29,081 results for Thesis

  • Urban Maori art : the third generation of contemporary Maori artists : identity and identification

    Rennie, Kirsten (2001)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Kia u ki tou kawai tupuna, kia matauria ai, i ahu mai !we i hea anga ana koe ko hea Trace out your ancestral stem, so that it may be known where you come from and in which direction you are going. The intention of this thesis is to examine and interpret the artistic careers and practice of University of Auckland Bachelor of Fine Arts graduates Lisa Reihana (1987), Brett Graham (1989), and Michael Parekowhai (1990), and University of Canterbury Bachelor of Fine Arts graduates Shane Cotton (1989) and Peter Robinson (1989). These urban artists are from a third generation of contemporary Maori artists, and they have been selected for this study because they represent a phenomenon within the New Zealand arts establishment. Graduating within three years of one another, they have instantly and successfully mapped out their artistic careers, rapidly rising in status nationally, and internationally, over the past decade. An examination of how contemporary Maori art has been defined by Maori and Pakeha critics and artists, and who is legitimised as Maori artists, presented as the debate between an essentialist and a post-modern, post-colonial argument, frames the context for this survey of identity and identification. The thesis investigates a contemporary Maori art movement: presenting a whanau of artists who form an artistic and educational support network of contemporaries, that whakapapa back to the Tovey generation - the kaumatua artists, influential in the work of Shane Cotton (Ngati Hine, Nga Puhi), Brett Graham (Ngati Koroki Kahukura), Michael Parekowhai (Nga-Ariki/Te Aitanga, Rongowhakaata) Lisa Reihana (Ngati Hine, Nga Puhi, Ngai Tu), and Peter Robinson (Kai Tahu). The artistic whanau now includes Cotton, Graham, Parekowhai, Reihana and Robinson who in turn influence and support their third generation peers, subsequently informing the artistic practice of the fourth generation of contemporary Maori artists, and forming a vital link in the continuation and development of the contemporary Maori art movement. The sesquicentenary of the Treaty of Waitangi in 1990 raised the question, once again, of how we identify as a nation, specifically, is there a New Zealand bicultural identity? The historically familiar focus on forming a partnership between the tangata whenua and Pakeha continued to be of importance for the nation as it approached the end of the millenium. The issue for New Zealand, as a country populated by a diverse range of migrant and locally born peoples, more recently, has become less concerned with 'creating' a bicultural identity and more interested in visually representing a multicultural nation. The last decade of the second millenium (1990 - 2000), is the main focus of this study because each one of the five artists profiled is conscious of speaking between two cultures, and they utilise their artistic works as the vehicle through which to investigate their Maoritanga and their bicultural reality. In a global climate of an increased awareness involving the rights of indigenous peoples, the third generation of contemporary urban Maori artists, the thesis will argue, became cultural ambassadors both nationally and internationally, their work an institutionally acceptable bicultural fusion of Pakeha and Maori concerns. The easy facility with which they negotiate between these two worlds makes them a pivotal generation in any study of contemporary Maori art. This thesis aims to reveal the changing and sometimes controversial face of contemporary Maori art, establishing the necessity for this change, revealing where the artists position themselves as a result of their geographical location within New Zealand, and in terms of their own connection to their Maori heritage and knowledge of their whakapapa, investigating issues of identity and identification.

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  • Associations between language, false belief understanding and children's social competence

    Buehler, Daniela (2016)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The current longitudinal study explores associations between language and social competence. Specifically, I examine whether language variables, such as using and hearing mental state words and specific aspects of communication, are linked to social competence through the social skill of perspective-taking and the ability to understand that other people might hold a false belief. A cohort of 67 children were assessed at three time points. The initial assessment took place at ages of 24–30 months; and the first follow-up assessment occurred at ages of 41–49 months, and the outcome assessment took place when the children were aged 52–60 months. Data were collected through standardised tests of language and cognition, coded spontaneous play-based language samples, a nonverbal false-belief task and parental questionnaires that represent aspects of Cavell's (1990) social competence model. The findings indicated that mothers' connected communication played a role in their children's social development. Mothers who more often referred to their 2-year-old child's utterances, reformulated, elaborated or answered to them in an appropriate manner described their children as socially more advanced later in development compared to mothers who were less connected in communication with their child. However, mothers' connectedness in communication with their children was no longer a significant predictor once the children's expressive and receptive language abilities were added to the regression model. Children's expressive vocabulary including words to refer to mental states at the age of two years was a predictor of their social competence at five years. Children who produced more words in general and more often used words to refer to their own and others’ mental states such as emotions, desires or cognition at two years had fewer social difficulties at five years than children who produced fewer words and made fewer references to mental states. No relationship was found among mental-state talk, communication connectedness and false-belief understanding and between false-belief understanding and social competence. These findings indicate that being able to express oneself and to refer to mental states helps young children to interact more effectively in the social world. Therefore, considering the impact that early language competency has on social development identification of children with language difficulties becomes even more important.

