28,665 results for Thesis

  • Learning to Program: The Development of Knowledge in Novice Programmers

    Kasto, Nadia

    Doctoral thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    This thesis presents a longitudinal study of novice programmers during their first year learning to program at university. The purpose of this research was to gain a deeper understanding of the ways in which novice programmers learn to program with an emphasis on their cognitive development processes. The intended outcome was a better understanding of the learning processes of novice programmers, which should enhance the ability of educators to teach, design courses, and assess programming. A key aspect of this research focused on cognitive development theories of Piaget, Vygotsky, Sfard and Cognitive Load and to what degree these theories could explain observations of novice programmers learning to write code. In order to observe and investigate how novice programmers integrate new programming structure, concepts or elements into their current understanding of code it is necessary to be able to measure how difficult writing tasks are. Thus, the first aim of this research was to develop a task difficulty framework, which consisted of a new empirically verified software metric (code structure and readability) and a SOLO classification (task complexity) for code writing tasks. This framework was then used to design nineteen code writing tasks which were of increasing difficulty and complexity so as to trigger situations that required some form of knowledge adaptation or acquisition. Over one academic year, students were observed attempting to solve these programming tasks using a think aloud protocol and were interviewed retrospectively using a stimulated recall method. These observations were then linked to the cognitive theories in a way that provides an explanation of how programming was learned by these students. The results of this research indicate that both cognitive and sociocultural approaches are important in the development of knowledge of novice programmers. Of the theories examined two were found to be the most useful. The first is Vygotsky’s notions of the Zone of Proximal Development, the role of more knowledgeable others, and recent ideas about scaffolding. The second is Sfard’s theory of concept development that contributes to a deeper understanding of the way novice programmers’ develop patterns and reuse them in solving another programming task. The evidence about learning obtained during this study provides strong support for a change in the size and organization of the classes in which novice programmers are typically taught and in the teaching methods used.

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  • A Multi-level Theory of Post-Adoptive Adaptation and Organisational Change in Enterprise System Implementation: The Case of CRM

    Techakriengkrai, Wallayaporn

    Doctoral thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    The implementation of a new enterprise system is a major change event for end-users. Users must adapt themselves to learn and understand the new enterprise system as well as engage with the system in their work practices. In addition, organisations need to modify organisational processes and structures to support the new enterprise system. Past research has largely focused on initial organisational adoption decisions concerning an enterprise system. However, there has been little research concerning the use of the enterprise system and the associated change process in the post-adoption stage. This study addresses this gap by developing a multi-level theory of post-adoptive adaptation and organisational change associated with enterprise system implementation in organisations. This study focuses on enterprise system implementation in the context of the Customer Relationship Management (CRM) system. The research questions are: (1) How do organisational changes unfold in enterprise system implementation in the context of CRM systems? (2) How do individuals adapt to an enterprise system in the context of CRM systems at the post-adoptive stage? The study adopted a qualitative interpretive case study method to develop a multi-level theory. Multiple sources of data including interviews and supporting documents were collected and analysed in order to understand individuals’ adaptation behaviours and organisational changes in the post-adoption stage of enterprise system implementation. This study employed an embedded multiple-case design and multi-level analysis. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 43 participants in three different types of business organisations: innovative office automation solutions, an insurance business, and a hospital. The participants were management, users, and IT support staff. Three concurrent data analysis processes (data reduction, data display, and conclusion drawing and verification) were conducted to analyse data and to build a multi-level theory. In addition, the data analysis processes were carried out to identify critical events and gaps which occurred during the change process. During the data analysis stage, low-level codes, interpretive codes, and pattern codes were developed to answer the research questions and build theory. Within-case and cross-case analysis was conducted to explore individuals’ adaptation behaviours and organisational change in each organisation and compared with the other organisations to identify similarities and differences. The study develops new knowledge based on how an integrated theoretical perspective using coping theory and a socio-technical perspective can inform ICT-enabled changes in organisations. The findings revealed five core pattern codes. The pattern codes of changing structure of work, consequences of CRM implementation, and transparency tool and control mechanism revealed organisations change. The pattern codes of adaptation behaviours and factors influencing adaptation behaviours reflected individual adaptation. These two levels of analysis were interrelated. This research contributes to the literature of user adaptation, organisational change, and enterprise systems by presenting a multi-level theory of post-adoptive adaptation and organisational change following enterprise system implementation. The results showed that organisations changed their structure of work after enterprise system implementation, which led to the generation of gaps in socio-technical components and consequences. The generation of gaps had a significant impact on individual adaptation behaviours. The findings will assist organisations in providing appropriate resources and support for successful enterprise system implementations at the post-adoption stage.

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  • Strategic human resource management impacts on local managerial employees’ capacity building in foreign companies in Laos People’s Democratic Republic

    Vilayvong, Sonethavy (2016)

