students read multiple texts in order to write. This thesis addresses this gap in the literature. Informed by sociocultural theoretical notions that cognition is socially mediated and that speech is instrumental in learning and development, this qualitative multiple-case-studies thesis examined how five Thai EFL tertiary students applied their knowledge and skills, following explicit concept-based instruction on discourse synthesis, textual coherence, and argumentation. The researcher designed and delivered a four-week intervention in which the learning concepts, materials, and verbalisation were instrumental in promoting conceptual understanding and reading-to-write performance. Explicitly taught verbalisation or self-directed speech, together with learning materials specifically designed as schemes for task orientation, was a key for self-regulation as participants read multiple texts in order to compose an argument essay. The study adopted an activity theoretical framework and microgenetic analysis. The analysis aimed to describe the participants as social beings and to outline their self-regulation as it unfolded during a mediated reading-to-write activity. Data from a pre-task questionnaire on strategy use and from a post-task written self-reflection form together with video-recorded data during the end-of-intervention discourse synthesis task and interview data were triangulated to examine how reading-to-write activities were mediated and regulated. Findings were organised around four main themes: participants as readers and writers of English, essay argument structure, microgenetic findings of unfolding self-regulatory behaviour during the discourse synthesis activity, and developmental gains as perceived by the participants during concept-based instruction. The findings in this study show that participants’ reading and writing difficulties and argumentation were, in part, shaped by the social, historical and cultural factors in the Thai EFL context, and that participants’ strategic application of verbalisation and learning materials mediated their developmental changes and self-regulation. During the discourse synthesis task, participants used self-directed speech as a strategy and demonstrated varying degrees of self-regulation over various task aspects. Successful task completion indicated purposeful mediated learning with strong orientation towards the task, based on conceptual understanding, specific goals, and voluntary inclusion of learning materials as psychological tools. All participants reportedly viewed verbalisation as a useful strategy and most participants were able to describe their increased theoretical understanding of the concepts explicitly taught. However, their conceptual understanding did not always translate into their actual performance. These findings raise pedagogical implications and highlight the need for human mediators to make explicit the learning concepts, materials and strategies, so that theoretical understanding and learning tools can lead to meaningful task performance. Based on the above findings, this thesis proposes a self-regulation model and calls for future research to investigate how explicit verbalisation training can be systematised.  

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  • Hostility in the House of God: An "Interested" Investigation of the Opponents in 1 and 2 Timothy

    Thornton, Dillon T. (2015)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    To my knowledge, Pietersen’s study (2004) is the only monograph published in the last twenty years that has focused on the opponents in the Pastoral Epistles, but his work is not exegetical. In this thesis, I concentrate on 1 and 2 Timothy, the two letters purportedly dispatched to Ephesus. I assemble the relevant pericopae of the letters and offer an exegetical analysis of them, with the intention of providing, first, a composite sketch of the ideology of the opposing group and, second, an in-depth account of the way the faithful Pauline community was to engage these opponents. The first chapter of the thesis is devoted to preliminary issues and methodology. I argue that 1 and 2 Timothy constitute two types of letter, both dispatched in the late first century to the Christian community in Ephesus, each addressing a stage of the conflict in which the community was engaged. I further argue that the polemical portions of the letters reveal specific information about this conflict. I then formulate a stringent method for the study of Paul’s opponents. I summarize and critique historical-critical methodologies and bring the most recent work on theological interpretation of Scripture into dialogue with these methodologies. The result is a new approach to the study of opponents, one that remains rigorously tethered to the primary text and that is characterized by ecclesial concern. In chapters two to six, I apply this method to 1 and 2 Timothy. In chapter two, I offer an exegetical analysis of the explicit units of 1 Timothy, those units where we have clear and certain reference to the opponents (1:3-7, 18-20; 4:1-5; 6:2b-5, 20-21a). Chapters three and four focus on the implicit units in 1 Timothy, those units where we have highly probable reference to the opponents (1:8-11; 2:9-15; 4:6-10; 5:9-16; 6:6-10). In chapter five, I turn to 2 Timothy, analyzing the three explicit units (2:14-26; 3:1-9; 4:1-5) and the one implicit unit of the letter (2:8-13). In chapter six, I bring together the full gamut of data uncovered in the exegetical chapters, offering overall conclusions about the opponents in 1 and 2 Timothy. As a follow-up to this, I enumerate what I perceive to be the most important implications of the findings for the house of God today. My findings may be summarized as follows. I conclude that the opponents came from within the Christian community in Ephesus and that their teaching is best described as an erroneous eschatological position that derived from the complexity of Paul’s views. Each doctrinal and ethical issue raised in the explicit and implicit units of the letters can be explained as a distortion of Pauline doctrine. Additionally, I contend that the opponents had an active “didactic/evangelistic ministry” in Ephesus, for which they received remuneration. They likely set out to recruit as large a following, and as large an income, as possible, but found a particularly fruitful field among the women in Ephesus. As I formulate my view of the opponents, I critique a number of the extant theories, including “Gnostic,” Jewish, and Proto-Montanist identifications. I also conclude that the author engages with the false teachers in significant ways throughout the letters. I draw attention to a number of literary and theological maneuvers that are intended to counteract the opponents’ influence and/or to bolster the faithful community’s confidence as they struggle against the opponents. These include the way the author turns features of the opponents against them, his use of the faithful saying formula, the way he relates the Triune God and the principal adversary, Satan, to the opponents, and the way the author portrays the gospel as an unstoppable force in his own ministry. Though the author pictures the opponents as enemies of God, he also highlights the fact that the opponents are not beyond the reach of God’s grace; thus, Timothy is called to minister the saving word to them. In the explicit and implicit units, the author instructs Timothy to occupy himself with five specific activities: reflection on his commissioning and on the apostolic gospel, rejection of the opponents’ claims, proclamation of the healthy teaching, demonstration of the gospel in actions that are pleasing to God, and correction of the false teachers themselves. The wider faithful community is at least implicitly included in the activities of rejection, demonstration, and correction.