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  • Making the most of work resources: the moderating effect of regulatory focus on resilience development

    Connell, P. K. (2016)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The ever changing, volatile business world calls for resilient organisations and resilient employees. While past research suggests the need to identify factors that contribute to employee resilience development, there is limited empirical research that clarifies these factors. Drawing from Conservation of Resources (COR) theory, the purpose of the present study was to examine the relationship between social- and feedback-related resources, and resilient employee behaviours, and to explore the moderating role of regulatory foci (prevention and promotion) in this relationship. A survey was conducted among 162 participants from four organisations. Moderated multiple regressions, considering 3-way interactions, were conducted to test the theoretical assumptions. Findings from this study suggest that: 1) individuals with a high promotion and high prevention focus display higher levels of employee resilience, irrespective of resource levels, 2) the resilience of employees with a low promotion and low prevention profile is impacted by resource availability, and 3) mismatch in regulatory foci (i.e., individuals exhibiting high levels of one regulatory focus and low levels of the other) accounts for unique relationships between resources and resilient behaviours. This is the first study to examine the interaction between promotion and prevention, and to assess the prevalence and role of regulatory foci in workplace factors.

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  • Characterising landscape and sea level dynamics to predict shoreline responses over the next 100+ years in a high energy tectonic setting, Kaikoura, New Zealand

    Berger, Hannah Victoria (2017)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    This thesis examines local scale landscape dynamics and coastal responses to climate change along the tectonically active, high energy Kaikoura coastline, South Island, New Zealand. In New Zealand, the majority of urban infrastructure is built along low-lying coastal plains. As a result, expanding coastal communities face increasing exposure to coastal hazards, which will potentially be exacerbated by climate change-induced adjustments in sediment supply, wave climates and sea levels, amongst other factors. Sea level around New Zealand has been predicted to rise between 0.8 m and 1.0 m by 2115 as a response to increasing global temperatures. In Kaikoura, local relative sea levels may vary from regional projections based on local sediment dynamics in response to; local tectonic uplift and co-seismic sediment delivery, increased rainfall and storm intensity, ocean climate and tides. Local sediment dynamics are important to consider when managing relative sea-level variations, in terms of assessing erosion response affected by sediment supply. New Zealand Coastal Policy Statement (NZCPS, 2010) Policy 24 states that the effects of climate change on coastal sediment dynamics should be factored into 100 year hazard risk assessments. To this date there has been no combined assessment on tectonic, climatic, and anthropogenic controls on local sediment dynamics, to predict mixed sand and gravel morphology response to future climate change and sea level variation along the Kaikoura coastline. The main objective of the research is to predict how coastal geomorphology in Kaikoura is likely to respond to local tectonic and climate change- induced adjustments in landscape and sea level dynamics over the next 100+ years. In order to fulfil the research objective, the primary focus of this research was developing a conceptual framework for the preliminary assessment of local sediment dynamics as part of a sea-level rise response matrix. The methodology was developed using a Kaikoura area case study, including the coast between the Hapuku and Kahutara Rivers, Kaikoura Peninsula and the adjacent coastal progradation plain, and Seaward Kaikoura Ranges. This area encompasses key coastal sediment processes and controls in a small well-constrained region that produced findings that can be scalable to other areas in New Zealand and elsewhere. Tectonics, climate, and human interventions were identified as the main controls on local sediment dynamics in Kaikoura. Key physical (faults, watersheds, landforms) and anthropogenic (hard/soft engineering structures, regulatory frameworks) factors influencing the sediment dynamics were assessed at different temporal and spatial scales. Various climate, river gauge, and beach survey data alongside local tectonic assessments were used to characterise and assess each control. Determining how each control influences local scale sediment dynamics proved challenging in a relatively sparse data context. Rainfall, ocean climate, and beach profile data analyses provided sufficient information to construct a conceptual model for the preliminary assessment of local sediment dynamics, how tectonic and climate change-induced adjustments could affect sediment supply and how future relative sea level may manifest in the Kaikoura region.

