26,369 results for Thesis

  • Carl Zeus

    Youngkong, Nattapon

    Masters thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    This project Carl Zeus (working title) investigates the German Expressionist film movement as an inspiration and a platform from which to develop a contemporary film project. The research focuses on the unique cinematographic and production techniques employed by the filmmakers of this movement. It explores the potential communicability of these cinematic devices. The movement (begun in 1919) emerged from the unique historical circumstances of post-World War One Germany. The works were primarily concerned with the country’s universally destabilized psyche and trauma that prevailed in German society after the war. The project questions the value of these cinematic devices in communicating contemporary issues and the experience of living in the present time. I next explore how to deploy an expressionist mode of cinema into a short film project. To negotiate this question, I produce a short film that deploys the Expressionist mode of cinema through the script, cinematography and mise-en-scene as a method of inquiry.

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  • Some aspects of the relationship between agriculture and the national economy : with special reference to labour

    Ross, B. J.

    Thesis
    Lincoln University

    The interdependence of industry and agriculture in a modern economy is everywhere freely acknowledged, but New Zealand probably provides one of the most dramatic illustrations of the complementary nature of this relationship. In addition to the dependence of agriculture on manufacturing which is normal in advanced countries, many of New Zealand’s manufacturing industries are indirectly dependent on agriculture for their raw materials. Most raw materials have to be imported, and as agricultural products make up ninety per cent of the goods exported in exchange, a high level of agricultural production is essential if manufacturing output is to be maintained or increased. In view of this, a study of some aspects of the relationship between agriculture and industry in New Zealand is likely to prove of the greatest interest. It is intended in this present study to examine particularly those aspects concerned with labour enquiring into the size of the agricultural labour force in relation to the total labour force, and examining the relative incomes of agricultural and non-agricultural sections of the community. The work of Fisher, Clark, Ojala and others has shown that in those countries now considered economically advanced economic progress has been associated with a relative decline in the proportion of the labour force employed in agriculture, and a relative decline also in the importance of agriculture in the economy, measured in terms of the proportion of national income produced by agriculture. This work, and the discussion which arose from it, will be studied in a review of the literature in Chapter. I, while a quantitative study of New Zealand population and labour statistics will be carried out in Chapter III. The income generated by New Zealand agriculture will be compared with the national income in Chapter IV, in an attempt to discover whether economic progress in New Zealand has been associated with any change in the relative contribution of agriculture to the community’s total economic welfare. It has been shown by Bellerby and his co-workers that agricultural incomes have, in most of the countries studied, shown a long term tendency to be at a level far below non-agricultural incomes, although New Zealand is mentioned as an exception in the respect. This work will be considered in the review of literature, and in Chapter V the New Zealand data in this field will be examined. In Chapter VI an attempt will be made to draw the data together to see how the New Zealand results compare with those obtained by Clark, Bellerby and the others, and how they fit in with the general conclusions reached by these workers. Some suggestions for further work in this field in New Zealand will also be offered.

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  • Characterisation of rhizobia associated with New Zealand native legumes (Fabaceae) and a study of nitrogen assimilation in Sophora microphylla