    Thesis
    Unitec

    To succeed in today’s competitive business environment, Strategic Human Resource Management (SHRM) should be integrated with the organisational strategic plan. Particularly, SHRM in capacity building should be taken into account. This is because SHRM in capacity building can enhance the capabilities of the organisational workforce which is a key value of the organisation in performing better work, as well as increasing the productivity of the organisation. In Laos, there are high numbers of foreign investments, thus investors require a competent local workforce to operate their businesses, especially at the management level. Therefore, if business firms wish to survive in the competitive environment, they should implement the right SHRM in capacity building for their local managerial workforce which is a key success factor for organisations. This research project employs a qualitative approach to study some research questions in capacity building of local managerial employees. The main objective is to examine whether foreign companies in Laos possess the appropriate SHRM in capacity building for their local managerial employees. If they do not possess it, what is the effective SHRM in capacity building for the local managerial employees that should be designed and implemented? This research study also applies the semi-structured interview as the main data collecting technique with twelve participants from seven foreign companies in Laos. The findings revealed valuable perceptions of HR professionals toward the SHRM in capacity building which provide positive answers to the research questions. All of the participants from foreign firms in Laos possess SHRM in capacity building for their local managerial employees but its implementation was not executed effectively. From the findings, the effective implementation of outstanding SHRM in capacity building, the so-called localisation strategy, was reported by three participants, whilst nine participants said that there were some obstacles that prevented the implementation and practice of SHRM in capacity building, namely limited budget, less important roles of HRM in strategic level, not sufficient qualification of local managerial employees and unsuitable specific development programmes. Therefore, to conclude the finding of the research, there is a model of ‘SHRM in capacity building for the local managerial employees in Laos’ which has been developed by the researcher. This model aims to guide the suitable steps and implementation of the SHRM in capacity building of the local managerial employees for foreign firms in Laos, to assist them to improve their performance and productivity.

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  • Implications of Software as a Service Adoption for IT Workers’ Roles and Skill Sets from a Sociomateriality Perspective

    Mbuba, Freddie Haita

    Doctoral thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    This study broadly seeks to explain the implications of software as a service (SaaS) for information technology (IT) workers from a sociomateriality perspective. SaaS is a cloud-computing model based on IT capabilities of a utility model that enhances the scalability of computing resources at a lower cost than on-premise IT systems. Unlike the on-premise IT system, through the SaaS model, customers no longer need to purchase software licences. Instead, they can subscribe to and access software via an Internet connection. Based on these potential benefits, customers, particularly large organisations such as tertiary institutions for whom IT may not be their core functional systems, are migrating their on-premise IT systems to the SaaS model. However, this may have effects on the roles and skill sets of IT workers, as support and future developments of SaaS shifts to the SaaS service provider. Researchers have raised concerns about these implications and predicted that cloud adoption would change IT workers’ roles and diminish their jobs, leading to job losses worldwide, as IT departments within organisations lose control of IT resources. Similarly, studies report that IT workers believe by turning IT resources and support to a cloud service provider pose significant risks to their roles and skill sets. However, these anecdotal claims are not supported by substantial empirical and theoretical evidence. Researchers have called for more studies on these implications and the associated human management issues. Previous information system studies on the changing IT workers’ skill sets related to cloud computing adoption are rather generic in that there is a scarcity of in-depth conceptual and empirical analyses to ascertain how these implications are related to SaaS adoption in particular. Therefore, the migration process of IT from on-premise to the SaaS model presents an ideal environment in which to not only understand the implications for IT workers but to contrast the features of the insights offered into how human and technology or human and material agencies interact in work practices. Sociomateriality literature claims that human and material become constitutively entangled in work practices. However, less is known about how human and material interact, and at what level these interactions happen. Therefore, this research draws empirical data from IT implementation projects related to moving on-premise IT systems to a SaaS system, to explain the implications of a SaaS system for IT workers, and employs the concepts of sociomateriality to help explain how human and technology interact in work practices. To narrow the scope, diversity, and context of the research focus, the current study draws empirical data from four case studies of tertiary institutions in New Zealand that migrated their on-premise email systems to a SaaS system such as Google Apps for Education (GAE) or hosted Office 365 (O365). This approach addresses the main research questions posed in this thesis: why the migration of an on-premise IT system to SaaS changes the roles and skill sets requirements for IT workers; what implications there are for functions of the IT department; and how IT workers interact with these technologies from a sociomateriality perspective. In answering these questions and build an in-depth understanding, this study employs a punctuated sociotechnical information system change (PSIC) model as a tool for analysing and displaying the empirical data. In addition, the research applies the concepts of sociomateriality to provide in-depth explanations of the interactions between human and technology. An interpretive approach is adopted, with 17 participants interviewed from four case studies. The participants included IT workers and IT managers who participated in the SaaS migration process. The findings suggest that SaaS has some effects on IT workers’ roles and skill sets, and drawing on the sociomateriality theory, the thesis elaborates and conceptualises levels of the human and technology interaction in the context of SaaS. In addition, the study provides contextual, methodological and theoretical contributions to the body of knowledge.

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  • Does Caffeine Consumption before High-Intensity Intermittent Exercise Enhance Immunity?