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  • Development and Analysis of a Solar Humidification Dehumidification Desalination System

    Enayatollahi, Reza

    Doctoral thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    In this thesis, an investigation was performed in order to understand the performance of a solar humidification dehumidification (HDH) desalination system. Initially, a mathematical model of the system, including solar water heater, condenser, economizer and long duct humidifier was developed. Using a sensitivity analysis, it was found that improving the intensities of heat and mass transfer in the humidifier would significantly enhance the yield of the system. This led to the development of a novel cascading humidifier, in which air was directed through a series of falling water sheets. An experiment was performed to first identify and characterise flow regimes in the crossflow interactions, and from this, to develop correlations to describe the heat and mass transfer for such interactions. Four flow regimes were identified and mapped based on the Reynolds number of the air and the Weber number of the water. Subsequently, Buckingham’s π theorem and a least squares analysis was employed to develop a series of empirical relations for Nusselt and Sherwood numbers. This led to the proposal of three new dimensionless numbers named the Prandtl Number of Evaporation, the Schmidt Number of Evaporation and the Lewis Number of Evaporation. These describe the transfer phenomena in low temperature evaporation processes with crossflow. Finally, the new correlations for Nusselt and Sherwood numbers were used to develop a model of a cascading humidifier, incorporated in a solar HDH system. It was found that a cascading humidifier enhances the yield of the HDH system by approximately 15%, while reducing the evaporation area to approximately a quarter of that required in a long channel humidifier.

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  • The Role of Ecology and Molecular Evolution in Shaping Global Terrestrial Diversity

    McBride, Paul Derek

    Doctoral thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    The density of species varies widely across the earth. Most broad taxonomic groups have similar spatial diversity patterns, with greatest densities of species in wet, tropical environments. Although evidently correlated with climate, determining the causes of such diversity differences is complicated by myriad factors: many possible mechanisms exist to link climate and diversity, these mechanisms are not mutually exclusive, and they may overlap in the patterns they generate. Further, the importance of different mechanisms may vary between spatial scales. Generating uneven spatial diversity patterns in regions that are below equilibrium species richness requires either geometric or historical area effects, or regional differences in net diversification. Here, I investigate the global climate correlates of diversity in plants and vertebrates, and hypotheses that could link these correlates to net diversification processes, in particular through climate-linked patterns of molecular evolution. I first show strong climate–diversity relationships only emerge at large scales, and that the specific correlates of diversity differ between plants and animals. For plants, the strongest large-scale predictor of species richness is net primary productivity, which reflects the water–energy balance at large scales. For animals, temperature seasonality is the strongest large-scale predictor of diversity. Then, using two clades of New World passerine birds that together comprise 20% of global avian diversity, I investigate whether rates and patterns of molecular evolution can be linked to diversification processes that could cause spatial diversity patterns in birds. I find that most substitution rate variation between phylogenetically independent comparisons of avian sister species appears to result from mutation rate variation that is uncorrelated with climate. I provide evidence of nearly neutral effects in mitochondrial coding sequences, finding a significant, negative correlation between non-synonymous substitution rates and population size. Using phylogenetically independent comparisons, I also find that birds in low temperature seasonality, and isothermal environments, and birds with small elevational ranges have increased non-synonymous substitution rates, indicative of relaxed purifying selection. Other climate variables have no direct effect on molecular evolution. Molecular evolutionary patterns are dominated by mutation rate variation. Recovered patterns were stronger when mutation rate variation was controlled, indicating that such variation is a source of noise in analyses, and may be generally problematic across short genetic distances for analyses using mitochondrial genes. I bring these findings together with emerging literature to outline a framework for understanding net diversification patterns. Maintaining adaptations to climate, and the limits of those adaptations have population-genetic consequences that can affect lineage persistence and the processes of speciation and extinction in a fashion that is consistent with observations at multiple levels of diversity.