    Tan, Heng Wee

    Thesis
    Lincoln University

    Many legume species have the capacity to fix atmospheric N₂ via symbiotic bacteria (generally termed “rhizobia”) in root nodules and this can give them an advantage under low soil N conditions if other factors are favourable for growth. There are four genera of native legumes, on the main New Zealand (NZ) islands. These are the closely related Carmichaelia, Clianthus and Montigena in the Carmichaelinae clade, tribe Galegeae, and Sophora, within the tribe Sophoreae: all are capable of nodulation. Little work has been done on the genotypic characterisation and host-range specificity of the rhizobia associated with NZ native legumes. Moreover, the ability of native legumes to assimilate soil N in comparison with their N₂ fixation has not been assessed. The primary objectives of this research were to 1) more fully characterise the rhizobia associated with the four genera of NZ native legumes, including their ability to cross nodulate different species and 2) assess the ability of Sophora microphylla to assimilate soil N in comparison with its N₂ fixation. Gene sequencing results indicated that the bacterial strains isolated from NZ native legumes growing in natural ecosystems in the current and previous studies were of the genus Mesorhizobium. Generally, the Carmichaelinae and Sophora species were nodulated by two separate groups of Mesorhizobium strains. Ten strains isolated from the Carmichaelinae showed 16S rRNA and nifH similar to the M. huakuii type strain, but had variable recA and glnII genes, novel nodA and nodC genes and the seven strains tested could produce functional nodules over a range of Carmichaelinae species but did not nodulate Sophora species. Forty eight strains isolated from Sophora spp. showed 16S rRNA similar to the M. ciceri or M. amorphae type strains, variable recA, glnII and rpoB genes and novel and specific nifH, nodA and nodC genes which were different from those of the Carmichaelinae strains. Twenty one Sophora strains tested were able to produce functional nodules on a range of Sophora spp. but none nodulated C. australis. However, eighteen of the twenty one strains produced functional nodules on Cl. puniceus. These results indicate that, in general, the ability of different rhizobial strains to produce functional nodules on NZ native legumes is likely to be dependent on specific symbiosis genes. Clianthus puniceus appears to be more promiscuous in rhizobial host than the other NZ native legumes species tested. Generally, strains isolated from NZ native Sophora spp. from the same field site grouped together in relation to their “housekeeping” gene sequences and ERIC-PRC fingerprinting banding patterns. Most strains were able to grow at pH 3 – pH 11 but only one showed phosphorus solubilisation ability and none showed siderophore production. The strains showed differences in their ability to promote the growth of S. microphylla under glasshouse conditions. DNA-DNA hybridisation tests indicated that strains isolated from New Zealand native Sophora spp. are of several new Mesorhizobium species. The ability of S. microphylla to utilise soil NO₃⁻ and NH₄⁺ in comparison with its N₂ fixation was assessed under glasshouse conditions. N₂ fixing (nodulated) plants showed substantially greater growth and tissue N content than those relying solely on NH₄NO₃, NO₃⁻ or NH₄⁺ up to the equivalent of 200 kg N ha⁻¹ and N limitation is likely to have been the major cause of reduced growth of non-N₂ fixing (non-nodulated) plants. NO₃⁻ levels were negligible in plant tissues regardless of NO₃⁻ supply, indicating that virtually all NO₃⁻ taken up was assimilated. Thus, there appears to be a limitation on the amount of NO₃⁻ that S. microphylla can take up. However, it is possible that S. microphylla could not access NO₃⁻ in the potting mix and further work is required using different substrate and more regular NO₃⁻ applications to confirm this. Plants showed NH₄⁺ toxicity symptoms at 25 kg NH₄⁺-N ha⁻¹ and above. Nitrate reductase activity was not detected in roots or leaves of mature S. microphylla in the field: all plants were nodulated. Overall, the two major findings of this research are 1) NZ native legumes are nodulated by diverse and novel Mesorhizobium species and 2) S. microphylla seedlings have limited ability to utilise soil inorganic N. Important future work based on the results obtained in this research is discussed.

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  • The Further Analysis of Catania's Concept of the Operant

    Zhang, Yi (2014)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    Catania’s theory of the operant incorporated the continuous characteristic of behaviour, where the response distribution follows a normal distribution. That is, most responses fall within the reinforced range, a few responses persisted outside of the reinforced range. Three roosters and three hens were used as the subjects. A continuous reinforcement (CRF) schedule was implemented throughout both experiments of the study. In Experiment 1, the screen was divided into four quadrants. Only one quadrant was active in each condition and the active area shifted to a different quadrant across conditions. Each peck within the active quadrant was considered as a correct response, which results in reinforcement. Each peck outside the active quadrant was considered as an incorrect response, which results in extinction. In Experiment 2, the screen was divided into vertical strips. During Conditions 1 to 8, the consequences for the correct and incorrect responses are the same as Experiment 1. In Condition 9, the consequence for the incorrect responses changed from extinction to punishment (delay to reinforcement). That is, a 3 second red screen was followed with each occurrence of an incorrect response. It was found that the incorrect responses persisted during each condition of the two experiments for most birds. It was also found that most of the hens’ responses were correct responses by the end of each condition in Experiment 2. However, for all birds in Experiment 1 and the roosters in Experiment 2, most responses were not correct by the end of each condition. The findings of Experiment 2 also indicated that the changes in condition length, active area’s size, and consequence of the incorrect responses might have had some influence on the number of incorrect responses. Overall, the findings demonstrated behavioral continuity through exploring the distribution of response proportion when reinforcement was placed on the correct responses, and when extinction or punishment was placed on the incorrect responses. Thus, the study provided some empirical support towards Catania’s concept of the operant.