    Thida, Khine

    Masters thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    Regular participation in moderately intense physical activity decreases the risk of picking up common colds below that of a sedentary individual. However, performing prolonged, high-intensity, exercise, or sustained periods of strenuous training, is associated with an above average risk of getting infections. However, less is known about how the immune system responds to brief (less than 30 min) bouts of high-intensity intermittent exercise (HIIE), which has become popular due to its efficacy in enhancing health and fitness in general and clinical populations. Furthermore, nutrition and exercise have powerful influences on the body’s immune system and therefore dietary factors and exercise could be coupled to help improve immune function. One potential dietary substance is caffeine, which is now a common element in most people’s diet, due to its alertness-enhancing effects. Though research is limited, caffeine has been shown to enhance the activation of both natural state and antigen-stimulated T (CD4⁺ and CD8⁺) and NK cells following strenuous endurance exercise. However, there is no research investigating the interaction between HIIE and caffeine ingestion on the lymphocytes of innate and adaptive immune functions. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the effects of ingesting caffeine before HIIE on innate and adaptive immune functions following brief (20 min) HIIE. A double-blind cross-over design was adopted, during which 10 healthy active men participated in two exercise trials following acute (60 min pre-exercise) consumption of 6 mg.kg⁻¹ caffeine or placebo. Each trial required participants to perform a 20 min HIIE protocol (10 x 1 min at ~90% HRmax; 1 min active recovery, 50W) in the laboratory on a cycle ergometer. Venous blood samples were collected pre-supplement, pre-exercise, immediately post-exercise and 1 h post-exercise. Samples were analysed for numbers of natural stage and antigen-stimulated T (CD4⁺ and CD8⁺) and NK cells expressing CD69 markers, as well as the GMFI of the expressed CD69. Serum caffeine and, plasma cortisol and adrenaline concentration were also determined. Consuming caffeine one hour before HIIE increased the number of circulating NK cells by 56% at the pre-exercise (P<0.01) at 1 h post-exercise. Overall, the thesis findings suggest that caffeine ingestion one hour before HIIE may increase the innate immune function, as NK cell numbers and activation were increased. However, caffeine prior to HIIE does not appear to alter the circulating number and activation of adaptive immune cells (CD4⁺ and CD8⁺ T cells). While the observed acute innate immune response to caffeine consumption appears desirable, it remains to be determined if acutely improved innate immune function will actually result in reduction of an individual’s susceptibility to infection following HIIE.

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  • An Investigation into Parents' Awareness of Effects of Commercial Fruit Beverages on Their Children's Teeth

    Sural, Prathibha

    Masters thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    Good dental health is essential to overall health and has strong linkage with people’s self-esteem, employability and quality of life. Poor dental health can be a major burden to individuals, families and nations. Good dental habits practiced during childhood have long-term benefits later in life. Dental caries and tooth erosion are common public health problems affecting children. These can be attributed to increased amount and frequency of intake of sugar and low pH foods. Many studies worldwide and in New Zealand highlight tooth wear in children, which can in part be attributed to frequent consumption of fruit juices. Both natural and added sugars in home-made or commercial fruit beverages can affect dental health, however, commercial fruit beverages are more easily accessible and storable than home-made beverages, so are more frequently consumed. This quantitative study assessed parents' knowledge of effects of commercial fruit beverages (any store-bought drink that contained 5% or more fruit) on their children's teeth. This study used a mixed-mode, anonymous survey for data collection using online and paper questionnaires. Questions were focused on participants’ knowledge, awareness and practices towards their children’s consumption of fruit beverages in relation to controlling early childhood caries and erosion. Parents/guardians of children aged between 1-10 years and living in the Auckland region were invited to participate in the survey. Participants’ oral health literacy level was assessed through label-reading of their preferred brand and sub-brand; the factors that influence the choice of the juice were also identified. Since most of the participants in the present study were European women aged above thirty and from higher socioeconomic background, the results indicate that the oral health awareness in this group is reasonable. Price and availability of the beverage and child’s liking for its sweet taste were the important considerations for choosing a brand. A majority of the respondents agreed that the availability of store-bought drinks increase the amount and frequency of fruit beverage consumption in children. There was a modest correlation between awareness level and the ethnicity, age, education and family income of the respondents, however there was no significant association between the awareness level and number of children the respondents had. Understanding of the difference between fruit juice and a fruit drink was considerably low among the respondents. This might be compounded by the unclear labelling of the beverages. Accordingly, there is a need to improve oral health literacy of parents and caregivers in addition to developing standards for more explicit labelling. Advocacy actions should also take the erosive potential of fruit beverages into account in addition to their sugar contents.

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  • Effects of herbicides on both adaptive and acquired antibiotic resistance

    Hill, Amy M. (2017)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Antibiotic resistance is an increasingly serious global health issue that will not be solved without serious and considered intervention. In order to effectively combat increasingly resistant bacteria, a better understanding of the factors influencing the development of antibiotic resistance is necessary. Previous work from this lab has shown that commercial herbicide formulations can induce adaptive antibiotic resistance in Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (Kurenbach et al., 2015). To investigate the breadth of this response, Staphylococcus aureus was exposed to the same set of commercial herbicide formulations and antibiotics and three additional antibiotics commonly used to treat S. aureus infections. The pattern of herbicide-induced changes in antibiotic tolerance was similar but not identical to those observed for E. coli and S. enterica. The magnitude of changes in minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was often smaller for antibiotics that were used in both sets of experiments, while the largest changes were observed for the new antibiotics. These effects were observed at herbicide concentrations below application rates and, in some cases, at concentrations within the maximum residue limits (MRLs) allowable in animal feed and human food as defined by the Codex Alimentarius Commission (Codex Alimentarius Commision, 2016). Whether the adaptive responses to the herbicides can lead to shifts in the population frequency of acquired antibiotic resistance was also tested. Specific combinations of herbicide and antibiotic that caused either increases or decreases in antibiotic tolerance were investigated in more detail. In two combinations of herbicide and antibiotic, ciprofloxacin + Kamba and ciprofloxacin + Roundup, that caused adaptive resistance to the antibiotic an increased frequency of acquired resistance was observed in S. enterica. When two strains of E. coli with differing antibiotic resistance were exposed to a combination of herbicide and antibiotic, tetracycline + Roundup or streptomycin + Kamba, that caused a decrease in antibiotic tolerance, increased selection in favour of the resistant bacteria was observed.