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  • Dissolved organic matter in New Zealand natural waters

    Gonsior, Michael (2008)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    xi, 186 leaves :ill. (some col.), col. maps ; 30 cm. Includes bibliographical references. "1st of April 2008". University of Otago department: Chemistry.

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  • Public Theology, Core Values and Domestic Violence in Samoan Society

    Ah Siu-Maliko, Mercy (2015)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    The purpose of this research is to formulate a theologically coherent perspective on the complex social and moral questions facing contemporary Samoan society. It does so by constructing a contextual Samoan public theology, based on the core Samoan-Christian values of alofa (love), fa’aaloalo (respect), soalaupule (consensual dialogue), tautua (selfless service) and amiotonu (justice). Drawing on scholarship on public theology, as well as relevant interdisciplinary sociological, cultural and religious studies, the thesis examines the nature and constituent elements of public theology, both in the West and in Samoa. To construct a framework for a public theology for Samoa based on its core values, the study examines the significance of the fa’asamoa (Samoan way of life) and its value system. Key to this framework is an understanding of the fusion between Samoan values and Christian values. Because ‘the public’ are the subjects of public theology, a crucial element of the construction of a Samoan public theology is the incorporation of the views of representative voices within Samoan society. Using constructivist grounded theory and talanoa Pacific research methodologies, seventy-five interviews from representatives of government, civil society, churches and villages garner valuable information on Samoans’ core values and their relevance for a public theology. The information on core values gleaned from research participants and other scholarship reveals how they can be brought to bear on social issues in the Samoan public sphere – the ‘why, who, what and how’ of a Samoan public theology. This collective knowledge suggests concrete ways of shaping theological discourse and moral action in contemporary Samoan society. The thesis ends with a contextual application of core Samoan-Christian values, as a public theology response to the social problem of domestic violence in Samoa.

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  • The X-ray Crystal Structure of Alanine Racemase from Acinetobacter baumannii

    Davis, Emily (2015)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    Acinetobacter baumannii is an opportunistic Gram-negative bacterium, which is a common cause of hospital acquired infections. Numerous antibiotic resistant strains exist, emphasising the need for developing new antimicrobials. Alanine racemase is a pyridoxal 5’-phosphate dependent enzyme, responsible for racemisation between enantiomers of alanine. As D-alanine is an essential component of the bacterial cell wall, its inhibition is lethal to prokaryotes, making it an excellent antibiotic drug target. In this study, A. baumannii alanine racemase (AlrAba) was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. A purification protocol was then developed involving ammonium sulphate fractionation and chromatography steps (Hydrophobic interaction, anion exchange and size exclusion). This purification protocol was able to produce 11.5 mg/L of AlrAba with a purity of greater than 95 %. The kinetic parameters of AlrAba were determined using spectrometric coupled enzyme activity assays. The Vmax and Km for the L-alanine to D-alanine reaction were found to be 220.5 U/mg and 1.56 mM, respectively. The Vmax and Km for the D-alanine to L-alanine reaction were found to be 11.3 U/mg and 0.56 mM, respectively. AlrAba was successfully crystallised and the structure was determined using X-ray crystallography. The structure was initially solved to 1.9 Å resolution via molecular replacement using the monomer of Pseudomonas aeruginosa alanine racemase as the search model. The final structure had an Rfactor of 19.7 % and an Rfree of 23.4 %. The resolution was then extended to 1.65 Å with an Rfactor of 20.6 % and Rfree of 23.6 %. The tertiary structure AlrAba was established to be a homodimer, in which the two monomers interact in a head to tail manner, resulting in two active sites per enzyme. Each active site is comprised of residues from the N-terminal domain of one monomer and the C-terminal domain of the second monomer. The N-terminal domain corresponds to residues 1 – 230, and consists of an eight-stranded α/β barrel. The C-terminal domain corresponds to residues 231 – 356, and mainly contains β-strands. Comparison of AlrAba with alanine racemases from closely related bacteria demonstrated a conserved overall fold, substrate entryway and active site. The structure of AlrAba will provide a template for future structure-based drug design studies.