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  • Constructing and Reconstructing Criminality in Aotearoa/New Zealand: Dominant Media Discourses on Crime and Criminality and their Impact on Offenders’ Identities and Rehabilitation Efforts

    Riches, Murray (2014)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    This study investigates the dominant media discourses and ideologies surrounding crime and criminality in Aotearoa/New Zealand, how such discourses are constructed and legitimised by media reporting of crime, and the implications of these discourses for deemed offenders. The study firstly involves a critical discourse analysis (CDA) of ‘mainstream’ media reports relating to crime and criminality in Aotearoa/New Zealand over a 12-month period – paying particular attention to the reporting evident in two major newspaper outlets. This analysis reveals two key themes: the construction of criminal offenders as undeserving criminalised others – particularly through the use of truth-claims about criminality and the simplification of offenders’ identities – and the legitimisation of retributive, tough-on-crime, responses to offending. The analysis of media discourses is augmented by an ethnographic study of an offender rehabilitation programme. This investigation is used to explore how dominant discourses and ideologies on crime and criminality contribute to the construction of offenders’ self-identities, the impact of such identity construction on their patterns of offending and rehabilitation, as well as the ways in which these discourses are contested (or reinforced) by those deemed ‘offenders’. This follow-up ethnographic case study involves participant observation, focus groups and interviews with participants of the Good Lives Model offender rehabilitation programme at Anglican Action in Hamilton over a 12-month period. The participants of this programme are men transitioning back into the community after serving significant prison sentences. The ethnographic investigation reveals the ways the otherising discourses exposed in the CDA are present for, and effect, the men as they make the challenging journey out of prison, particularly in their experiences of discrimination and otherisation when seeking to engage with, and transition back into, the wider community. This exploration also reveals a nuanced negotiation of identity and power, whereby the men both draw on and challenge the dominant discourses at different times in the process of negotiating an identity position and accessing agency within a marginalising discursive framework. Thus, the discourse analysis and the ethnographic study together provide rich insights into the pervasive impacts of dominant public constructions of criminality on offenders’ sense of identity and on their attempts to reintegrate with society. The study concludes by arguing that the CDA and ethnographic investigation together emphasise the need to challenge the destructive nature of the dominant discourses and cultivate a more inclusive and reasoned discursive framework for exploring ideas around crime and criminality in Aotearoa/New Zealand. The thesis argues that one way to counter the ‘wilful blindness’ exemplified in media and public discourses, is through the use of story for it is through listening and seeking to know the other that we can begin to have our assumptions challenged. It is important to note that this thesis in no way endorses any criminal offending nor does it seek to minimise the pain and suffering of any victims of crime. Rather, it argues that such a dualistic understanding of crime, and the relationship between victims and offenders, only inhibits our ability to look at the issues surrounding crime and criminality with clarity.

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  • Perceived causes of initial development and relapses in anorexia nervosa: A comparison to theoretical models of aetiology

    Batenburg, Gabrielle (2015)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    Anorexia nervosa is a disorder which causes significant impairment, both acute and chronic, for those who experience it. Anorexia nervosa is associated with a long-term course and high rates of relapse. The purpose of this research was to investigate the perspectives of those with anorexia nervosa on aetiology and their views on causes of relapse. The aim was to gain a better understanding of how those with anorexia nervosa conceptualise it; compare it to theoretical models and considered how these perceptions may relate to treatment. Sixteen semi-structured interviews were conducted with eight participants, consisting of eight initial interviews, then eight follow-up interviews to reflect on preliminary findings. Findings related to three main domains: definitions of anorexia nervosa, causes of initial development, and causes of subsequent episodes (relapses). Individual and collective definitions of anorexia nervosa were markedly different from diagnostic definitions, mainly due to the increased detail but there was also contention around how diagnostic definitions focus on body image and resistance to recovery. Causes of anorexia nervosa in this study matched other in-depth research of accounts, but varied with respect to aetiological models. A key difference uncovered in this study was the emphasis placed by participants on different aspects of anorexia, which fell outside of weight and body image concerns, and notable that these aspects became a part of the reasoning for anorexia. Perspectives on the causes of relapse indicated three main categories: those which were present during initial development, those which were present during the initial development but only became significant after experiencing anorexia, and those which were unique to relapse. Due to the limited research in this area it was challenging to compare these findings to other studies; however, they do represent an important aspect of treatment and research, which could be enhanced. A model of aetiology of anorexia nervosa was developed integrating current findings with established theoretical models and research; key influences contributing to relapse were also modelled. Relevant recommendations for diagnosis, treatment, and relapse prevention are presented throughout the discussion.

