25,521 results for Thesis

  • Living in Two Cities: Lessons for the church today from Augustine's City of God

    Broome, Deborah Louise (2015)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    Reading Augustine’s City of God through the lens of public theology, as well as in conversation with some of his leading commentators, provides an opportunity to discover how Augustine’s account of the two Cities (the civitas Dei and the civitas terrena) might inform the role of Christians in contemporary New Zealand, those who are living both as citizens in temporal society (the secular realm) and members of an alternative, Christian, society. There are parallels between Augustine’s society and our own which make a reading of City of God instructive for the Church today. The occasion of Augustine’s writing of City of God is briefly discussed, as is the theme of the two cities in the Bible and elsewhere in ancient literature. Attention is given to the nature of public theology and significant issues which public theologians must address, including the location of the debate (a secular public square), the language used, and the right to speak. A key notion is ‘seeking the welfare of the city’. Augustine is considered as public theologian and as apologist. The structure of City of God is analysed, key themes considered, and a précis offered which focuses on Augustine’s treatment of the two cities throughout the work. The nature of the City of God and the Earthly City are examined, in discussion with major commentators: the cities are societies defined by their members and by what their members love. The Church is not the City of God, but is rather a sign and an anticipation of it. Likewise, the Earthly City is not Rome, nor the State. The two cities are interwoven and intermixed, perplexae and permixtae with one another, and interact in this present age, in the saeculum. Central to Augustine’s thinking is that members of the City of God on pilgrimage in the world should not withdraw from that world but be involved in its society and institutions. Ways in which Christian communities might engage with the surrounding culture are examined, including the idea of work as loving service; and a number of lessons for the Church today are drawn. Dealing with ‘the other’ and encountering diversity are important issues. The relationship between the Church and the State is considered, as is the nature of the Church as public space in its own right. A deeper relationship between Christian faith and public engagement is encouraged. Central to the application of City of God to our current setting is the idea of the citizens of the civitas Dei on pilgrimage, and what it means to be part of a pilgrim city. Viewing City of God through an eschatological lens is crucial. A major conclusion is that ‘living in two cities’ is not merely a description of what it feels like for Christians today: it is an indication of how our life is actually meant to be.

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  • The Impact of Ocean Acidification on Parasite Transmission

    Harland, Hannah (2015)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    This study examines how ocean acidification affects parasite transmission. Ocean acidification is a global process which has already started to have negative impacts on the marine environment, and these are predicted to escalate with future acidification. These include impacts on reproduction, development, calcification, osmotic regulation, and survival. Parasites are key components of all marine ecosystems, influencing the survival of their hosts, and also indirectly affecting other species within marine communities. Many parasite species possess vulnerable life history stages, which are sensitive to abiotic changes. Intertidal parasites have therefore been proposed as good bio-indicators for the impacts of ocean acidification. This research used Maritrema novaezealandense and its first and second intermediate hosts as a model system to look at the impact of ocean acidification on parasite transmission. It was hypothesised that acidified conditions would affect transmission from the Zeacumantus subcarinatus snail host to the Paracalliope novizealandiae amphipod host. Parasite transmission was tested under three pH levels (pH 7.4, pH 7.6 and pH 8.1) and infection success within amphipod hosts was determined. Parasite infections in amphipods were significantly higher at the pH 7.4 level. Infection by this parasite may therefore increase with future ocean acidification. Amphipods were more vulnerable to parasitism under seawater acidification and may be the weak link in this model system. To see whether parasite genotypes vary in their sensitivity to acidified conditions, the transmission success of eight different parasite genotypes was examined. Genotype was not found to significantly impact infection success, with pH level being the main determinant of infection success, regardless of genotype. The virulence of parasite genotypes did vary, however, with some genotypes inducing greater amphipod mortality following infection. Parasites which are less virulent may therefore have an increased chance of reaching the definitive host and this could be particularly important when this sensitive amphipod species is faced with both the stress of parasitism and ocean acidification.

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  • Fluctuation space : how might a mega-event venue be programmed more intensively for long-term viability and social sustainability?

    Wyatt, Matthew (2014)

    Thesis
    Unitec

    With the growth in complexity of global sporting events, the priority driving the design of dwelling places for such festivals is shifting from an aesthetic focus driven by programmatics to a legacy focus driven by pragmatics. Designing for legacy concerns place marking, where the history of an event is retained, as well as place making where the future usage of an event structure provides a positive outcome for the host region, towards all matters of context. The project investigates an alternative strategy for dealing with the master planning of major event venue layouts, and the possibilities of its transition into proactive future usage. The design process is used to demonstrate the interactions between minor buildings and large complexes where both individuality and unity are equally important.