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  • Living in Two Cities: Lessons for the church today from Augustine's City of God

    Broome, Deborah Louise (2015)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    Reading Augustine’s City of God through the lens of public theology, as well as in conversation with some of his leading commentators, provides an opportunity to discover how Augustine’s account of the two Cities (the civitas Dei and the civitas terrena) might inform the role of Christians in contemporary New Zealand, those who are living both as citizens in temporal society (the secular realm) and members of an alternative, Christian, society. There are parallels between Augustine’s society and our own which make a reading of City of God instructive for the Church today. The occasion of Augustine’s writing of City of God is briefly discussed, as is the theme of the two cities in the Bible and elsewhere in ancient literature. Attention is given to the nature of public theology and significant issues which public theologians must address, including the location of the debate (a secular public square), the language used, and the right to speak. A key notion is ‘seeking the welfare of the city’. Augustine is considered as public theologian and as apologist. The structure of City of God is analysed, key themes considered, and a précis offered which focuses on Augustine’s treatment of the two cities throughout the work. The nature of the City of God and the Earthly City are examined, in discussion with major commentators: the cities are societies defined by their members and by what their members love. The Church is not the City of God, but is rather a sign and an anticipation of it. Likewise, the Earthly City is not Rome, nor the State. The two cities are interwoven and intermixed, perplexae and permixtae with one another, and interact in this present age, in the saeculum. Central to Augustine’s thinking is that members of the City of God on pilgrimage in the world should not withdraw from that world but be involved in its society and institutions. Ways in which Christian communities might engage with the surrounding culture are examined, including the idea of work as loving service; and a number of lessons for the Church today are drawn. Dealing with ‘the other’ and encountering diversity are important issues. The relationship between the Church and the State is considered, as is the nature of the Church as public space in its own right. A deeper relationship between Christian faith and public engagement is encouraged. Central to the application of City of God to our current setting is the idea of the citizens of the civitas Dei on pilgrimage, and what it means to be part of a pilgrim city. Viewing City of God through an eschatological lens is crucial. A major conclusion is that ‘living in two cities’ is not merely a description of what it feels like for Christians today: it is an indication of how our life is actually meant to be.

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  • The Impact of Ocean Acidification on Parasite Transmission

    Harland, Hannah (2015)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    This study examines how ocean acidification affects parasite transmission. Ocean acidification is a global process which has already started to have negative impacts on the marine environment, and these are predicted to escalate with future acidification. These include impacts on reproduction, development, calcification, osmotic regulation, and survival. Parasites are key components of all marine ecosystems, influencing the survival of their hosts, and also indirectly affecting other species within marine communities. Many parasite species possess vulnerable life history stages, which are sensitive to abiotic changes. Intertidal parasites have therefore been proposed as good bio-indicators for the impacts of ocean acidification. This research used Maritrema novaezealandense and its first and second intermediate hosts as a model system to look at the impact of ocean acidification on parasite transmission. It was hypothesised that acidified conditions would affect transmission from the Zeacumantus subcarinatus snail host to the Paracalliope novizealandiae amphipod host. Parasite transmission was tested under three pH levels (pH 7.4, pH 7.6 and pH 8.1) and infection success within amphipod hosts was determined. Parasite infections in amphipods were significantly higher at the pH 7.4 level. Infection by this parasite may therefore increase with future ocean acidification. Amphipods were more vulnerable to parasitism under seawater acidification and may be the weak link in this model system. To see whether parasite genotypes vary in their sensitivity to acidified conditions, the transmission success of eight different parasite genotypes was examined. Genotype was not found to significantly impact infection success, with pH level being the main determinant of infection success, regardless of genotype. The virulence of parasite genotypes did vary, however, with some genotypes inducing greater amphipod mortality following infection. Parasites which are less virulent may therefore have an increased chance of reaching the definitive host and this could be particularly important when this sensitive amphipod species is faced with both the stress of parasitism and ocean acidification.