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  • LinkedIn for Personnel Recruitment and Selection: A New Zealand perspective

    Heynes, Seth James (2015)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    This study explored how the professional networking site LinkedIn is being used and perceived by recruitment and selection practitioners within New Zealand organisations. In recent times LinkedIn has seen large increases in membership and it has become a resource used by recruitment and selection practitioners. LinkedIn is conceptualised as a professional networking site which can be perceived differently to social networking sites such as Facebook. Specifically this study sought to determine how common the usage of LinkedIn was, the features being used by recruitment and selection practitioners, how these features affect or influence perceptions and decision making of recruitment and selection practitioners, and if LinkedIn was being used alongside Social networking sites such as Facebook or Twitter. Participants were recruited from various New Zealand university alumni groups, professional membership groups and various organisations. Eligibility for the research required individuals to be conducting the role of either recruitment or selection within their current positions within New Zealand. The final sample consisted of 135 participants, and descriptive and thematic analysis was conducted on the survey responses. The results indicated that 66.4% of the sample were using LinkedIn for both personnel recruitment and selection. LinkedIn was used more for recruitment purposes with both recruitment and selection practitioners indicating that LinkedIn can be perceived as a resource for recruitment and selection. Results further indicated that many organisations did not maintain any formal policy regarding LinkedIn use within recruitment and selection procedures. Results indicated that the most frequently used features of LinkedIn were the Profile, and Jobs & Hiring features. The professional information sub feature, alongside previous experience and qualifications obtained, was perceived to be the most important and it influenced aspects of recruitment and selection decision making. Facebook was indicated to be the most used social networking site alongside LinkedIn, with 88% of participants having reported using Facebook for recruitment and selection. The results also showed that recruitment and selection practitioners perceive many disadvantages of LinkedIn such as lack of credibility, inaccuracy of information and that LinkedIn may not be appropriate for certain job roles. However, LinkedIn was perceived as a resource which maintained beneficial professional information. As stated by Barber (1998, as cited in Breaugh & Starke, 2000), this research has sought to address gaps in the literature regarding practitioners’ attitudes towards recruitment sources and to investigate influencing aspects on recruiter and selectors’ decision making. The research addresses both of these aspects by highlighting attitudes of practitioners towards LinkedIn and identifies some of the more influential features of LinkedIn on practitioners’ decision making. This is beneficial for practitioners as it indicates the positive and the negative aspects of LinkedIn which is a scarcely researched topic while also addressing the research gaps mentioned by Barber (1998). The current research has confirmed LinkedIn as a resource for recruitment and selection; however, LinkedIn lacks predictive validity and future research, such as predictive validation studies could be conducted to identify whether LinkedIn provides any incremental validity beyond the traditional predictors of job performance.

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  • Algebraic Properties of Chromatic Polynomials and Their Roots

    Gilmore, Hamish Julian (2015)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    In this thesis we examine chromatic polynomials from the viewpoint of algebraic number theory. We relate algebraic properties of chromatic polynomials of graphs to structural properties of those graphs for some simple families of graphs. We then compute the Galois groups of chromatic polynomials of some sub-families of an infinite family of graphs (denoted {Gp,q }) and prove a conjecture posed in [15] concerning the Galois groups of one specific sub-family. Finally we investigate a conjecture due to Peter Cameron [8] that says that for any algebraic integer α there is some n ∈ ℕ such that α + n is the root of some chromatic polynomial. We prove the conjecture for quadratic and cubic integers and provide strong computational evidence that it is true for quartic and quintic integers.