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  • Exploring Multicultural Education and Culturally Responsive Practices in an International School context: A case study of one school.

    Affagard-Edwards, Tiffany (2016)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    In most educational systems around the world, teaching practices are dominated by the majority culture. This means that often the learning needs of minority groups is not taken into account, which can compromise their educational attainment as indicated by trends in national and international data. International schools are an increasingly popular option in what is fast becoming a globalised education system. These schools have significant student diversity in terms of cultural background and languages. This study investigates how multicultural education and culturally responsive practices are implemented in an international school context. Most research on diversity in education is based in monoculture schools. Therefore, this research study sought to understand what is done in international schools to cater for diverse learners. This study was conducted as an exploratory case study of an international school by engaging with a sample of teachers and key administration members of the school. Interviews, fieldwork and classroom observations were conducted to answer the overarching research question: How are multicultural education and culturally responsive practices being implemented in an international school context? As a teacher in the school, I undertook this study from the role of an ‘insider observer’ where I was immersed within the community and able to participate in their daily life. The findings from the study show that while there is some alignment with multicultural and culturally responsive practices, there is little explicit focus on, or support for, these practices by administrators and teachers. These findings suggest there are both implications for practices in international schools and for furthering research within international schools, such as the need to pay more explicit attention to Professional Development, and Data Recording. There is also a need for more research on international schools that examines school and classroom practices.

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  • Nutrition and Reproductive Condition of Wild and Cultured New Zealand Scallops (Pecten novaezelandiae)

    Wong, Ka Lai Clara

    Doctoral thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    The New Zealand native scallop, Pecten novaezelandiae, is a species with a high economic value as a wild catch and has good potential for cultivation. As a mean to enhance the future of this growing shellfish industry, this thesis set out to investigate the nutritional requirements of P. novaezelandiae in relation to reproductive conditions, and determined the physical and biological factors that affect the condition of this scallop species in the wild and cultivated environments. Adult scallops (Pecten novaezelandiae) were sampled from six populations in the Hauraki Gulf (Auckland, New Zealand) in the spawning season (October 2014), in order to evaluate the scallop reproductive condition and nutritional state across the populations. Results showed a spatial variation in reproduction condition (VGI and gonad index), with a higher number of mature scallops in populations closer to the shoreline, where higher food availability may be found. Conversely, nutrient content in scallop somatic tissues (adductor muscle carbohydrates and digestive gland lipids) did not vary across the populations, but was strongly associated with reproductive status of individual scallops (VGI). Nutrient (carbohydrates, proteins and lipids) storage and utilization were investigated within scallops from two sites in the Hauraki Gulf, bi-monthly over a year (2012−2013). In addition, sediment samples were also taken to evaluate the potential for re-suspended nutrients as a food source for scallops. Water samples were collected for seston and chlorophyll a analyses. Isotope analyses (carbon and nitrogen) and proximate analyses were conducted for the gonad, adductor muscle and digestive gland of wild P. novaezelandiae, sediment samples and the seston (1.2−5μm, >5μm). Isotope analyses revealed distinctly different signatures in suspended sediment and scallop tissues, indicating that re-suspended nutrients were unlikely to contribute to the diet of scallops. Nevertheless, seston (particularly the small fractions) signatures were closely related to scallop tissue samples, suggesting that it is likely to be the main food source for the wild P. novaezelandiae. Scallops from the two sampling sites exhibited similar reproductive cycles and utilization of nutrients. Gametogenesis started in winter, and took place at the expense of carbohydrates stored in adductor muscles. Spawning events were recorded in spring (October−November) and summer (January−March), and the energy demand required during spawning events was supported by digestive gland protein. Gonad re-maturation between spring and summer spawnings were supported by the utilization of digestive gland lipids. The reproductive condition and nutrient content of scallops were then studied during the spawning season (October 2013) in wild populations and within experimental conditions (fed with a commercial microalgal diet; Shellfish Diet 1800®) in an aquaculture laboratory, in order to identify condition and nutrient requirements for scallop cultivation in New Zealand. Field scallops (feeding on natural food sources) spawned just before the end of the experiment, while experimental animals reached gonad maturity at the end of the experiment, but did not spawn. The trend in gonad maturation for field and experimental animals indicates that there was a lag time of about 2 weeks, and that this lag is likely due to nutritional stress associated with the shift from natural food sources to the mixed microalgal formulated diet provided in the laboratory. Results indicate that experimental scallops had lower nutrient (carbohydrates, protein, lipids and total energy) reserves stored in adductor muscle tissues compared to wild animals, but both field and experimental animals utilized muscular reserves (especially carbohydrates and protein) to support reproductive activity. The fatty acid profiles revealed that polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) were found in significantly lower quantities in gonad tissues of scallops from the laboratory compared to those in the field. This thesis shows that P. novaezelandiae utilizes energy reserves from both adductor muscle and digestive gland to cover the full cost of gametogenesis. In addition, cultivation environments using microalgal diets are conducive to condition P. novaezelandiae, but the optimal nutrient requirements for an efficient aquaculture production of this species needs further investigation. It is recommended by this thesis that future investigation on the conditioning requirements for P. novaezelandiae will be the next step for New Zealand scallop fisheries.