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  • The role of leadership in the experiences of Asian international students’ hospitality studies

    Dalosa, Diosdado

    Masters thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    This research explores the experiences of Asian International Students (AIS) who were studying professional cookery at a private training institution after reports (Tan, 2011) indicated that AIS was being described in New Zealand as “a ghetto education destination” by students in order to express their disappointment during their study in New Zealand. The reports concerned the New Zealand export education industry. The Ministry of Education recognised that the sustainability of the New Zealand export education industry rested on educational and social factors including institutional capacity and client satisfaction. This study was undertaken, therefore, to enable deeper insights about issues which occur for AIS. A case study was designed to investigate one particular institution with a focus on the leadership behaviours, and interactions between host educators and students. Eight participants were interviewed. The participants were the institution leader, two tutors, and five AIS. The data obtained were analysed using QSR NVivo software. The study found that AIS’ attitudes about their study experiences are marked by a frustration that the skills they learnt from their host institution did not meet the demands of the hospitality industry. AIS believed that their host institution’s lack of adequate learning facilities prevented them from achieving their learning goal/s. The issues AIS raised in this study could, however, help educational leaders in designing adequate educational resources and facilities appropriate for AIS. In turn, this could influence overall perceptions about the study experiences of AIS in New Zealand.

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  • Reconsidering The Nonhuman Animal: A Multidisciplinary Approach

    Muirhead, Eliza Kate (2015)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    Nonhuman animals exist to humans in a myriad of different ways. As companions or entertainers, as tools for scientific endeavour, within the natural environment and lastly, for the majority of people they exist as a source of consumable food or materials. To study the human-animal relationship, as it is becoming increasingly popular to do, is to confront the complexity of these relations. The popularity of such an endeavour is exemplified by the rise of a relatively new discourse of academic enquiry called human animal studies (HAS). HAS places the nonhuman animal in the spotlight of a multidisciplinary discussion which explores the question of what the human relationship with nonhuman animals ought to be. However, before this question can be posed, we must first understand the rich and interconnecting history of epistemology that has formed our contemporary ‘way of knowing’ the nonhuman animal. As a result of examining how certain disciplines have sculpted our contemporary understanding of the nonhuman animal we can also demonstrate the necessity of a multidisciplinary approach. It suggests that without a dialogue between particular fields, such as philosophy and science, we are limited in our ability to construct a set of ethics that may articulate what our proper relationship with nonhuman animals ought to be. This thesis provides a brief overview of the epistemology that has formed our current understanding of this question and situates the discussion within the field of science communication. In much the same way that the field of deep ecology first suggested in the 1980’s, the field of science communication suggests that in order to bring in to question the contemporary ‘way of knowing’ the nonhuman animal and therefore our current use and treatment of them, we must create a dialogue between the theoretical, social, political and historical (Naess 1984). This dissertation will review areas where a disconnect between the fields of science and philosophy have resulted in producing ‘untruths’ in the way that we ‘know’, ‘value’, ‘think’ and therefore ‘act’ for and ‘represent’ the nonhuman animal. It will show that there is a disconnect between what we know about the nonhuman animal through science, on their intelligence, ability to experience the world, and the way that ethics have developed to guide in how we ought to treat the nonhuman animal. The artefact component of this dissertation, Human|Animal a 25min documentary, is a reply to this call. It acts as a piece of science communication and aims to create a personal response in the audience in order to elicit a re-evaluation of the current way in which the nonhuman animal is utilised in western society. By engaging in a multidisciplinary dialogue the film asks the audience to consider, and potentially form an opinion, on what our current treatment of the nonhuman animal ought to be.

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  • Targets of the QseM Antiactivator in Mesorhizobium loti