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  • The role of leadership in the experiences of Asian international students’ hospitality studies

    Dalosa, Diosdado

    Masters thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    This research explores the experiences of Asian International Students (AIS) who were studying professional cookery at a private training institution after reports (Tan, 2011) indicated that AIS was being described in New Zealand as “a ghetto education destination” by students in order to express their disappointment during their study in New Zealand. The reports concerned the New Zealand export education industry. The Ministry of Education recognised that the sustainability of the New Zealand export education industry rested on educational and social factors including institutional capacity and client satisfaction. This study was undertaken, therefore, to enable deeper insights about issues which occur for AIS. A case study was designed to investigate one particular institution with a focus on the leadership behaviours, and interactions between host educators and students. Eight participants were interviewed. The participants were the institution leader, two tutors, and five AIS. The data obtained were analysed using QSR NVivo software. The study found that AIS’ attitudes about their study experiences are marked by a frustration that the skills they learnt from their host institution did not meet the demands of the hospitality industry. AIS believed that their host institution’s lack of adequate learning facilities prevented them from achieving their learning goal/s. The issues AIS raised in this study could, however, help educational leaders in designing adequate educational resources and facilities appropriate for AIS. In turn, this could influence overall perceptions about the study experiences of AIS in New Zealand.

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  • Reconsidering The Nonhuman Animal: A Multidisciplinary Approach

    Muirhead, Eliza Kate (2015)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    Nonhuman animals exist to humans in a myriad of different ways. As companions or entertainers, as tools for scientific endeavour, within the natural environment and lastly, for the majority of people they exist as a source of consumable food or materials. To study the human-animal relationship, as it is becoming increasingly popular to do, is to confront the complexity of these relations. The popularity of such an endeavour is exemplified by the rise of a relatively new discourse of academic enquiry called human animal studies (HAS). HAS places the nonhuman animal in the spotlight of a multidisciplinary discussion which explores the question of what the human relationship with nonhuman animals ought to be. However, before this question can be posed, we must first understand the rich and interconnecting history of epistemology that has formed our contemporary ‘way of knowing’ the nonhuman animal. As a result of examining how certain disciplines have sculpted our contemporary understanding of the nonhuman animal we can also demonstrate the necessity of a multidisciplinary approach. It suggests that without a dialogue between particular fields, such as philosophy and science, we are limited in our ability to construct a set of ethics that may articulate what our proper relationship with nonhuman animals ought to be. This thesis provides a brief overview of the epistemology that has formed our current understanding of this question and situates the discussion within the field of science communication. In much the same way that the field of deep ecology first suggested in the 1980’s, the field of science communication suggests that in order to bring in to question the contemporary ‘way of knowing’ the nonhuman animal and therefore our current use and treatment of them, we must create a dialogue between the theoretical, social, political and historical (Naess 1984). This dissertation will review areas where a disconnect between the fields of science and philosophy have resulted in producing ‘untruths’ in the way that we ‘know’, ‘value’, ‘think’ and therefore ‘act’ for and ‘represent’ the nonhuman animal. It will show that there is a disconnect between what we know about the nonhuman animal through science, on their intelligence, ability to experience the world, and the way that ethics have developed to guide in how we ought to treat the nonhuman animal. The artefact component of this dissertation, Human|Animal a 25min documentary, is a reply to this call. It acts as a piece of science communication and aims to create a personal response in the audience in order to elicit a re-evaluation of the current way in which the nonhuman animal is utilised in western society. By engaging in a multidisciplinary dialogue the film asks the audience to consider, and potentially form an opinion, on what our current treatment of the nonhuman animal ought to be.

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  • Targets of the QseM Antiactivator in Mesorhizobium loti

    Major, Anthony Scott (2015)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    Quorum Sensing (QS) is a system used by bacteria to coordinate gene expression in response to population density using secreted diffusible signalling molecules, known as autoinducers. Many QS systems are similar to the model LuxR/I system originally discovered in Vibrio fischeri, where constitutive expression of the autoinducer synthase luxI produces acyl homoserine lactone molecules (AHLs) known as autoinducers at low levels. Once the population density reaches a threshold level, the regulator LuxR recognises and responds to the AHLs, activating downstream gene expression. These systems may also involve an antiactivator, that acts on the LuxR protein to prevent premature activation of the system by low AHL levels. Mesorhizobium loti strain R7A contains a mobile 502-kb symbiosis island known as ICEMlSymR7A which can transfer to nonsymbiotic mesorhizobia in both the laboratory and the environment. The excision and transfer of ICEMlSymR7A is directly controlled through QS via the actions of the the regulator TraR that acts in conjunction with AHL made by the autoinducer synthase TraI1. TraR activity in turn is controlled by the antiactivator QseM, through direct interaction with the TraR+AHL signalling molecule complex to block promoter activation. In this work, RT-qPCR was used to demonstrate that QseM had an effect on downstream TraR-regulated gene expression. Strong expression of the ICEMlSymR7A excisionase gene rdfS or the TrbC protease gene traF is known to have an inhibitory effect on cell growth. These genes are regulated by QS through the intermediacy of the msi172-msi171 gene product which is a single protein, FseA, that is produced by frame-shifting. A conjugation-based growth-inhibition assay involving introduction of a potentially lethal plasmid overexpressing target proteins into cells either overexpressing or not expressing QseM was developed to detect targets of QseM. The assay confirmed that TraR was a target of QseM and further suggested that FseA was a further target. RdfS and TraF were eliminated as targets. Bacterial two-hybrid analyses confirmed FseA as a target and narrowed the interacting portion down to the Msi172 portion of the frame-shifted protein. Furthermore β-galactosidase assays showed that FseA was unable to activate the rdfS promoter in the presence of QseM. Overall, this work confirmed the role of QseM as an antiactivator within the ICEMlSymR7A transfer system regulatory network and revealed it has more than one target. A 6-His tag was attached to QseM and a high concentration of protein was purified. Attempts at determining QseM interacants through Mass Spectrometry from a R7AΔqseM lysate proved difficult despite distinct bands being seen. QseM was subjected to circular dichroism that inferred that QseM is composed solely of α-helices, as is TraM, an antiactivator that targets TraR from the Agrobacterium tumefaciens QS system.