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  • Proximate and chemical composition of New Zealand avocado by-products (Persea americana Mill. c.v. Hass)

    ZHANG, MENGYING

    Masters thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    After extraction of oil from the pulp of avocado (Persea americana), a significant quantity of waste that includes pomace, seeds, peels, and avocado water are generated. These wastes can be ideal raw materials for food use as they may still have high nutritional value and antioxidant activity. Although there are some reported studies on the physicochemical characteristics of avocado peels and seeds, little has been reported on avocado pomace and water by-products of oil processing. The conversion of these wastes into utilizable food ingredients would help in reducing environmental problems associated with processing waste disposal. In order to determine the potential use of avocado by-products (peel, seed, pomace and avocado water), this study evaluated the proximate composition and antioxidant activity of New Zealand ‘Hass’ avocado by-products. In terms of nutritional values, moisture, ash, protein, fat, and fatty acids content were evaluated. Avocado pomace was found to be high in ash (3.07%) and protein content (10.22%). The fat content of avocado water (59.81%) was significantly the highest, followed by peels (32.88%), pomace (16.26%) and seed (2.42%). In our study, oleic acid was reported as the major fatty acid in the pomace, seed, and peel oils, followed by palmitic, linolenic, and palmitoleic acids. Most saturated and unsaturated fatty acids were significantly higher in peel and pomace. Saturated fatty acids are relatively lower in avocado by-products in our study than unsaturated fatty acids. Monounsaturated fatty acids were the principal fatty acids in all avocado by-products. In comparison with ascorbic acid, the avocado seed, pomace and peel had significant high antioxidant activities, while avocado water had the least. Avocado seed in fact had the highest antioxidant activity. This study demonstrated that avocado by-products have high nutritional value and good antioxidant activities that can be potentially incorporated in food as ingredients to enhance functionality and confer health benefits.  

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  • Comparing syntactic persistence in written and spoken monologue

    Middendorf, Jennifer (2017)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Syntactic persistence, the tendency for speakers to repeat recently-used syntactic structures, has been well demonstrated in dialogue and in single-sentence monologue primed by reading aloud pre-prepared material. Models advanced to explain syntactic persistence assume that priming will also occur in extended monologue, but there is no clear evidence that this is so. This thesis examines within-speaker syntactic persistence of the genitive alternation in spoken and written monologue from the QuakeBox corpus and the Press database, two New Zealand corpora selected for their close match of time period, geographic location, and topic. Two research questions are considered: is priming present in extended monologue, and does priming differ between speech and writing? In order to address these questions, I use binomial mixed-effect models to find the relative contribution of factors predicted to affect genitive choice and priming, and compare the relative impact of these factors, and the overall effect of priming, on the two corpora. The findings of my research indicate that syntactic priming is present in extended monologue, and that this priming occurs more frequently in speech than in writing. My results also support observations in the existing literature that genitive choice is affected by animacy, the presence of a sibilant sound, and the semantic relationship between possessor and possessum. While this study was not able to offer conclusive insights into the differences between α- and β-priming, and the issue of priming in nested structures, my findings indicate that these would be promising areas for further research.

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  • Hydrothermal alteration and rare earth element mineralisation in the French Creek Granite, Westland, New Zealand

    Morgenstern, Regine (2016)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Alkaline igneous complexes are one of two primary sources of rare earth elements (REEs), which are unique metals crucial for the economic growth of a country. Understanding REE metallogenesis in these systems is often complicated, with evidence of both magmatic and hydrothermal processes present. The A-type French Creek Granite (FCG), located on the West Coast of New Zealand, is a poorly-studied example of such a complex system in which anomalous REEs have previously been reported. The purpose of this thesis was to undertake a comprehensive field, petrological and geochemical study of the FCG, its hydrothermal alteration and, to a lesser extent, the cogenetic Hohonu Dyke Swarm (HDS), in order to better understand the type, style and location of REE mineralisation. Whole rock geochemical analyses of 54 samples using XRF and ICP-MS/AES established that the ca. 82 Ma FCG is a composite granitoid dominated by a ferroan, peraluminous biotite granite that was emplaced into a high-level (ca. 3 km) syn-tectonic setting. A syenite shell and genetically related basaltic–rhyolitic dykes are present, and trace element content, and disequilibrium textures in phenocrysts in dykes, are evidence of magma mixing. Maximum ƩREE+Y content are higher in the felsic FCG (847 ppm) relative to the mafic HDS (431 ppm). Primary REE-Zr-Y enrichment in the FCG is a function of partial melting of an enriched mantle source and subsequent extensive differentiation. Primary REE mineralisation was identified via SEM-EDS and is defined by modal allanite, zircon, apatite, fergusonite, monazite, perrierite and loparite, which typically occur with interstitial biotite. This association, and LA-ICP-MS analyses of REE-bearing giant (500 μm) zircon, indicate REE enrichment in the residual melt was likely due to high magmatic fluorine and late-stage water saturation, in addition to differentiation. Extensive sericitisation, chloritisation, hematisation, carbonate alteration and kaolinisation were identified in the altered FCG using field observations, microscopy and XRD. A zone of propylitic alteration in the Little Hohonu River and a smaller, phyllic alteration assemblage in the Eastern Hohonu River are defined, both of which generally correlate with higher REE anomalies than fresh FCG. Quartz protuberances, microscopic fractures and dyke emplacement indicate the phyllic alteration is structurally controlled, and REEs are hosted in bastnäsite group minerals, zircon, monazite and xenotime. This zone is consistently enriched (607 ppm average ƩREE+Y), indicating remobilisation and secondary REE-Zr-Y enrichment by hydrothermal fluids. Stable 13C and 18O isotopes from secondary carbonates indicate low temperature (~250°C) magmatic-hydrothermal fluids sourced from the cooling FCG, which were likely part of a late-stage porphyry-type system operating during the same mantle degassing and extension episode that was associated with initial Tasman Sea spreading.