    Major, Anthony Scott (2015)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    Quorum Sensing (QS) is a system used by bacteria to coordinate gene expression in response to population density using secreted diffusible signalling molecules, known as autoinducers. Many QS systems are similar to the model LuxR/I system originally discovered in Vibrio fischeri, where constitutive expression of the autoinducer synthase luxI produces acyl homoserine lactone molecules (AHLs) known as autoinducers at low levels. Once the population density reaches a threshold level, the regulator LuxR recognises and responds to the AHLs, activating downstream gene expression. These systems may also involve an antiactivator, that acts on the LuxR protein to prevent premature activation of the system by low AHL levels. Mesorhizobium loti strain R7A contains a mobile 502-kb symbiosis island known as ICEMlSymR7A which can transfer to nonsymbiotic mesorhizobia in both the laboratory and the environment. The excision and transfer of ICEMlSymR7A is directly controlled through QS via the actions of the the regulator TraR that acts in conjunction with AHL made by the autoinducer synthase TraI1. TraR activity in turn is controlled by the antiactivator QseM, through direct interaction with the TraR+AHL signalling molecule complex to block promoter activation. In this work, RT-qPCR was used to demonstrate that QseM had an effect on downstream TraR-regulated gene expression. Strong expression of the ICEMlSymR7A excisionase gene rdfS or the TrbC protease gene traF is known to have an inhibitory effect on cell growth. These genes are regulated by QS through the intermediacy of the msi172-msi171 gene product which is a single protein, FseA, that is produced by frame-shifting. A conjugation-based growth-inhibition assay involving introduction of a potentially lethal plasmid overexpressing target proteins into cells either overexpressing or not expressing QseM was developed to detect targets of QseM. The assay confirmed that TraR was a target of QseM and further suggested that FseA was a further target. RdfS and TraF were eliminated as targets. Bacterial two-hybrid analyses confirmed FseA as a target and narrowed the interacting portion down to the Msi172 portion of the frame-shifted protein. Furthermore β-galactosidase assays showed that FseA was unable to activate the rdfS promoter in the presence of QseM. Overall, this work confirmed the role of QseM as an antiactivator within the ICEMlSymR7A transfer system regulatory network and revealed it has more than one target. A 6-His tag was attached to QseM and a high concentration of protein was purified. Attempts at determining QseM interacants through Mass Spectrometry from a R7AΔqseM lysate proved difficult despite distinct bands being seen. QseM was subjected to circular dichroism that inferred that QseM is composed solely of α-helices, as is TraM, an antiactivator that targets TraR from the Agrobacterium tumefaciens QS system.

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  • Supervision and the culture of general practice

    Wilson, Hamish John (1999)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    Supervision is a well-known and well-theorised activity in some professions where experienced practitioners contract to facilitate, guide or educate the novice. Supervision is uncommon in medicine, which has traditionally employed more didactic teaching processes. In the general practice community in New Zealand, practitioners use a variety of methods of professional maintenance, with educative mentoring or supervision being a recent innovation. In this form of supervision, general practitioners (GPs) discuss their work with an experienced supervisor, with one focus being to learn counselling or psychotherapy skills. This study examined the experiences of GPs who use supervision, with particular reference to how supervision impacts on their practice of medicine. The context for this inquiry included the background philosophical assumptions of the biomedical paradigm, current problems in clinical practice and the culture of general practice in New Zealand. The research used a qualitative methodology, with seven GP respondents being interviewed at length about their use of supervision. A focus group with four of the participants followed initial analysis of the individual interviews. Interviews and group discussion were analysed within a social constructivist paradigm. The respondents' stories of learning about supervision led to the construction of a collective story. This could be outlined under the four broad themes of dissonance and exploration, self-awareness and professional development, the supervised practice, and defining supervision in general practice. However, before these GPs could make effective use of supervision, they needed to work through a number of personal and cultural barriers. The findings of the research suggest that supervision is a powerful method of learning, being an embodied experience through the supervisor-doctor relationship. Some of these GPs used their supervisor to learn how to do psychotherapy in general practice. The supervisor also acted as sounding board for all the respondents to discuss other work issues, such as practice management and peer relationships. One outcome of regular supervision was validation about their work, contributing to a heightened sense of self in the work environment. Supervision facilitated a model of reflective learning that is relatively uncommon in medicine. This was achieved through rigorous attention to self-awareness, resulting in facilitated career development. In a supervised practice, the GP incorporates an increasing acuity for patients' psychological problems. There is an emphasis on the doctor-patient relationship, with awareness of the roles and boundaries around the GP’s work. Supervision was seen to be different to work in peer-groups or in personal psychotherapy, but there were similarities. The role of the supervisor was defined to include sub-roles of teacher, facilitator, analyst and evaluator. In this study there was invariably no form of summative evaluation. The results led to a definition of supervision in general practice. Studying these successful supervisor-doctor relationships gave unique insights into the barriers that prevent further utilisation of supervision or other forms of mentoring in general practice. These barriers include broad issues of the traditional epistemological assumptions of modern medicine. Having supervision appeared to have a major impact on the style of medical practice that is exhibited by these GPs. There are implications of these findings for both undergraduate and postgraduate medical education. This research was grounded in a social constructivist paradigm that linked theory, research and clinical practice. From the evidence presented here, these practitioners have incorporated biomedicine into a wider medical model that offers a resolution to the current paradigmatic crisis of modern medicine.