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  • Planning for green building design and technology in New Zealand

    Kirpensteijn, Helene

    Thesis
    Lincoln University

    Green building design and technology has been developed to lower the impacts of buildings on the environment while maintaining, and in some cases improving all the functions and values of a traditional building. Although the initial costs of green buildings are higher than those of traditional buildings, increased performance and efficiency means that green buildings are more cost effective in the long-term. However, because of these higher initial costs and other barriers such as knowledge barriers, behavioural barriers, and regulatory barriers, uptake is still low in many countries, including New Zealand. Local government and the profession of planning have revealed interests in managing green building uptake. Therefore, the objective of this research is to investigate whether planning provisions in New Zealand are an effective way of increasing green building design and technology uptake. To conduct this research, a mixed methods approach was used. This included performing a plan analysis, a Section 32 report analysis, a hearing report analysis for the Proposed Auckland Unitary Plan and the Christchurch Replacement District Plan. Interviews were also carried out with representatives from these councils and the New Zealand Green Building Council. The findings of this research was that mandatory provisions written into unitary/district plans can be effective in increasing green building uptake. However, Section 18 of the Building Act prevents them from doing so. Therefore, the most effective methods at this time are incentive based schemes such as reduced resource consenting time and costs for green building consents, and the use of height and density bonuses. In conclusion, in the current regulatory environment, planners cannot effectively implement mandatory green building provisions. However, they can effectively manage non-mandatory provisions for increasing green building uptake. If in the future planners were to be able to successfully execute mandatory provisions to increase green building uptake, then Section 18 of the Building Act would need to be amended. For implementing mandatory green building provisions in the future, it is recommended that an incremental, step-by-step approach is used so as to avoid unnecessary stress on homeowners and developers.

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  • Test-retest reliability of the SSQ-12 questionnaire: for hearing-aid wearers using pen-and-paper administration method

    Cox, Bethany (2016)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The aim of this study was to determine if the SSQ-12 (Speech, Spatial, and Qualities of Hearing Scale – Short form) is a reliable questionnaire to assess hearingaid benefit for experienced hearing-aid wearers using the pen-and-paper administration method. Twenty-eight experienced hearing-aid wearers were recruited from the University of Canterbury’s audiology clinic database and from the general public. Participants were sent the SSQ-12 questionnaire 3 times at 6-week intervals. The participants’ responses across the three different administration times (T0, T1, and T2) were compared using a repeated measures ANOVA to determine if their answers remained stable over time, when no intervention was occurring. The results showed there were no significant differences between the SSQ-12 total or sub-scale scores for each participant’s T0, T1, and T2 data. Critical change scores were calculated for total, and sub-scale scores, to facilitate clinicians identifying whether a change in score is clinically significant. In conclusion, the results of this study indicate the SSQ-12 has good test-retest reliability for experienced hearing-aid wearers using the pen-and-paper administration method.

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  • Self-care in the age of neoliberalism : an auto-ethnographic exploration by a counsellor.

    Multhaup, Michael (2016)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    This thesis explores the self-care of a counsellor, myself, in the age of neo-liberalism. The underpinning structure is Dewey’s developmental spiral (1933) that enables me to use the writing of this thesis as a reflective process. This practice consists of reflecting on past experience, exploring and critiquing the influence of neoliberalism as a significant hindrance in maintaining effective self-care. I also deconstruct relevant discursive formations by employing the theoretical approaches that are positioned in the social constructionist arena, and consult the writings of Foucault, De Certeau, Wittgenstein, and other theorists. I revisit personal historical occurrences linking them to societal settings. For this I use auto-ethnography as the methodology, exploring my adoption of early discursive formations and in particular the way I used work as a coping mechanism. For the conceptualisation that describes new constructive ways of being, I use the solution-focused therapeutic approach to overcome the problems of being enmeshed with the discussed hegemonic discourses. The last part of the Dewey’s developmental spiral explores new experiences that have been influenced by the reflective process described earlier. The aim of this thesis is to develop a framework of understanding to advance self-care practices that may also serve as an inspirational tool for others to use in their own unique situations.

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  • Cross-language phonetic priming in bilinguals.