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  • An evaluation of the New Zealand Advance Pricing Agreement process

    Abu-Hijleh, Mohammed (2016)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Transfer pricing (the pricing of cross border transactions between controlled or related parties) is an important tax issue faced by multinational enterprises (MNEs). The Inland Revenue Department (IRD) initiated the Advance Pricing Agreement (APA) program in 1999/2000 as a more co-operative approach for MNEs to addressing transfer pricing compliance. An APA is an agreement negotiated in advance between a taxpayer and a tax authority that sets the price of cross border intra-firm transactions between related parties over a fixed period of time. This study evaluates the New Zealand APA process with a main focus of gaining an insight of how the program operates. Eight interviews comprising three participants from the IRD and five tax practitioners from the ‘Big 4’ accounting firms were conducted, in order to gain an insight into the New Zealand APA process. This was supplemented beforehand by documentary analysis of the New Zealand APA process and other sources of data. Further, the study reviews the APA processes of other tax jurisdictions, namely Australia, the United Kingdom, and the United States. A comparative case study analysis approach is utilised to see how these tax jurisdictions’ APA processes compare to New Zealand’s APA process. The findings of this research reveal that New Zealand has maintained an informal APA process, where all MNE applicants are welcome to apply regardless of complexity, size or degree of risk involved in any of their transactions proposed to be covered under the APA. This was also seen as a key difference in the approach the IRD maintains towards APAs compared to the APA processes of other comparative tax jurisdictions’ considered in this study. All interviewees perceived the New Zealand APA process well in terms of how it works and what it achieves. It was believed to be an attractive solution for all MNEs operating in New Zealand wanting to gain certainty around their transfer pricing tax affairs. An opportunity for New Zealand Customs to incorporate APAs as an acceptable valuation method for MNEs to price their imports is also identified in this study. However, many obstacles are identified as to why this may prove to be a challenge for New Zealand Customs to implement. All information mentioned in this thesis is up-to-date as at August 2016.

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  • Teachers’ experiences of including children and families from Asian cultural backgrounds in early childhood education.

    Youn, Jung Yoon (2016)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    This thesis investigates New Zealand early childhood teachers’ understanding and experiences of teaching and including children from Asian backgrounds, in particular, Korean, Chinese and Japanese cultures. In Aotearoa New Zealand, participation in early childhood education of diverse ethnic groups is growing every year. Since 2004, the largest growth in enrolments has been among Asian ethnic groups, with an increase of 90%. The New Zealand Early Childhood Curriculum, Te Whāriki, states “there are many migrants in New Zealand, and, as in any country with a multicultural heritage, there is a diversity of beliefs about childrearing practices, kinship roles, obligations, codes of behaviour, and what kinds of knowledge are valuable” (Ministry of Education, 1996, p. 18). It is therefore important that teachers in the early childhood education service sector are able to effectively respond to the holistic learning needs and well-being of children and families from different ethnicities. This research explores what culturally inclusive and responsive teaching means in the New Zealand early childhood setting and looks at some of the barriers to and facilitators of creating learning environments that meet the needs of children from Asian cultural backgrounds. Data was collected through interviews and questionnaires from teachers working in different early childhood centres in Christchurch. The information gathered was reviewed and evaluated using thematic analysis and the findings were considered in the context of a number of themes – from the teachers’ perceptions of Asian parents and families as influenced by their own experience, to their ideas about progressing inclusive education for children and families from Asian cultural backgrounds. This work highlights some strategies that may help progress cultural inclusion. It also outlines current research and identifies the need for more exemplars for teachers and for further research in this area.

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  • Assessing How Small Island Communities Prepare for a Tsunami: A Case Study of Phi Phi Island, Thailand

    Poompoe, Arissara

    Masters thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    The 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami revealed that the west coast, and many of its small islands, in the Andaman Sea are vulnerable to tsunamis. Such a devastating event also emphasised the importance of having local communities well prepared to deal with future tsunamis. Since the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami, a number of risk mitigation measures have been developed in the tsunami prone-areas. However, about 11 years after the event, little is known about the levels of preparedness of Thai residents living on islands exposed to tsunamis. This study aims to identify the elements underlying preparedness of the local people residing in Thai small islands, and scrutinize the preparedness measures undertaken by the government agencies since the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami. Phi Phi Island was used as a case study as it is representative of the many small islands located in the Andaman Sea. The present research relied on a questionnaire survey carried out with over 20 permanent residents from Phi Phi Island – about 10 percent of the residents living in the study area. This research also utilised field observation and analysis of relevant documents, including policy documents, reports, and academic publications. Findings show that preparedness behaviours of the local residents was widely affected by their personal perception, belief, and bias of prior experience to tsunamis. The available resources within the local residents’ daily context (e.g. time, finances) and trust in the authority were crucial factors that considerably affected making decisions in taking preparedness. Many preparedness measures have been addressed in the Island (e.g. Tsunami Early Warning, Tsunami Warning Signage, Land Plan Use Guideline); however, challenges regarding their effectiveness and insufficient maintenance of those measures are evident. The present study recommends that local communities and the elements that shape their perception of tsunamis, should be, to a greater extent, integrated in the preparedness activities carried out by local government agencies. Moreover, strengthrning Community-Based Disaster Risk Management (CBDRM) approach is likely to be useful in order to promote tsunami preparedness.