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  • Supervision and the culture of general practice

    Wilson, Hamish John (1999)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    Supervision is a well-known and well-theorised activity in some professions where experienced practitioners contract to facilitate, guide or educate the novice. Supervision is uncommon in medicine, which has traditionally employed more didactic teaching processes. In the general practice community in New Zealand, practitioners use a variety of methods of professional maintenance, with educative mentoring or supervision being a recent innovation. In this form of supervision, general practitioners (GPs) discuss their work with an experienced supervisor, with one focus being to learn counselling or psychotherapy skills. This study examined the experiences of GPs who use supervision, with particular reference to how supervision impacts on their practice of medicine. The context for this inquiry included the background philosophical assumptions of the biomedical paradigm, current problems in clinical practice and the culture of general practice in New Zealand. The research used a qualitative methodology, with seven GP respondents being interviewed at length about their use of supervision. A focus group with four of the participants followed initial analysis of the individual interviews. Interviews and group discussion were analysed within a social constructivist paradigm. The respondents' stories of learning about supervision led to the construction of a collective story. This could be outlined under the four broad themes of dissonance and exploration, self-awareness and professional development, the supervised practice, and defining supervision in general practice. However, before these GPs could make effective use of supervision, they needed to work through a number of personal and cultural barriers. The findings of the research suggest that supervision is a powerful method of learning, being an embodied experience through the supervisor-doctor relationship. Some of these GPs used their supervisor to learn how to do psychotherapy in general practice. The supervisor also acted as sounding board for all the respondents to discuss other work issues, such as practice management and peer relationships. One outcome of regular supervision was validation about their work, contributing to a heightened sense of self in the work environment. Supervision facilitated a model of reflective learning that is relatively uncommon in medicine. This was achieved through rigorous attention to self-awareness, resulting in facilitated career development. In a supervised practice, the GP incorporates an increasing acuity for patients' psychological problems. There is an emphasis on the doctor-patient relationship, with awareness of the roles and boundaries around the GP’s work. Supervision was seen to be different to work in peer-groups or in personal psychotherapy, but there were similarities. The role of the supervisor was defined to include sub-roles of teacher, facilitator, analyst and evaluator. In this study there was invariably no form of summative evaluation. The results led to a definition of supervision in general practice. Studying these successful supervisor-doctor relationships gave unique insights into the barriers that prevent further utilisation of supervision or other forms of mentoring in general practice. These barriers include broad issues of the traditional epistemological assumptions of modern medicine. Having supervision appeared to have a major impact on the style of medical practice that is exhibited by these GPs. There are implications of these findings for both undergraduate and postgraduate medical education. This research was grounded in a social constructivist paradigm that linked theory, research and clinical practice. From the evidence presented here, these practitioners have incorporated biomedicine into a wider medical model that offers a resolution to the current paradigmatic crisis of modern medicine.

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  • Environmental tolerances of resting stages of plumatellid bryozoans at Southern Reservoir, Dunedin, New Zealand