    Sun, Keyi (2011)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    This thesis looks at cross-language phonetic priming effects on late L1-dominant bilinguals, with different degrees of proficiency within the group. The participants in the study are 14 Chinese-English late bilinguals, whose production of vowels and consonants in different priming language contexts was analysed. The 14 speakers were divided into two groups based on their language proficiency. Information collected from questionnaires in two different languages was used to divide them into the two groups. They were required to participate in the experiment in two different sessions. On one occasion the interviewer spoke English to them and this was followed by their English reading and Chinese reading; whereas on the other occasion the interviewer spoke Chinese and the subjects did the opposite reading order from the first condition. Significant results of the analyses show that non-early, L1-dominant bilinguals do not differ in proficiency across priming conditions. Both groups show significant changes as the result of language priming for exactly the same vowels and the same consonants. Significant changes in the production of the sounds reveal interference between certain L2 sounds and their L1 counterparts. However, near significant results also show an unexpected direction of changes in production in L2, which may have been caused by experimenter identity. Furthermore, transfer effects of L1 on L2 found only among high proficiency speakers suggest that inhibitory control is dependent on L2 proficiency.

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  • Narrating connections and boundaries : constructing relatedness in lesbian known donor familial configurations.

    Surtees, Nicola Jane (2017)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    In a time of unprecedented possibilities for intimate life, lesbian known donor reproduction is an emerging form of kinship practice. While experienced as unique to the biographies of particular lesbian couples, known donors and their partners, practices of relatedness occur against the background of neoliberal discourses, processes of normalisation and legislative frameworks that are increasingly responsive to the rights claims of lesbian parents. This thesis investigates this phenomenon in contemporary New Zealand. Examining the meanings attached to cultural constructs such as ‘kinship’, ‘family’, ‘parenthood’, ‘motherhood’ and ‘fatherhood’, the thesis illustrates how familial boundaries and sets of relations are narratively constructed. The research draws on interviews with 60 women and men across 21 lesbian known donor familial configurations at different stages of forming family through known donor insemination, focusing in depth on nine core family narratives. Participants included lesbian parents and parents to be, gay and heterosexual known donors, and partners of donors. The thesis argues that participants are innovative in conformity and through constraint. Although the participants live amid the same dominant heteronormative public narratives, they are differently normative. They pursue different familial scenarios, which creates different possibilities for lesbian couple and parenting selves and identities relative to donors and their partners. The picture emerging suggests donors and partners remain supplementary to lesbian couples. How their status is expressed is a central theme of the thesis that demonstrates the power of neoliberal agendas of personal responsibility, freedom, agency and choice. Tensions between a sense of empowerment and constraint in family-building activities are closely linked to these agendas. Contributing to debates about the operation of homonormativity in a neoliberal context, this thesis explores the discursive power of heteronormative family models and the implications of this for innovation in the intimate lives of same-sex and heterosexual subjects.

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  • Numerical modelling of groundwater - surface water interactions with the Double-Averaged Navier-Stokes Equations.

    Dark, A. L. (2017)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The ability to model groundwater and surface water flows as two interacting components of a single resource is highly important for robust catchment management. Existing methods for spatially-distributed numerical modelling of flow in connected river-aquifer systems treat rivers and aquifers as separate sub-domains, with different governing equations for the flow in each. Mass-fluxes exchanged between the sub-domains are modelled using one of several coupling methods, which do not accurately represent the physics of the flow across the interface between the surface and subsurface flows. This can be problematic for model stability and mass conservation. This thesis investigates the feasibility of modelling interacting surface water and groundwater flows in a single domain, using a single system of equations. It is shown that the governing equations in existing numerical models for river and aquifer flow can be derived from the Navier-Stokes Equations. A time- and space-averaged form of Navier-Stokes Equations, the Double-Averaged Navier-Stokes (DANS) Equations, can be used to model both groundwater and surface water flows. The volume- averaging process allows the porous medium to be represented as a continuum. A novel two-dimensional numerical model is developed from the DANS Equations to simulate flows in connected groundwater and surface water systems. The DANS equations are solved using the finite-volume method. The model simulates two-dimensional flow in a vertical slice. This allows the horizontal and vertical velocity components and pressure to be modelled over the depth of a stream and the underlying aquifer or hyporheic zone. The model does not require the location of the interface between surface and subsurface flows to be specified explicitly: this is determined by the spatial distribution of hydraulic properties (permeability and porosity). The numerical model handles the transition between laminar and turbulent flows using an adaptive damping approach to modify the terms in a single-equation turbulence model, based on a locally-defined porous Reynolds number, Rep. This approach removes the need to specify a priori whether flows in any part of the domain are laminar or turbu lent. Turbulent porous media flows can be simulated. The model is verified for porous-media and clear-fluid flows separately, before being used to simulate coupled groundwater - surface water flow scenarios. For porous-media flows with low Rep the numerical model results agree exactly with Darcy’s Law. The value of Rep at which the model results begin to deviate from Darcy’s Law is consistent with published values. For turbulent clear-fluid flows the time-averaged velocity and turbu lent kinetic energy (TKE) results from the numerical model are ver ified against a RANS model and published data. A good match is achieved for both velocity and TKE. Energy grade-line slopes for free-surface flows simulated in the numerical model are a reasonably good match to equivalent results to the one-dimensional hydraulic model HEC-RAS. Idealised river-aquifer interaction experiments are conducted in a lab- oratory flume to provide verification data for the numerical model. An innovative combination of optical flow measurement and refractive- index-matched transparent soil is used to measure two-dimensional velocities and turbulent statistics in laboratory flow scenarios that simulate flow in both losing and gaining streams, and the underlying connected porous layer. The “gaining stream” laboratory scenario is replicated using the numerical model. The model simulates the key features of the mean flow well. Turbulent statistics deviate substantially from the laboratory results where vertical velocities across the surface-subsurface interface are high, but are a better match elsewhere. The “losing stream” laboratory results are unable to be reproduced with the numerical model. Results for a similar scenario with lower outflow velocities are presented. These results are qualitatively consistent with the laboratory results. The numerical model is expected to perform better in simulations of field-like conditions that involve less extreme gradients than the laboratory scenarios.