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  • Environmental tolerances of resting stages of plumatellid bryozoans at Southern Reservoir, Dunedin, New Zealand

    Brunton, Michelle A (2005)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    Freshwater bryozoans grow at Southern Reservoir, a water treatment station in Dunedin, New Zealand fouling surfaces in the microstrainer hall and requiring expensive and time consuming maintenance. Preventing or minimising germination is a potentially useful way to control bryozoan infestation. Germination trials were conducted to assess the effect of temperature, dry storage, and various chemicals on floatoblast germination. Plumatella vaihiriae is newly described from Southern Reservoir. A second, as yet unidentified, Plumatellid species was discovered through the presence of floatoblasts (Plumatella n. sp.). Storing dry floatoblasts of Plumatella n. sp. decreased germination. Storing dry floatoblasts of P. vaihiriae for 63 days or more prevented germination entirely. Sodium hydroxide, acid clean in place (CIP) and sulphuric acid were most successful of those chemical treatments tested in preventing germination of P. vaihiriae floatoblasts. Exposure to alkaline CIP and a combination of CIP solutions decreased germination of P. vaihiriae floatoblasts. Pre-heating acid CIP to 35°C prevented germination of P. vaihiriae floatoblasts. Exposure to alkaline CIP solutions at temperatures of 35°C and 50°C increased germination of P. vaihiriae and Plumatella n. sp. floatoblasts. The zooid wall provided protection for floatoblasts of P. vaihiriae from exposure to acid CIP. On initial release from the zooid P. vaihiriae floatoblasts produced in winter and early summer are obligate dormants entering a diapausal state for at least three weeks. As summer approaches P. vaihiriae floatoblasts become thermos-quiescent and germinate once temperatures increase. Dunedin City Council (DCC) water department staff must adhere to strict cleaning policies when moving both people and equipment between Southern Water Treatment Station and other water treatment stations and reservoirs. P. vaihiriae and Plumatella n. sp. floatoblasts could better sustain the effects of an acid environment during transport within a vector such as a water bird more so if eaten whilst within the zooid and remaining within the zooid walls during transport.

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  • A Study of Labour Negotiators: Orientation and Behaviour

    Ferguson, Kelly (2015)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    This exploratory study examined individual negotiator social value orientation (preferences for the distribution of negotiated outcomes) and individual negotiator behaviour (strategies and tactics) in a labour relations context. Interviews were conducted with professional labour-management negotiators and collective bargaining negotiations were observed. The findings reveal that the majority of negotiators are competitively oriented and that a number of negotiators have a mixed orientation (both competitive and collaborative). Furthermore, the study reveals that distributive strategies and tactics dominate in real-world negotiations. Most of the negotiators were found to adopt a distributive strategy exclusively. However, the study also revealed that a number of negotiators utilise both distributive and integrative behaviours (albeit within a predominantly distributive strategy). Furthermore, the study examined the rigour with which behaviours are implemented. Since distributive strategies and tactics were found to be dominant it was not possible to analyse the rigour of integrative behaviours. Notwithstanding, the strength of distributive strategies and tactics were analysed. The findings show that negotiators implement distributive tactics from along a continuum that ranges from “hard” to “soft”. In fact, the majority of negotiators were found to be operating at some mid-point along that continuum, adopting a “moderate” approach to distributive bargaining that was neither hard nor soft but fell somewhere in-between. Finally, this study considered whether orientation predicts negotiation behaviour. The findings show that competitively oriented negotiators adopt distributive strategies and tactics almost exclusively, whereas the negotiators with a mixed orientation were found to be far more likely to adopt some integrative behaviour (even though their overall approach is predominantly distributive). As mentioned, the findings reveal that distributive behaviours are implemented with different degrees of rigour. Competitively oriented negotiators were found to engage in hard, moderate and soft distributive bargaining. The majority of cases were categorised as moderate, but hard and soft approaches exist. In contrast, negotiators with a mixed orientation were found to implement a moderate distributive approach only. The implications for this research and avenues for future research are discussed.

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  • Therapeutic Approaches in the Attenuation of Seizure-Induced Cardiomyopathy

    Andreianova, Anastasia Alexeevna (2015)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    Single subcutaneous administration of Kainic acid (KA) in the rat produces significant levels of seizure activity, including head tremors, salivation and tonic-clonic convulsions. Using electrophysiological quantitative techniques which measure electroencephalographic (EEG) as well as electrocardiographic (ECG) trace activity following KA administration, the effects of seizure activity on the function of the heart were assessed over a 48 hour period. In addition, histopathological analysis was carried out in order to determine whether the ongoing seizure activity produced significant changes in ventricular myocardium indicative of irreversible cardiomyopathy. In order to determine the potential mechanism of action of KA-induced cardiac damage, a further two animal groups were examined. The groups consisted of animals pretreated with either atenolol or clonidine. The two different drugs were used in order to isolate systems involved in cardiac damage, where atenolol acts specifically in the periphery, while clonidine is known to act in the central nervous system. Analysis of EEG and concomitant ECG traces, during and following seizure activity demonstrated significant changes in heart rate (HR) as well as associated HR parameters compared to baseline. Upon further histological observations it was apparent that at 48 hours following KA administration, ischaemia was present as well as evidence of inflammatory cell infiltration, tissue tearing and oedema compared to saline treated animals. Further assessment of pretreated animal groups lead to the conclusion that atenolol was not protective against KA-induced cardiac damage in the rat while clonidine was. These findings propose that the mechanism by which KA-induced seizure activity results in cardiomyopathy is through modulation of brain centres associated with cardiac control, as opposed to KA binding to peripheral cardiac receptors as previously suggested.