    Brunton, Michelle A (2005)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    Freshwater bryozoans grow at Southern Reservoir, a water treatment station in Dunedin, New Zealand fouling surfaces in the microstrainer hall and requiring expensive and time consuming maintenance. Preventing or minimising germination is a potentially useful way to control bryozoan infestation. Germination trials were conducted to assess the effect of temperature, dry storage, and various chemicals on floatoblast germination. Plumatella vaihiriae is newly described from Southern Reservoir. A second, as yet unidentified, Plumatellid species was discovered through the presence of floatoblasts (Plumatella n. sp.). Storing dry floatoblasts of Plumatella n. sp. decreased germination. Storing dry floatoblasts of P. vaihiriae for 63 days or more prevented germination entirely. Sodium hydroxide, acid clean in place (CIP) and sulphuric acid were most successful of those chemical treatments tested in preventing germination of P. vaihiriae floatoblasts. Exposure to alkaline CIP and a combination of CIP solutions decreased germination of P. vaihiriae floatoblasts. Pre-heating acid CIP to 35°C prevented germination of P. vaihiriae floatoblasts. Exposure to alkaline CIP solutions at temperatures of 35°C and 50°C increased germination of P. vaihiriae and Plumatella n. sp. floatoblasts. The zooid wall provided protection for floatoblasts of P. vaihiriae from exposure to acid CIP. On initial release from the zooid P. vaihiriae floatoblasts produced in winter and early summer are obligate dormants entering a diapausal state for at least three weeks. As summer approaches P. vaihiriae floatoblasts become thermos-quiescent and germinate once temperatures increase. Dunedin City Council (DCC) water department staff must adhere to strict cleaning policies when moving both people and equipment between Southern Water Treatment Station and other water treatment stations and reservoirs. P. vaihiriae and Plumatella n. sp. floatoblasts could better sustain the effects of an acid environment during transport within a vector such as a water bird more so if eaten whilst within the zooid and remaining within the zooid walls during transport.

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  • A Study of Labour Negotiators: Orientation and Behaviour

    Ferguson, Kelly (2015)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    This exploratory study examined individual negotiator social value orientation (preferences for the distribution of negotiated outcomes) and individual negotiator behaviour (strategies and tactics) in a labour relations context. Interviews were conducted with professional labour-management negotiators and collective bargaining negotiations were observed. The findings reveal that the majority of negotiators are competitively oriented and that a number of negotiators have a mixed orientation (both competitive and collaborative). Furthermore, the study reveals that distributive strategies and tactics dominate in real-world negotiations. Most of the negotiators were found to adopt a distributive strategy exclusively. However, the study also revealed that a number of negotiators utilise both distributive and integrative behaviours (albeit within a predominantly distributive strategy). Furthermore, the study examined the rigour with which behaviours are implemented. Since distributive strategies and tactics were found to be dominant it was not possible to analyse the rigour of integrative behaviours. Notwithstanding, the strength of distributive strategies and tactics were analysed. The findings show that negotiators implement distributive tactics from along a continuum that ranges from “hard” to “soft”. In fact, the majority of negotiators were found to be operating at some mid-point along that continuum, adopting a “moderate” approach to distributive bargaining that was neither hard nor soft but fell somewhere in-between. Finally, this study considered whether orientation predicts negotiation behaviour. The findings show that competitively oriented negotiators adopt distributive strategies and tactics almost exclusively, whereas the negotiators with a mixed orientation were found to be far more likely to adopt some integrative behaviour (even though their overall approach is predominantly distributive). As mentioned, the findings reveal that distributive behaviours are implemented with different degrees of rigour. Competitively oriented negotiators were found to engage in hard, moderate and soft distributive bargaining. The majority of cases were categorised as moderate, but hard and soft approaches exist. In contrast, negotiators with a mixed orientation were found to implement a moderate distributive approach only. The implications for this research and avenues for future research are discussed.

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  • The collectors : Naval, Army and Air Intelligence in the New Zealand Armed Forces during the Second World War

    Tonkin-Covell, John (2000)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Waikato

    This thesis examines the performance of the intelligence collection organisations of the armed services of New Zealand during the Second World War. It considers the intelligence bodies of the Navy, the Army and the Air Force and looks at their growth, development and demise, and assesses their effectiveness as intelligence organisations. The question of how much New Zealand could be expected to achieve in the field of intelligence arises, not least because New Zealand was demographically small, had a long coastline and was geographically relatively remote. How much could New Zealand contribute to the Allied cause in intelligence terms is another issue, and what forms did any participation take? Were there lessons to be learned from the wartime experience (there were, but they went for the most part largely unheeded)? New Zealand, like other countries, had a fragmented approach to intelligence collection, making for a degree of complexity over a range of activity, despite the intelligence organisations being of modest size. The examination of the organisations in this thesis includes multi-service and multi-departmental dimensions along with the production of useful intelligence. Whether good use was made of intelligence collected is another matter. There was a substantial amount of liaison, contact and practice between departments of state as to various aspects of intelligence, the Organization for National Security and coastwatching being two notable areas. The overarching role and limitations of the Organization for National Security with regard to intelligence is explored, and the development of a combined intelligence centre examined. The participation of New Zealand signals intelligence organisations in the great Allied interception offensive is detailed, along with the mundane but fundamental task of coastal surveillance. The establishment and spectacular decline of the first local independent security service is traced. Both the intelligence and security aspects of the Army's operationally deployed units are covered, along with the growth of RNZAF air intelligence. The effectiveness of all of these organisations could hardly be expected to be uniform, and indeed it was not. Some bodies succeeded in their collection roles beyond expectations, others were reasonably effective, and two organisations failed dismally in different ways, for a number of reasons. If a pattern emerges at all, it is that small single service component-type intelligence sections collecting operational intelligence were the most effective New Zealand intelligence organisations. Operational focus and. operational requirements underlay the drive for successful collection. Most significant within the Allied context were the signals intelligence bodies. At the other end of the scale, larger co-operative interdepartmental New Zealand intelligence ventures failed to deliver projected results. New Zealand's armed forces had an interesting variety of intelligence contributions during the Second World War. Of these, the most effective organisations collected intelligence to meet directed operational requirements.