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  • Chicken Feather Fibre Mat/PLA Composites for Thermal Insulation

    Qin, Xin (2015)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    In order to add more economic value to chicken feather, a waste material of the poultry industry, it has been researched to incorporate chicken feather fibre (CFF) into resin to produce value-added composites. In the present research, chicken feather fibre was separated from the rachises and used to produce fibre mats. Then fibre mats were incorporated into polylactic acid (PLA) to make composites with low thermal conductivity. The procedure for making chicken feather fibre mat using an automatic dynamic sheet former was explored. Two different composite fabrication methods were investigated. One involved fabricate composite samples by hot pressing chicken feather fibre mats with PLA sheet. The other involved making composite specimens by hot pressing PLA powder and chicken feather fibre mats. A decrease in tensile strength compared to PLA had been expected before composite specimen fabricating according to previous research and so alkali treated fibre mats were used to improve tensile strength of composites. It was concluded that chicken feather fibre mats with uniform quality could be made by controlling the jet-to-spin ratio and water wall thickness of the dynamic sheet former cylinder. Stable mat/PLA composites could be fabricated by hot pressing chicken feather fibre mats with PLA powder. Results from tensile testing indicated that alkali treatment could improve tensile strength to a small degree. SEM image analysis revealed that poor interfacial bonding between fibre barbs and PLA matrix had occurred. Thermal conductivity testing demonstrated improved thermal insulation with addition of CFF to PLA.

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  • An Evaluation of Public Participation in the Environmental Impact Assessment Process of the Maldives

    Zuhair, Mohamed Hamdhaan (2015)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) is a proactive tool that assesses and addresses the environmental and social impacts of development projects. It has been identified as a process that can potentially deliver the goal of sustainable development. Public participation is an important aspect of both EIA and sustainable development. In many countries EIA provides the only opportunity for the public to participate in decision-making processes. Nevertheless, research reveals that meaningful public participation in EIA in most countries remains a false promise, with consultations undertaken only as an administrative necessity and with the public having no real power to influence the decisions. It is argued here that, in order for public participation in the EIA process to be effective and promote sustainable development, the process needs to follow participatory principles promoted by deliberative democracy. This research investigates the EIA process of the Maldives, a developing island nation in the Indian Ocean. The low-lying nature of the country makes it extremely vulnerable to environmental change and, therefore, sustainable development is high on the agenda for the Maldives. It is a worthwhile case to study as the political context of the country is changing with the Maldives’ recent embracing of democracy. Moreover, the EIA regulations of the country were recently amended in an attempt to make the process more robust. These changes provide an interesting context for the research. In addition, there is very little prior literature on EIA in the Maldives and hence this research is an opportunity to contribute to a still limited body of scholarship. An interpretive phenomenological research paradigm was adopted in designing the research. A multimethod qualitative research design was selected, with documents and semi-structured interview being the primary data sources. A conceptual framework based on the reviewed literature was developed and used to direct the research design. In this respect, four aspects that ensure a deliberative participatory process were investigated: fairness, competence, willingness, and capacity. The findings reveal that the participatory procedure in the Maldives is neither fair nor competent. Moreover, several socioeconomic barriers that affect the capacity and willingness of the actors to participate were identified: namely, political influence, a lack of human and financial capacity, gender gap, a loss of community spirit, and a lack of environmental and procedural awareness. This thesis contributes to the scholarship on public participation in the EIA process. It specifically helps to identify key challenges for effective public participation in the Maldives EIA process. In this regard, both procedural and socioeconomic barriers were identified. The recommendations proposed are based on the findings of the research, and, if adopted, can lead to more meaningful public participation and thus potentially help to achieve the goal of sustainable development through the EIA process.

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  • User-centric Visualization of Data Provenance