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  • Exploring How Hospitality Undergraduate Students’ Perceptions and Attitudes Towards a Career in the Hospitality Industry Are Affected by Their Work Experience: A New Zealand Quantitative Study

    Chan, Muk Chung

    Masters thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    This research explores the demographics and career aspirations of hospitality undergraduate students who are studying for a hospitality degree in New Zealand. Furthermore, it explores hospitality undergraduate students’ attitudes towards a career in the hospitality industry. The attitudes mainly relate to students’ understanding of their career in the hospitality industry. Previous research has revealed the concerning issue that 44% of students will not work in the hospitality industry after graduation (Richardson, 2008). In order to have a better understanding of the problem, this study has focused on exploring how work experiences have influenced hospitality undergraduate students’ attitudes towards a career in the hospitality industry. The research used a quantitative method, and a questionnaire was used to collect the quantitative data from a major hospitality education provider. The findings indicate that first year students have the highest intention to work in the hospitality industry after graduation (83%) whereas third year students have the least intention to work in the hospitality industry after graduation (66%). The findings show that students’ work experiences have a great influence on their attitudes towards working in the hospitality industry. As students progress their studies and gain more work experience, they appear to form negative attitudes about their future in the sector. This dissertation concludes by providing recommendations to hospitality industry practitioners and hospitality education providers that may reverse this trend.

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  • Musings on Musos: A Thematic Analysis of the Working Conditions Experienced by New Zealand Musicians

    Smith, Ximena

    Masters thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    The labour conditions in creative industries, such as the music industry, are complex. For instance, the deterioration of the 9-to-5 workday and the rise of project-based work has given creative workers more autonomy and pleasure in their work (Florida, 2002, 2005; Howkins, 2001; Leadbeater, 1999). However, other conditions that accompany creative work, such as precarity and insecurity, can result in stressful experiences for creative workers (Banks & Hesmondhalgh, 2009). The purpose of this research, then, is to explore the conditions and subjective experiences of three musicians working in the New Zealand music industry, and to obtain an account of the challenges these workers may face. Developing a deeper understanding of creatives’ experiences in the music industry is useful, because a significant amount of public money is given to New Zealand On Air and the New Zealand Music Commission to support the growth of this industry (New Zealand Music Commission, 2013; Scott & Craig, 2012). However, these government bodies have not published any research regarding the lived experiences of New Zealand music workers, or investigated the personal issues musicians may face when it comes to working successfully in the industry. The research is therefore intended to shed light on the upsides and downfalls of working in the industry, and is guided by the question: What are the experiences of New Zealand musicians regarding the labour conditions in the New Zealand music industry? In order to answer this research question, one-on-one responsive interviews were conducted with three self-identified musicians who work in New Zealand’s music industry (Rubin & Rubin, 2005). Braun and Clarke’s (2006) thematic analysis was then used to analyse and interpret the data set. Five major themes were found to be present in the data. These include the sense among the musicians that the New Zealand music scene is small; the presence of career uncertainty; the importance of authenticity; cultural entrepreneurialism; and the existence of cultural intermediaries in the musicians’ working lives. Overall, it was found that the music industry provides significant opportunities for musicians to have positive working experiences. However, these experiences may not be felt by other musicians in different circumstances, who may not be able to manage the challenges of the industry as easily as those musicians interviewed. This research therefore ends with the recommendation that further measures by the government could be taken, such as the reinvigoration of the PACE (Pathway to Arts and Cultural Employment) scheme (Shuker, 2008), in order to make good work experiences more widely accessible to those working in the music industry.

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  • A Psychotherapist's Experience of Grief: An Heuristic Enquiry

    Alleyne, Bronwyn

    Masters thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    This research explored my subjective experience of being a bereaved psychotherapist, both personally and professionally, in a hospice and a private practice setting. The focus was to find the meaning within my grief experience by investigating, analysing, and reflecting on my experience via a systematic, internal, creative, intuitive, immersive, and deepening explorative process that the heuristic research method and methodology offered. My grief was captured in qualitative and immersive grief depictions, initial questions from which populated my personal search for the answers; and to which I recursively and painfully immersed myself in to explicate the core themes and the essence of the experience.

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  • Modes and Progression of Tool Deterioration and Their Effects on Cutting Force During End Milling of 718Plus Ni-based Superalloy Using Cemented WC-CO Tools