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  • Therapeutic Approaches in the Attenuation of Seizure-Induced Cardiomyopathy

    Andreianova, Anastasia Alexeevna (2015)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    Single subcutaneous administration of Kainic acid (KA) in the rat produces significant levels of seizure activity, including head tremors, salivation and tonic-clonic convulsions. Using electrophysiological quantitative techniques which measure electroencephalographic (EEG) as well as electrocardiographic (ECG) trace activity following KA administration, the effects of seizure activity on the function of the heart were assessed over a 48 hour period. In addition, histopathological analysis was carried out in order to determine whether the ongoing seizure activity produced significant changes in ventricular myocardium indicative of irreversible cardiomyopathy. In order to determine the potential mechanism of action of KA-induced cardiac damage, a further two animal groups were examined. The groups consisted of animals pretreated with either atenolol or clonidine. The two different drugs were used in order to isolate systems involved in cardiac damage, where atenolol acts specifically in the periphery, while clonidine is known to act in the central nervous system. Analysis of EEG and concomitant ECG traces, during and following seizure activity demonstrated significant changes in heart rate (HR) as well as associated HR parameters compared to baseline. Upon further histological observations it was apparent that at 48 hours following KA administration, ischaemia was present as well as evidence of inflammatory cell infiltration, tissue tearing and oedema compared to saline treated animals. Further assessment of pretreated animal groups lead to the conclusion that atenolol was not protective against KA-induced cardiac damage in the rat while clonidine was. These findings propose that the mechanism by which KA-induced seizure activity results in cardiomyopathy is through modulation of brain centres associated with cardiac control, as opposed to KA binding to peripheral cardiac receptors as previously suggested.

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  • El camino se hace caminando: Using Participatory Action Research to evaluate and develop Peace Education practice in a Secondary School in Northern Nicaragua

    Kertyzia, Heather (2015)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    Peace education (PE) is included in the cross-curricular themes of the Nicaraguan curriculum, yet in the Secondary School in Northern Nicaragua (SSINN) where this research was conducted there was varied implementation by teachers. The SSINN was selected for this research due to particular problems with violence. Based on a critical and post-development theory perspective and using participatory action research (PAR) methodology, teachers, school psychologists and administrators were led through a facilitated process of reflection upon the culture of peace/violence in the SSINN and teacher practice. This was guided by the concepts of education about (content), for (skills and behaviours) and by peace (pedagogy). PAR is guided by a series of principles that allow for flexibility and response to participant needs. In this case SSINN educators and I engaged in a process of building trust, gathering reconnaissance data, developing action plans and taking action. This was guided by our unofficial motto ‘the path is made by walking’ (el camino se hace caminando), implying that we were learning as we worked together and the process had to be adaptable to new circumstances. Through workshops and coffee chats we evaluated staff definitions of a culture of peace, priorities in relation to peace values, behaviours and content, and teacher practice in regards to peace principles. As part of the reciprocal process, educators gave feedback and directed the research, which was designed to emphasize educator voice and minimize the neo-colonial imposition of values from outside actors. In this way I sought to balance critical theory’s need to take action for positive change with post-development theory’s prioritizing of local educator voice. The primary goals of the research were to develop an understanding of how PE was practised in the SSINN and, if the educators requested it, to provide support in taking positive action for change, while assessing the effectiveness of the PAR methodology. In the beginning the educators had differing definitions of a culture of peace, but they were very consistent in their ideas of what content, skills and values should be included in PE. Although they regularly mentioned problems that were directly relevant to students’ lives that should be addressed in the classroom, not all of the teachers were actively doing this. Due to a lack of resources, time, teacher stress and overcrowding, many teachers were unable to translate those ideas into action. Also due to those factors, many teachers fell into habits of traditional teaching practice that were inconsistent with peace pedagogy. Recognizing these issues, the teachers requested workshops on non-violent communication and conflict transformation in the hope that that knowledge would aid them to more positively manage behaviour. They also created and implemented an action plan. Although positive steps were taken, this was the first stage of a long-term process of change. Partnering with local non-governmental organizations (NGOs) has provided the possibility of the continuation of the process; nevertheless those NGOs have stated that they need continued external support. This flexible PAR methodology was effective at exploring and developing PE practice in the SSINN, and has the potential, if continued, to lead to fundamental positive change.