    Garae, Jeffery (2015)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    The need to understand and track files (and inherently, data) in cloud computing systems is in high demand. Over the past years, the use of logs and data representation using graphs have become the main method for tracking and relating information to the cloud users. While it is still in use, tracking and relating information with ‘Data Provenance’ (i.e. series of chronicles and the derivation history of data on meta-data) is the new trend for cloud users. However, there is still much room for improving representation of data activities in cloud systems for end-users. In this thesis, we propose “UVisP (User-centric Visualization of Data Provenance with Gestalt)”, a novel user-centric visualization technique for data provenance. This technique aims to facilitate the missing link between data movements in cloud computing environments and the end-users’ uncertain queries over their files’ security and life cycle within cloud systems. The proof of concept for the UVisP technique integrates D3 (an open-source visualization API) with Gestalts’ theory of perception to provide a range of user-centric visualizations. UVisP allows users to transform and visualize provenance (logs) with implicit prior knowledge of ‘Gestalts’ theory of perception.’ We presented the initial development of the UVisP technique and our results show that the integration of Gestalt and the existence of ‘perceptual key(s)’ in provenance visualization allows end-users to enhance their visualizing capabilities, extract useful knowledge and understand the visualizations better. This technique also enables end-users to develop certain methods and preferences when sighting different visualizations. For example, having the prior knowledge of Gestalt’s theory of perception and integrated with the types of visualizations offers the user-centric experience when using different visualizations. We also present significant future work that will help profile new user-centric visualizations for cloud users.

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  • Magic as a Tool of Social Construction: Cultural and Gender Identity in Contemporary Fantasy

    Elder, Matthew J. (2015)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    Contemporary fantasy is a genre that exists outside the boundaries of what consensus society constructs as socially normative. It re-appropriates and subverts facets of reality in order to place the reader in a position from which they can re-assess their own socially constructed identities, perspectives, and assumptions. Fantasy accomplishes this goal by expressing the familiar in a mode of hyper-exaggeration designed to highlight the ways in which the ideals and issues are constructed. In this way fantasy questions and critiques reality. This thesis examines how the contemporary fantasy genre uses magic as a tool to highlight the less visible social forces of reality such that the reader can gain insight into how and why social norms come to be established, as well as how they might be changed. It discusses the presentation of conflicting cultural and gender identities within fantasy worlds. Works by Brandon Sanderson, Robert Jordan, Jim Butcher, Peter V. Brett, and Patrick Rothfuss will be drawn on. By looking to the magic of the world as a focusing lens, these social conflicts and differences become clearer. The discussions undertaken in this thesis demonstrate an approach to contemporary fantasy literature that can be further utilised across a multitude of subgenres and social issues of contemporary reality.

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  • Primary school teachers' knowledge of phonemic awareness and its importance as a factor in learning to read

    Clark, Linda Kaye (2015)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    The purpose of this research was to gain an understanding of the knowledge that teachers in New Zealand primary school classrooms have in regard to phonemic awareness, their understanding of its importance as a factor in learning to read, and the methods they use to assess and teach it. International assessments continue to highlight an unacceptably large gap in reading achievement between good and poor readers in New Zealand primary schools (Mullis, Martin, Foy, & Drucker, 2012; Tunmer, Chapman, Greaney, Prochnow, & Arrow, 2013a). Up to 20% of children in New Zealand primary school classrooms are struggling to learn to read (Education and Science Committee, 2001, 2008; Education Review Office, 2005). Research shows that explicit instruction in phonemic awareness will help children struggling with reading to learn to read (Ehri et al., 2001; Hatcher, Hulme, & Snowling, 2004; Nicholson, 2003; Pressley, 2006; Ryder, Tunmer, & Greaney, 2008; Strattman & Hodson, 2005; Torgesen et al., 2001). Teachers’ knowledge of phonemic awareness becomes important in the context of providing this explicit instruction. An online survey was used to assess 68 in-service teachers’ knowledge of phonemic awareness. Four semi-structured interviews were also conducted which allowed the survey findings to be investigated further in four local contexts to add depth to the researcher’s understanding. Results revealed that participants struggled to define phonemic awareness, and did not understand the differences between phonemic awareness, phonological awareness, and phonics. Participants found some tasks more difficult than others, in particular phoneme counting and phoneme identity. There were also discrepancies between the participants’ perceived knowledge and their actual knowledge. Participants tended to overestimate their actual knowledge, perceiving themselves as more knowledgeable with regard to phonemic awareness than they actually were. Phonemic awareness did not appear to be regularly assessed nor explicitly taught in most of the participants’ classrooms. The findings suggest that the teachers who participated in this study did not typically have the knowledge of phonemic awareness needed to be able to provide the explicit instruction in phonemic awareness children struggling to learn to read need in order to become successful readers.