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  • El camino se hace caminando: Using Participatory Action Research to evaluate and develop Peace Education practice in a Secondary School in Northern Nicaragua

    Kertyzia, Heather (2015)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    Peace education (PE) is included in the cross-curricular themes of the Nicaraguan curriculum, yet in the Secondary School in Northern Nicaragua (SSINN) where this research was conducted there was varied implementation by teachers. The SSINN was selected for this research due to particular problems with violence. Based on a critical and post-development theory perspective and using participatory action research (PAR) methodology, teachers, school psychologists and administrators were led through a facilitated process of reflection upon the culture of peace/violence in the SSINN and teacher practice. This was guided by the concepts of education about (content), for (skills and behaviours) and by peace (pedagogy). PAR is guided by a series of principles that allow for flexibility and response to participant needs. In this case SSINN educators and I engaged in a process of building trust, gathering reconnaissance data, developing action plans and taking action. This was guided by our unofficial motto ‘the path is made by walking’ (el camino se hace caminando), implying that we were learning as we worked together and the process had to be adaptable to new circumstances. Through workshops and coffee chats we evaluated staff definitions of a culture of peace, priorities in relation to peace values, behaviours and content, and teacher practice in regards to peace principles. As part of the reciprocal process, educators gave feedback and directed the research, which was designed to emphasize educator voice and minimize the neo-colonial imposition of values from outside actors. In this way I sought to balance critical theory’s need to take action for positive change with post-development theory’s prioritizing of local educator voice. The primary goals of the research were to develop an understanding of how PE was practised in the SSINN and, if the educators requested it, to provide support in taking positive action for change, while assessing the effectiveness of the PAR methodology. In the beginning the educators had differing definitions of a culture of peace, but they were very consistent in their ideas of what content, skills and values should be included in PE. Although they regularly mentioned problems that were directly relevant to students’ lives that should be addressed in the classroom, not all of the teachers were actively doing this. Due to a lack of resources, time, teacher stress and overcrowding, many teachers were unable to translate those ideas into action. Also due to those factors, many teachers fell into habits of traditional teaching practice that were inconsistent with peace pedagogy. Recognizing these issues, the teachers requested workshops on non-violent communication and conflict transformation in the hope that that knowledge would aid them to more positively manage behaviour. They also created and implemented an action plan. Although positive steps were taken, this was the first stage of a long-term process of change. Partnering with local non-governmental organizations (NGOs) has provided the possibility of the continuation of the process; nevertheless those NGOs have stated that they need continued external support. This flexible PAR methodology was effective at exploring and developing PE practice in the SSINN, and has the potential, if continued, to lead to fundamental positive change.

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  • The effect of paramedic position on external chest compression quality: a simulation study

    Davey, Paul

    Masters thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) is a globally important public health issue that continues to be a significant cause of premature death. The incidence of OHCA treated by Emergency Medical Services (EMS) is around 50 to 55/100,000 per person-years across the US, Canada, Australia and New Zealand. There is significant disparity in the rates of survival to hospital discharge from OHCA. For OHCA treated by EMS this rate can vary as much as 1% to 31%. In order to improve outcomes for cardiac arrests the International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation (ILCOR) aims to integrate resuscitation science with real world clinical practice. ILCOR states there is a need to develop a culture of high quality resuscitation using a quality improvement approach. Survival from cardiac arrest is a complex issue with many stakeholders that form the basis of a system of care. ILCOR proposes that individual performance needs to be evaluated so that participants within the system of care are informed and can therefore effectively intervene to improve care Paramedics are the primary treatment providers for OHCA. Recently the resuscitation guidelines, which paramedics use in their practice, have emphasised the performance of quality chest compressions. With this in mind this thesis sought to investigate whether the position of the paramedic performing chest compressions, either from-the-side (FTS) or over-the-head (OTH), influenced the quality of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). A review literature identified only a few small studies in which OTH CPR was investigated over short durations. There was heterogeneity in the study design, types of participants and quality metrics measured with inconsistencies in the results across the studies. All of the studies identified in the review were manikin studies that used manikin-based technology, such as the Laerdal Skill Reporter (LSR), to measure the quality of CPR. Subsequent to these studies defibrillator technology has evolved and now devices that can measure CPR quality have been integrated into the defibrillator, an example of which is Q-CPR associated with the MRx defibrillator. Such devices enable measurement of CPR quality in both manikin and human studies. The first study (Chapter 3) investigated if the new defibrillator technology could be used to measure CPR quality in a manikin study. This study compared the measurement of CPR quality metrics simultaneously using LSR and Q-CPR, for chest compression performed OTH and FTS. The principle finding of this study was that there is no significant difference in the majority of chest compression quality metrics measured between the LSR and the Q-CPR devices. However, there were significant differences in the measurement of duty cycle and also the depth of compressions between the two devices. The mean difference in the depth of compression was observed to increase with an increasing incidence of leaning. The conclusion was that Q-CPR is a suitable alternative to LSR for measurement of the CPR quality and thus it was used in the main study. The main study compared OTH and FTS CPR quality (performed by 30 paramedics) during two simulated cardiac arrest scenarios, each of approximately 25 minutes duration. There was no significant difference in mean CPR quality between compressions performed OTH or FTS for all metrics measured. We concluded that for two rescuer CPR the composite technique, where the paramedic that is positioned at the head of the manikin performs OTH CPR, is an effective alternative to the traditional method of only performing CPR FTS.