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  • The effect of paramedic position on external chest compression quality: a simulation study

    Davey, Paul

    Masters thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) is a globally important public health issue that continues to be a significant cause of premature death. The incidence of OHCA treated by Emergency Medical Services (EMS) is around 50 to 55/100,000 per person-years across the US, Canada, Australia and New Zealand. There is significant disparity in the rates of survival to hospital discharge from OHCA. For OHCA treated by EMS this rate can vary as much as 1% to 31%. In order to improve outcomes for cardiac arrests the International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation (ILCOR) aims to integrate resuscitation science with real world clinical practice. ILCOR states there is a need to develop a culture of high quality resuscitation using a quality improvement approach. Survival from cardiac arrest is a complex issue with many stakeholders that form the basis of a system of care. ILCOR proposes that individual performance needs to be evaluated so that participants within the system of care are informed and can therefore effectively intervene to improve care Paramedics are the primary treatment providers for OHCA. Recently the resuscitation guidelines, which paramedics use in their practice, have emphasised the performance of quality chest compressions. With this in mind this thesis sought to investigate whether the position of the paramedic performing chest compressions, either from-the-side (FTS) or over-the-head (OTH), influenced the quality of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). A review literature identified only a few small studies in which OTH CPR was investigated over short durations. There was heterogeneity in the study design, types of participants and quality metrics measured with inconsistencies in the results across the studies. All of the studies identified in the review were manikin studies that used manikin-based technology, such as the Laerdal Skill Reporter (LSR), to measure the quality of CPR. Subsequent to these studies defibrillator technology has evolved and now devices that can measure CPR quality have been integrated into the defibrillator, an example of which is Q-CPR associated with the MRx defibrillator. Such devices enable measurement of CPR quality in both manikin and human studies. The first study (Chapter 3) investigated if the new defibrillator technology could be used to measure CPR quality in a manikin study. This study compared the measurement of CPR quality metrics simultaneously using LSR and Q-CPR, for chest compression performed OTH and FTS. The principle finding of this study was that there is no significant difference in the majority of chest compression quality metrics measured between the LSR and the Q-CPR devices. However, there were significant differences in the measurement of duty cycle and also the depth of compressions between the two devices. The mean difference in the depth of compression was observed to increase with an increasing incidence of leaning. The conclusion was that Q-CPR is a suitable alternative to LSR for measurement of the CPR quality and thus it was used in the main study. The main study compared OTH and FTS CPR quality (performed by 30 paramedics) during two simulated cardiac arrest scenarios, each of approximately 25 minutes duration. There was no significant difference in mean CPR quality between compressions performed OTH or FTS for all metrics measured. We concluded that for two rescuer CPR the composite technique, where the paramedic that is positioned at the head of the manikin performs OTH CPR, is an effective alternative to the traditional method of only performing CPR FTS.

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  • W. E. Gudgeon : his contribution to the annexation of the Cook Islands.

    Currie, Ernest Rowland (1963)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    v, 90 leaves ; 30 cm. Bibliography: leaf iv-v.

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  • Immediate reactions in Otago to the movement for the abolition of the provincial government, 1874-1876

    Cowan, Linda M (1972)

    Other thesis
    University of Otago

    Physical description: 89 leaves ; 26 cm. A long essay submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the Post graduate Diploma in Arts at the University Otago.

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  • How to be a Prehistoric Weatherman: Using n-alkanes as a Proxy for Holocene Climate and Hydrology, Southwest South Island, New Zealand

    Burrington, Peter (2015)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    The latitudinal position and strength of the Southern Hemisphere westerly winds (SHWW) plays a critical role in global CO2 air-sea flux and the distribution of rainfall in the southern mid-latitudes. Strengthening and southward shifting westerlies are thought to be reducing the efficiency of the Southern Ocean carbon sink, which has direct implications for modern atmospheric CO2 concentrations. Southern New Zealand intersects the northern margin of the SHWW belt, where a direct relationship exists between annual precipitation and zonal wind speeds. Reconstructing past hydrological variations from the southwest of the South Island (SWSI) can provide a regional record of climatic response to changing SHWW. A 5.4 m sediment core spanning the last 10.8 ka was recovered from South Mavora Lake, Southland. Magnetic susceptibility, bulk organic C and N isotopes and concentrations, and lipid biomarker (C21-C33 n-alkanes) concentrations, distributions, and hydrogen isotope values (δD) serve as proxies for change in lacustrine productivity, relative proportions of terrestrial and aquatic input, and hydrology. Modern SWSI meteoric water isotope values (δ18O, δD) collected over a 12-month period, and meteorlogical station data, show orographic rainout and air temperature are the primary drivers of hydrological isotope composition in SWSI. Downcore interpretation of data suggests a period of increased precipitation, rapid warming, and greater terrestrial input from 10.8-9.0 ka, likely corresponding to weaker westerly influence over SHWW. From 9.0-7.0 ka, decreasing δDn-alkanes shows gradual cooling, δ13C and ACL suggest increased aquatic productivity, and stratigraphy shows an increase in storm strength. From 7.0-5.1 ka δDn-alkanes and δ13C are characteristic of a relatively stable temperate climate, Paq and C/N ratios suggest a relatively humid environment, and stratigraphy showed an increase of storm events. From 5.1-3.6 ka δDn-alkanes showed a large cold excursion followed by gradual warming, Paq and stratigraphy reflected a significant increase in storm event frequency and strength, and an increase in ACL reflected the expansion of cool-moist Nothofagus menziesii into the region. From 3.6 ka to present δDn −alkanes showed a cooling trend to present day, likely related to strengthening of the SHWW, and low amplitude and frequency variation in Paq and decreased storm events signaled a gradual decrease in precipitation to modern day conditions.