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  • Suboptimal Choice Behaviour across Different Reinforcement Probabilities

    Yang, Le (2015)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    Six adult roosters’ choice behaviour was investigated across a series of five experimental conditions and a series of replication of the same five experimental conditions. Stagner and Zentall (2010) found that pigeons prefer to choose an alternative with highly reliable discriminative stimuli but with less food reward over an alternative with non-discriminative stimuli but with more food reward. The current research systematically changed the probability of reinforcement associated with the discriminative stimulus through a series of experimental conditions. Experimental sessions were completed with six adult roosters. The experimental procedure was based on Stagner and Zentall’s (2010) experiment in which the suboptimal alternative with discriminative stimuli was associated with 100% reinforcement on 20% of the trials, and non-reinforcement on 80% of the trials; the optimal alternative with non-discriminative stimuli was associated with both 50% reinforcement on all trials. This research modified the probabilities of reinforcement associated with the discriminative alternative. In the first experimental condition, the probability of getting access to reinforcement was the same (50%) for each discriminative stimulus, thus, what was seen for the first time was that both alternatives were associated with non-discriminative stimuli. To insure reliability, a replication of the conditions was done after the first five experimental conditions were completed. The results showed that four of the roosters had suboptimal choice behaviour in the first five experimental conditions; however, only two of them maintained such suboptimal behaviour in the replication conditions. This result does not support the idea that the suboptimal choice behaviour with strong discriminative stimuli is a robust effect.

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  • Women and Careers: New Zealand Women's Engagement in Career and Family Planning

    Ussher, Sarah Rosemary (2015)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    This study investigated the extent women engage in career planning, and whether making considerations to have children would influence their career plans. Relationships with other variables were examined with career and family planning, which included proactive personality, subjective career success, and commitment and salience of women’s careers and role as a parent. One hundred and seventy three women who did not have children participated in this study by completing an online survey. Significant relationships were found between career planning and proactive personality, subjective career success, career commitment and career salience importance of career in life and importance of work over career. Family planning was found to be positively related to parental role commitment and salience, and negatively to career commitment, proactive personality, and career salience. Career planning was found to have no relationship with family planning, parental role commitment and salience, and career salience importance of career over family. Proactive personality was positively related to subjective career success, career commitment, and career salience. Age and education were not found to be related to career planning, but were negatively related to family planning. These results suggest that women feel there is a need to choose between a career and a family. My research found that women with high parental role commitment and salience were more likely to change their career plans to accommodate having children. Whereas, women with high career commitment and salience, were less likely to change their career plans to accommodate children. My research overall found that women do engage in career planning, and whether a woman’s career plans were altered due to considering children, was dependent on the woman’s preference for a family over a career, or a career over a family, which indicated whether a woman preferred to plan a career around a family or a family around a career. The findings within this thesis add knowledge to the field of women and careers, as well as suggests practitioners to discuss with female clients and employees that women do not need to choose between a career and a family, and that considering family responsibilities in career plans is a way to make balancing a career and a family, in theory, more manageable. This research offers practical recommendations for career counsellors and organisations to help effectively support female clients and employees manage their career and career aspirations, while also taking into account women’s concerns about managing their career responsibilities along with their maternal responsibilities. Implications for future career management programs to consider are suggested to encourage and support female employees and clients for the effective planning of their career, and taking into account a contingency plan for the possibility of parenthood in their future. Furthermore, examining women’s lifestyle preferences, could possibly disclose indicators of women who may have an increased likelihood of limiting their career responsibilities, due to the concern of managing career and childcare responsibilities.

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  • Retaining the authentic self in the workplace: Authenticity and work engagement in the mass-service industries