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  • Gender, class and modernity : reproductive agency in urban India.

    Kohli, Ambika (2017)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The decreasing female child sex ratio in contemporary India is often linked to the small family norm. However, the decline of sex ratio has raised interesting questions regarding women’s involvement in decision making in the context of female-foeticide and managing family size. Are women victims or actors while making their reproductive choices? What are their reproductive interests, and how do they achieve them? This study investigates how urban-middle class women from Delhi and Haryana make reproductive decisions in regards to family formation in modern urban neoliberal society. Motherhood, abortions, and gender relations are discussed with reference to the main themes of son-preference, increasing social status of daughters, family planning, family building strategies, reproductive health and well-being. Further, because of the prevalence of son-preference it is crucial to understand what kind of status daughters are accorded in contemporary urban Indian society. This study addresses this by looking at participants’ differing perceptions and expectations for their daughters and sons, and in particular how daughters are treated. The status of daughters is documented through an examination of current forms of gender discrimination against them, and also the different kinds of opportunities that they are provided by their parents. These issues are explored through a qualitative study of the reproductive decision making of 45 educated married urban middle-class mothers from Delhi and Yaumuna Nagar (region of Haryana), India. Snowballing was used to recruit participants, and the fieldwork was carried out during two visits to India. I chose Delhi and Haryana because both of these regions have collective and patriarchal family structures. For instance, in these regions joint families are quite common among the middle-class and fathers or a male family member are often the head of the family. Furthermore, Delhi and Haryana have a low female child sex ratio, as recorded in the 2011 census, but have shown slight improvement in comparison to 2001 figures. Therefore, this study will provide insights into how women practice their reproductive agency in highly collective and patriarchal settings of their affinal families. These families are in the process of rapid socio-cultural changes, including change in gender roles and opportunities for daughters. I will examine women’s decision making process, including practices of negotiating and resistance strategies they develop. xvi I will then discuss how women engage with different forms of modern, spiritual and traditional technologies in order to maintain their reproductive health and well-being, and how they attempt to give birth to a son while maintaining the norm of small family size. This will suggest that society and technology are mutually constitutive. Finally, I will explore how social transformation has influenced the gender relationships which are discussed in relation to daughters’ improving status and also the different forms of discrimination currently used against them. However, throughout the research the patriarchal nature of urban neoliberal Indian society and the idea that a man is needed to support a woman and for her protection has been highlighted.

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  • Developing a flood hazard analysis framework in the Cuvelai Basin, Namibia, using a flood model, remote sensing, and GIS.