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  • W. E. Gudgeon : his contribution to the annexation of the Cook Islands.

    Currie, Ernest Rowland (1963)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    v, 90 leaves ; 30 cm. Bibliography: leaf iv-v.

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  • Immediate reactions in Otago to the movement for the abolition of the provincial government, 1874-1876

    Cowan, Linda M (1972)

    Other thesis
    University of Otago

    Physical description: 89 leaves ; 26 cm. A long essay submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the Post graduate Diploma in Arts at the University Otago.

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  • How to be a Prehistoric Weatherman: Using n-alkanes as a Proxy for Holocene Climate and Hydrology, Southwest South Island, New Zealand

    Burrington, Peter (2015)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    The latitudinal position and strength of the Southern Hemisphere westerly winds (SHWW) plays a critical role in global CO2 air-sea flux and the distribution of rainfall in the southern mid-latitudes. Strengthening and southward shifting westerlies are thought to be reducing the efficiency of the Southern Ocean carbon sink, which has direct implications for modern atmospheric CO2 concentrations. Southern New Zealand intersects the northern margin of the SHWW belt, where a direct relationship exists between annual precipitation and zonal wind speeds. Reconstructing past hydrological variations from the southwest of the South Island (SWSI) can provide a regional record of climatic response to changing SHWW. A 5.4 m sediment core spanning the last 10.8 ka was recovered from South Mavora Lake, Southland. Magnetic susceptibility, bulk organic C and N isotopes and concentrations, and lipid biomarker (C21-C33 n-alkanes) concentrations, distributions, and hydrogen isotope values (δD) serve as proxies for change in lacustrine productivity, relative proportions of terrestrial and aquatic input, and hydrology. Modern SWSI meteoric water isotope values (δ18O, δD) collected over a 12-month period, and meteorlogical station data, show orographic rainout and air temperature are the primary drivers of hydrological isotope composition in SWSI. Downcore interpretation of data suggests a period of increased precipitation, rapid warming, and greater terrestrial input from 10.8-9.0 ka, likely corresponding to weaker westerly influence over SHWW. From 9.0-7.0 ka, decreasing δDn-alkanes shows gradual cooling, δ13C and ACL suggest increased aquatic productivity, and stratigraphy shows an increase in storm strength. From 7.0-5.1 ka δDn-alkanes and δ13C are characteristic of a relatively stable temperate climate, Paq and C/N ratios suggest a relatively humid environment, and stratigraphy showed an increase of storm events. From 5.1-3.6 ka δDn-alkanes showed a large cold excursion followed by gradual warming, Paq and stratigraphy reflected a significant increase in storm event frequency and strength, and an increase in ACL reflected the expansion of cool-moist Nothofagus menziesii into the region. From 3.6 ka to present δDn −alkanes showed a cooling trend to present day, likely related to strengthening of the SHWW, and low amplitude and frequency variation in Paq and decreased storm events signaled a gradual decrease in precipitation to modern day conditions.

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  • Aspects of the biology of some New Zealand echinoderms : feeding, growth and reproduction in the asteroids, Patiriella regularis (Verrill, 1867) and Coscinasterias calamaria (Gray, 1840).

    Crump, Robin (1969)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    192 leaves :illus. ; 30 cm. Bibliography: p.138-147. The author's "The flight response in Struthiolaria papulosa giges Sowerby", reprinted from the New Zealand journal of marine and freshwater research, v.2, no.3, Sept., 1968, in pocket. University of Otago department: Zoology

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