    Sharp, Lisa Karen Peden (2015)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    This research explored the association between authenticity and work engagement within the customer service context of mass-service industries. Authenticity in customer service workers is usually considered detrimental to organisational aims for a consistent standard of good service. However, research which finds that acting the service-persona is associated with emotional exhaustion and cynicism in workers (Brotheridge & Lee, 2002), while authenticity is related to positive customer-outcomes (Bujisic, Wu, Mattila, & Bilgihan, 2014), suggests that authenticity may enhance the experience of service for workers, and their customers, to provide for sustained competitive advantage. In the present research, I sought to examine the relationship between the degree of authenticity that employees use in their interaction with customers, and their experience of work engagement. Mass-service refers to a sector of the service industry modelled on mass-production. Contrary to principles for work engagement, workers in customer service roles within mass-service, usually repeat a small range of tasks with very little variation or autonomy. One hundred and forty service employees in petrol stations, fast food outlets, supermarkets, and in general retail responded to a survey measuring the extent to which they felt authentic, used surface acting and deep acting, their state of self-efficacy, feelings of personal accomplishment, and work engagement. Results revealed a positive relationship between authenticity and work engagement. Surface acting emerged as a less authentic approach to service than deep acting, however, deep acting was not strongly related to authenticity. Personal accomplishment strongly moderated associations with work engagement. Overall, results suggest that an authentic approach to interaction with customers and a sense of personal accomplishment are important to work engagement in mass-service workers. Findings support the promotion of authenticity in the workplace, as well as providing opportunities for workers to obtain a sense of accomplishment. Practical implications for the integration of authenticity into the customer service context, such as greater job autonomy and training customer service employees in the beneficial use of personality within the service-role, are discussed.

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  • The Hobbit: The Desolation of Smaug - A New Era of Realism?

    Elliott, Darren Jack (2015)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    Peter Jackson’s Hobbit trilogy is a familiar blockbuster franchise, adapting a well-known piece of literature and designed to appeal to global audiences. This trilogy, however, is also experimental, as the premium release of each film utilised higher frame rate (HFR) technologies together with computer generated imaging (CGI) and 3D in ways that were intended to extent the apparatus of cinema itself. These technological processes are part of a long line of developments aimed at creating a more compelling cinematic experience (Michelle, Davis, Hight, and Hardy, 2015). 3D film is thought to be the culmination of technological advances in film as the format’s ‘implicit mission was to conquer the entire sensorial complex, to represent reality in its totality’ (Asselin and Gosselin, 2013, p.132). Thus, this thesis focuses on the reception of global audiences to the technological aspects of the second film of The Hobbit franchise, The Desolation of Smaug (2013), focusing on whether 3D HFR quantifiably alters viewers’ viewing experience in terms of improving perceptions of realism and immersion. The research draws from a mixture of qualitative and quantitative methods, including an online survey of 650 respondents across multiple countries and 39 Skype and email follow-up interviews. The responses to and interpretations of a self-selected audience formed the basis of understanding whether these technological advancements have created a more perceptually realistic and immersive cinematic experience. The findings from this research indicate that these new technologies were a challenge to many of the expectations of Hobbit viewers. Despite general approval of the nature of these technologies and their possibilities for enhancing the aesthetic experience of cinema, key segments of the audience were clearly disenchanted with these innovations, especially in comparison with their experience of Jackson’s earlier Lord of the Rings trilogy (2001-2003) and other CGI-based and 3D cinema. Respondents outlined problems in the interplay between the different imaging techniques, which generated jarring visual artefacts. They critiqued scenes where the filmmakers failed to seamlessly meld the technologies effectively, and many reported being frustrated at interruptions to their efforts to immerse themselves in the film’s narrative. Furthermore, my findings suggest that ultimately, the 3D HFR technologies and the aesthetic presented were subsidiary issues to the narrative surrounding the Middle-earth world that emotionally resonates with the majority of respondents. This does not mean that these interviewees found 3D HFR technology to have clashed with the narrative, but that the film ultimately stood as a return to their Middle-earth world. These 3 responses are consistent with those noted by Michelle et al. (2015), who found that existing fan communities of Tolkien and the Lord of the Rings trilogy had complex reactions to the use of 3D HFR technologies and their impact on The Hobbit films. These findings suggest a mixed future for similar efforts to advance cinematic aesthetics through new technologies.

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  • Jurassic sediments at Chaslands mistake.

    Geary, Geoffrey Clive (1976)

    Undergraduate thesis
    University of Otago

    v, 34 leaves ; 30 cm. Includes bibliographical references. University of Otago department: Geology

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  • The son enthroned in conflict : a socio-rhetorical interpretation of John 5.17-23

    Huie-Jolly, Mary R (1994)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    xviii, 333 leaves ; 30 cm. Includes bibliographical references. University of Otago department: Theology

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  • No woman's land : marginality, liminality and non-traditional women in New Zealand : decade between early 1970 - early 1980

    Hollebon, Janice Marion (1986)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    x, 91 leaves :ill. ; 30 cm. Includes bibliographical references. University of Otago department: Anthropology

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