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  • Development of an aluminium filled epoxy insert using perfactory rapid prototyping technique and electroless nickel plating for low volume plastic injection moulding

    Rajaguru, Janaka Chandraguptha (2015)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Waikato

    In this research, a rapid tool for low volume production plastic injection moulding is designed, developed, and tested on an injection moulding machine. The tool is designed as a cavity insert of injection mould for plastic parts by an indirect rapid tooling approach. The plastic part is modelled in a CAD system and then built using a Perfactory rapid prototyping (RP) technique. Then a layer of nickel-phosphorous alloy is deposited on the prototype by electroless plating. This nickel plated RP model is then used as a casting pattern. A cavity insert, which is produced by using aluminium filled epoxy resin with the nickel plated casting pattern, is fabricated in a mould base for injection moulding. Experimental testing on the cavity insert using an injection moulding machine show that the tool is producing quality parts without any noticeable deterioration of the surface. The number of shots completed using the cavity insert is more than 600. Applying electroless nickel plating on the casting pattern made of rapid prototyping material was successful. It was found that pre-treatment processes are crucial. In addition, the rapid prototyping material cannot be plated with nickel without palladium activation and stannous sensitising. Results show that the deposited layer is uniform and composed of both nickel and phosphorous. The surface properties of the nickel and phosphorous deposit enhance the plated layer performance due to their low surface roughness and high lubrication characteristics. Moreover, the nickel-phosphorous layer also improves the surface hardness of the cavity insert since it is left on the cavity after the removal of the casting pattern. The cavity insert was installed on an industrial injection moulding machine for trials. Results show that the cavity insert performs well with Polyethylene at 170˚C at an injection pressure in the range of 80 ~ 100 bar. There are no signs of wear and tear on the cavity insert up to 620 shots. However, when the injection pressure is over 120 bar, cracks start developing in the cavity insert followed by catastrophic fracture. This research has shown that manufacturing an indirect rapid tooling using electroless nickel plating for low volume production of plastic injection mouldings is feasible for Perfactory produced RP models. The cavity insert can be fabricated using commonly available low cost materials within 48 hours.

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  • Aspects of the biology of some New Zealand echinoderms : feeding, growth and reproduction in the asteroids, Patiriella regularis (Verrill, 1867) and Coscinasterias calamaria (Gray, 1840).

    Crump, Robin (1969)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    192 leaves :illus. ; 30 cm. Bibliography: p.138-147. The author's "The flight response in Struthiolaria papulosa giges Sowerby", reprinted from the New Zealand journal of marine and freshwater research, v.2, no.3, Sept., 1968, in pocket. University of Otago department: Zoology

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  • A functional analysis of coral tools from late prehistoric Moloka'i Island, Hawaii.

    Dickson, Hamish (1999)

    Honours Dissertation thesis
    University of Otago

    1.1 Research Orientation During the course of archaeological fieldwork conducted late in 1978, 425 artifacts relating to fishhook manufacture were recovered from site 38 on Moloka'i Island in the Hawaiian chain. Fishhook manufacturing artifacts include Porities sp coral and echinoid urchin spine abraders, basalt flakes, bone fishhook blanks and bone fishhook debitage. Artifacts deemed coral abraders (precise definition will be given in a latter section) were studied from this site and will be the focus of this dissertation. It is generally believed that coral abraders were used to manufacture fishhooks for the following reasons: 1) Coral artifacts have been found in close association with fishhook manufacture (Emory, Bonk and Sinoto and Sinoto, 1959, Allen, 1992; Suggs 1961; Kirch and Yen 1982 and Buck 1957: and many others). 2) Early ethnographic accounts recorded in the journals of Captain James Cook by Joseph banks (Endeavor botanist), describe native Pacific islanders manufacturing fishhooks using coral files (Hawkesworth, 1773). 3) Use-wear analysis by Allen (1992) indicates that a large number of these tools may have been used to manufacture fishhooks. This dissertation as two main aims: 1) To form a classification system (non-classificatory arrangement; after Dunnel, 1971) for the purpose of ascertaining a functional to coral tools in relation to fishhook manufacture. 2) To devise a standardised system for the measurement of attributes on coral abraders that may aid future functional studies . Chapter one will set the scene, giving details regarding the background of the site under investigation. A definition and basic description of coral tools will be provided along with a review of the literature regarding coral artifacts. Chapter two is divided into two parts. The first part involves a brief review of the literature on classification systems and typology’s. Also in the first section, a justification will be given as to why the particular classification system was used. The second half of chapter two will involve a justification of attributes chosen to form the classification system. The third chapter involves a description of the methods used in measuring attributes and why these attributes were measured in this manor. This will be followed with a detailed description of each artifact class. Each class description will be accompanied with possible functions. The last chapter will be brief, involving conclusions and suggestions for future research. [extract from Introduction]