    Persendt, Frans C. (2016)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Worldwide, more than 40% of all natural hazards, and about half of all deaths, are the result of flood disasters. In the Cuvelai River Basin (CRB), northern Namibia, flood disasters have increased dramatically over the past half-century, along with associated economic losses and fatalities. The increase in hydro-meteorological hazards such as floods are mainly attributed to intense urbanisation, changing land-use patterns and a changing climate. These hazards are exacerbated in semi-arid and data-sparse (SADS) regions such as the CBR, because of declining and/or non-existent hydro-meteorological infrastructure. In addition there is a lack of long-term continuous records that is needed to enhance the implementation of traditional flood risk management strategies, whether structural or non-structural, to mitigate hydro- meteorological hazards. This thesis developed a systematic framework that has quantified the uncertainties associated with the hydrological cycle that preclude the development of flood risk management strategies. The framework is based on free-data and open-data and software that is available online. It used remotely sensed data validated against ground-based observational data, where available. The particular components of the hydrological cycle that are assessed are: precipitation, surface runoff (discharge), surface water extent and surface water movement pathways (drainage networks). Hydrologic modelling was used to model the water fluxes in order to derive basin as well as flood characteristics of the study area. The framework can be used as a benchmark for the development of flood risk management policies that will enable SADS regions to mitigate the severe effect hydro-meteorological disasters in the Anthropocene. The flood hazard analysis framework (FHAF) developed for this study consists of two steps: (a) preliminary analysis and (b) hazard estimation. The preliminary analysis enable the development of a hydro-meteorological (floods and droughts) archive using different data sources as well as identifying where more analyses are needed to reduce uncertainty while hazard estimation provide the frequency and magnitude of the hazard. As a result of the growing concern about flood risk, identifying the extreme precipitation events that cause hydro-meteorological disasters is essential. Hence, the preliminary analysis step of FHAF developed a database (a). An up-to-date and broad analysis of the trends of hydro-meteorological events within the CRB was performed. The derived events were also validated against data from other sources. The risk estimation step involved components of the hydrologic cycle that are crucial in determining flood risk and that play an important role in enhancing uncertainty. Precipitation is one of these crucial components, to estimate and validate, especially in the trans-boundary SADS CRB. Four commonly used operational satellite-based rainfall estimation (SBRE) products were rigorously validated and inter-compared on monthly, seasonal, and annual timescales. Rainfall data from gauged stations were compared against SBREs as well as simulated data from a Regional Climate Model (RegCM4) model. Point-to-nearest-pixel and pixel-to-pixel methods were used to validate gauge data against high spatial resolution (0.25o) SBREs data for a period from 2008 to 2014. Validation was performed on a monthly, seasonally, and annual basis as well as taking the long-term mean, whilst error statistics were used to determine the accuracy of the SBREs when compared to the observed rainfall gauge values. Results indicated good statistical relationships between the ground-based gauge stations for some SBREs. Results will help to understand, and ultimately expand, our understanding of the climatologies within this SADS region and will also provide valuable information on the error structures of SBRE products that might be ingested into hydrologic models for water resource management. The results also help to quantify the improvements (bias correction) that are needed for these SBRE products to be useful for water resource and risk management applications. The second component, surface water pathways (drainage networks), is imperative to determine flood inundation extent, which relate to hazards. Also, accurate delineation of drainage networks is crucial for hydrological modelling and hydraulic modelling, and the comprehension of fluvial processes. Channels from topographic maps (blue lines) were compared to those from hydrologically corrected and uncorrected light detection and ranging (LiDAR) DEMs (digital elevation models), heads-up digitised channels from high-resolution digital aerial orthophotographs, field-mapped channels and auxiliary data. The maximum gradient deterministic eight (D8) GIS algorithm was applied to the corrected and uncorrected LiDAR DEMs using two network extraction methods: area threshold support and curvature/drop analysis. Results will aid national mapping agencies in SADS regions to modernise their national hydrography datasets and to account for changing land surface conditions that can affect channel spatial arrangements over time. The third component, deals with the amount, frequency, and magnitude of surface water runoff (discharge). Sustainable management of water resources as well as mitigating hydro- meteorological natural hazards such as flooding and drought requires the precise understanding of the spatio-temporal distribution of water especially in SADS regions where data from various global datasets are used to compensate. Results suggested that input data be ingested in hydrological models especially if the data are to be used especially for water resources estimations and for understanding flood-producing processes. The last component, surface water extent (flood inundation), was also estimated in this study. The mapping of spatial inundation patterns during flood events is important for environmental management and disaster monitoring. This study detected and compared the spatial extent of flood inundation at the peak of three major flood events (2008, 2009, and 2011) in the CRB. The study follows a multi-spectral and multi-sensor approach to identify the flood inundation for each flood event at peak modelled discharge. Results indicated that the quantification of flooding spatial extent can help to provide valuable information to FHAFs and hence potentially improve hydrologic prediction and flood management strategies in ungauged catchments. Furthermore, given the globally availability of satellite- based precipitation and river discharges, this proof-of-concept study can have substantial implications on flood monitoring and forecasting in ungauged basins throughout the globe.