    Razak, Nurul Hidayah

    Doctoral thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    Understanding the detailed progression of cutting tool deterioration and how deterioration affects cutting force (F) during milling of difficult-to-cut Ni-based superalloys is important for the improvement of machinability of the alloys. It also serves to clarify whether and how an F-based method for monitoring tool deterioration is possible. This understanding is however far from sufficient, as is explained in this thesis after a comprehensive review of the literature. The aim of the present research is thus to determine and explain the modes and progression of tool deterioration and how cutting forces may vary due to the various deterioration features of the cutting tool edge. Experimentally, the study started by using a typical milling condition with both uncoated and coated cemented carbide (WC-Co) tools. Milling was conducted in either dry or wet conditions. After each pass of a selected distance, the tool was examined in detail in the same manner. Thus, tool deterioration could be monitored more closely and failure mechanisms could be identified and explained. Following on the study on determining the modes of tool deterioration, the progress of deterioration and cutting forces during milling were carefully monitored. Through analysing the monitored tool deterioration features and measured force data, how edge wear, chipping and breakage in cutting edge and beyond the edge contribute to the variation of cutting forces could be studied and better understood. Furthermore, experiments have also been conducted using workpiece in a hardened state. It has been observed that the commonly recognised build-up layer in the initial stage does not significantly affect the tool deterioration process. Instead, from the beginning of milling, cutting forces/stresses could cause small chipping locally in the initially sharp cutting edge. Fracturing locally with cracks propagating outside the cutting edge along the flank face in the subsurface region could also take place and was consistent with the direction of the cutting force. There was an initial period of time during which a number of microcracks had initiated in and near the cutting edge on the rake face side. These cracks soon propagated resulting in extensively fracturing and blunting of the tool. Coating of the tools had provided little protection as in the cutting edge area the coating had broken away soon after milling started. The major tool failure mode was Co binder material having heavily deformed to fracture, separating the WC grains. Loss of strength in binder material at cutting temperatures is also discussed. As would be expected, the general trend of how F increased as the number of pass (Npass) increased agreed with the general trend of increasing flank wear (VB) as Npass increased. However, the F-VBmax plot has shown a rather poor F-VBmax relationship. This was the result of the different modes of tool deterioration affecting VBmax differently, but VBmax did not represent fully the true cutting edge of the deteriorating tool insert. Chipping and breakage of the inserts confined in the cutting area, resulting in the significant blunting of the edge area, causing a high rate of F increase as VBmax increased and completely deteriorated 6 minutes within of milling time. Fracturing along the face of thin pieces effectively increased VBmax without increasing the cutting edge area and without further blunting the edge, thus no increase in F was required. The high rate, meaning high ∆F/∆VBmax, results from the effect of the edge deterioration/blunting on the reducing the effective rake angle and thus increasing F is suggested and discussed. The use of coolant has not been found to affect tool deterioration/life and cutting force. Explanation for this will be given considering the deformation zone for which coolant does not have an effect. An increase in feed rate has reduced the tool life and the mode of deterioration has become more edge chipping/fracturing dominant, leading to a better F-VBmax relationship. Finally, it has been observed that the rate of tool deterioration is not higher when the hardened workpiece material is used. The modes and progression of deterioration of tools using hardened workpiece were determined to be comparable to those when annealed workpiece was used. Furthermore, the trends of increase in cutting force as milling pass increases have been observed to be similar for both workpiece material conditions. Interrupt milling experiments followed by hardness mapping has indicted that the workpiece hardened state has not affected the deformation area significantly, although increase in hardness in a similar amount in the severe deformed region has been found for both cases. It is suggested that temperature increases in the narrow deformation zone to be similar for both workpiece conditions and at high temperatures hardening mechanisms do not operate, and thus cutting force values do not differ significantly. Furthermore, the modes and rate of tool deterioration on the hardened workpiece was comparable to the annealed workpiece.

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  • Stratigraphy, structure and geological history of mid-Cretaceous sedimentary rocks across the Torlesse-like/non Torlesse boundary in the Sawtooth Range-Coverham area, Marlborough.

    Ritchie, D. D. (1986)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    This thesis describes the geology of an approximately 100km2 area lying between the Clarence River and Kekerengu. The objectives were to determine the relationship of the "Torlesse-like" sawtooth Group to the late Early Cretaceous Coverham Group; to determine the relationship between the coeval Split Rock and Burnt Creek Formations within the Coverham Group; and to investigate the nature of Cretaceous events which led to the traditional differentiation into older Torlesse type "basement" and younger Cretaceous "cover". Geological mapping indicates the presence of three packets (Glencoe, Pikes and Coverham Blocks) of sedimentary rocks separated by the major Ouse and Pikes Faults. These packets comprise probable submarine fan flysch, massivE? sandstone, massive siltstone, acid tuffs and conglomerate of Sawtooth Group (Torlesse-like Urutawan - Motuan) unconformably overlain by probable slope basin flysch, massive siltstone, Inoceramus shellbed, and conglomerate of Coverham Group (non-Torlesse). The unconformity is most commonly angular but in a few places is a more subtle paraconformity. A further minor unconformity occurs at the base of the Ouse Member within the Split Rock Formation of the Coverham Group and is thought to reflect the presence of the growing Ouse Anticline. The Coverham Group rocks have similar Motuan - Teratan ages on each side of the Ouse Fault. The Split Rock Formation, previously used only for rocks in the middle Clarence Valley, has been extended to the Coverham area and used for rocks west of the Ouse Fault. The partly coeval Burnt Creek Formation east of the Ouse Fault was probably deposited some distance from the Split Rock Formation in a different basin separated by a structural high. They were juxtaposed by low angle reverse movement on the Fault in the Late Cretaceous. structural/deformation characteristics cannot be used as criteria for separating the Torlesse-like rocks from non-Torlesse rocks in the study area. It is dangerous to assume that 'Torlesseness' is a certain and particular state of deformation. Both the Torlesse (Sawtooth) and Coverham Group rocks exhibit a whole spectrum of deformation from 'broken formation' to more or less undisturbed beds. The pattern of deposition and deformation suggests an accretionary prism setting for these rocks. Sawtooth Group rocks are likely to represent 'younger' Pahau Terrane rocks which were deformed by a single intra-Motuan event either tectonic or perhaps a huge submarine slide, creating widespread unconformity between them and the Coverham Group slope deposits. Continuing instability is likely to have led to growing folds and further minor unconformities. The termination of the Rangitata Orogeny occurred in a progressive and evolutionary way representing a mid-Late Cretaceous change from a compressional subduction regime to a tensional rifting regime. Andesitic-rhyolitic volcanism was common in the late Early Cretaceous.

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