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  • A Transcriptomic Examination of Sexual Differentiation in Zebrafish, Danio rerio

    Lee, Stephanie Ling Jie (2015)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    Zebrafish sex determination and sexual differentiation is complex. Neither sex chromosomes, major sex-determining genes nor universal sex-linked markers have been identified, and a variety of environmental factors can influence sex ratios. It is thus unsurprising that the molecular pathways underpinning zebrafish sexual development remain poorly understood. A few key genes such as, SRY-box containing gene 9a (sox9a), anti-Müllerian hormone (amh), cytochrome P450, family 19, subfamily A, polypeptide 1a (cyp19a1a) are known to play roles in zebrafish gonadal differentiation. However, at this time, there are many more questions than answers about sex determination and differentiation in this ubiquitious, and immensely well-studied, species. As with many other vertebrates, sex hormone treatment can induce sex reversal of gonadal phenotype and sexual behaviour in zebrafish. In this study, we take advantage of hormonal manipulation of sex in developing zebrafish and RNA-Seq to unravel the unknown genetic pathways that underlie sex determination and sexual differentiation. We conducted global transcriptomic profiling of juvenile zebrafish brains and gonads at two important developmental stages in gonadal differentiation: (1) juvenile ovary-to-testis transformation (40 days post fertilization) and (2) the completion of testicular and ovarian differentiation (60 days post fertilization). Gene expression profiles from 17α-methyltestosterone masculinised juvenile zebrafish were also compared with untreated zebrafish to improve understanding of androgenic effects on zebrafish sexual differentiation pathways. To our knowledge, this is the first study profiling transcriptome-wide sex dimorphic gene expression in teleost brains during gonadal differentiation. We identified modest sex differences in developing zebrafish brains; 33 and 185 sex dimorphic genes were identified in the brains of 40 dpf and 60 dpf zebrafish respectively. Methyltestosterone treatment significantly altered expression patterns at both timepoints. We observed a total of 1,554 genes differentially expressed between control female brains and MT-treated brains at 40 dpf. 1,379 genes were differentially expressed between 40 dpf male brains and 40 dpf MT-treated brains. At 60 dpf, 728 genes exhibited differential expression between control female brains and MT-treated brains. Interestingly, significantly fewer genes (269) were differentially expressed between control male brains and MT-treated brains at 60 dpf. In contrast, we observed extensive sex differences in zebrafish gonadal transcriptomes. A total of 5,039 genes were sexually dimorphic at 40 dpf. 2,502 and 2,537 genes were up-regulated in transforming testes and juvenile ovaries respectively. At 60 dpf, we identified 4,190 testis-biased genes and 4,267 ovary-biased genes. Many of the sex dimorphic genes identified have no previous links with gonadal differentiation. Despite accelerated testicular development in MT-treated zebrafish, the numbers of differentially expressed genes identified when control ovaries were compared to control testes or MT-treated testes were similar. We identified 5,237 differentially expressed genes between 40 dpf juvenile ovaries and 40 dpf MT-treated testes. 7,513 genes were differentially expressed between ovaries and MT-treated testes at 60 dpf. There were considerably fewer differences between control testes and MT-treated testes. While 1,222 genes were differentially expressed between control testes and MT-treated testes at 40 dpf, only 20 genes separated the transcriptomes of 60 dpf control testes and MT-treated testes. It appears that androgen-induced masculinization shares key molecular regulators with normal testicular differentiation. A pair of rec8 genes were up-regulated in control testes and MT-treated testes. Testis-biased Rec8 expression was previously reported in mammals. Rec8 is required for sister chromatid cohesion, formation of synaptonemal complexes and homologous recombination during meiosis. To elucidate the functional significance of rec8 genes in testicular development, we characterized rec8 genes in adult zebrafish. Sequence homology, synteny and phylogenetic relationships between the zebrafish rec8 genes were explored in silico. Analysis of rec8a and rec8b gene expression in adult zebrafish confirmed testis-biased expression. Our work sets up a framework for which we can explore further functional testing of zebrafish rec8 genes using morpholino knockdown and CRISPR/Cas knockout technologies.

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