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  • The effects of soaking almonds on consumer acceptance and gastrointestinal tolerance

    Taylor, Heidi (2017)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    Background: Nuts have a favourable nutrient composition and are an important part of a cardio-protective diet. Nuts are also high in phytate, which can reduce the bioavailability of nutrients and can be problematic for digestion. Recently, the recommendation to soak nuts to reduce phytate levels and improve gastrointestinal tolerance, has received much attention in the popular press. Unfortunately, there is no scientific evidence to support or refute soaking as a method for phytate reduction in nuts. Soaking is time-consuming, and pre-soaked products are expensive, so these claims may act as a barrier to nut consumption, which is already low within the New Zealand population. There is also no data on the acceptability of soaked nuts. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of soaking almonds on consumer acceptance and gastrointestinal tolerance. Methods: Seventy-six healthy participants were recruited from the Dunedin area to participate in an 8-week randomised crossover trial consisting of four treatment arms: 1. sliced soaked almonds, 2. sliced unsoaked almonds, 3. whole soaked almonds and 4. whole unsoaked almonds. Participants ate 30 grams/day of each nut treatment for 12 days in balanced random order. Each day participants rated their “overall liking”, “desire to consume”, and “likelihood of future consumption” of the nuts on 100 mm visual analogue scales (VAS). They also indicated the daily occurrence of gastrointestinal symptoms, and rated severity of any symptoms on a 100 mm VAS. Results: The sliced soaked almonds were rated significantly lower on all three acceptance scales compared to all of the other treatments (all P0.520). Overall, the ratings for all four treatments remained relatively stable across the 12-day period for each scale, and all mean ratings were above the midpoint. There were no significant differences in the incidence of any of the seven gastrointestinal symptoms between the four nut treatments (all P>0.174). The only significant difference for mean severity of symptoms was for flatulence, with whole soaked nuts rated significantly more severe than whole unsoaked nuts (0.59 cm vs 0.36 cm, P=0.005). Overall, the mean incidence and mean severity of all seven symptoms was very low. Conclusions: Our results suggest there is no evidence to support the recommendation to soak nuts prior to consumption as a means of improving gastrointestinal tolerance or consumer acceptance. The relative stability of the acceptance ratings, regardless of treatment, suggests nuts are resistant to monotony. It is encouraging that the majority of participants did not experience any gastrointestinal symptoms during the study, and mean overall severity was very low, indicating nuts are well tolerated by most people. Taken together, the acceptance and gastrointestinal data suggest that the recommendation to eat nuts regularly is realistic and achievable. Future research should focus on the effect soaking has on the phytate levels and nutritional composition of nuts.

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  • Effect of High Pressure Processing (HPP) and Pulsed Electric Field (PEF) Processing on Digestibility of Frozen Lamb

    Diao, Yunjie

    Masters thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    Lamb is a popular meat source in New Zealand which contains of protein, fat and other micro-elements. The lamb meat is frozen after slaughter to increase its shelf life and to decrease the cost on transportation. However, the frozen lamb is considered as low quality meat because it has less stable tenderness, more drip loss and shorter colour stability than chilled lamb. High Pressure Processing (HPP) and Pulsed Electric Field (PEF) are both new technologies which are used for preserving food products. HPP treatment inactivate microorganisms and maintain microbial safety with effective cost, availability and efficiency without causing chemical reactions resulting in loss of nutrients and formation of off-flavours. And PEF is a food preservation technique where foods are exposed to a pulsed high voltage field so that the microorganisms are inactivated. The aim of the present study was to characterize whether HPP and PEF technologies increase the nutritional values of frozen lamb in terms of the digestibility, measured as free amino acids (FAAs) released from meat proteins. Digestibility of different lamb cuts under HPP and PEF processing at three different simulated digestion phases (prior to digestion, oral (37 °C, 5 min), gastric (37 °C, 120 min), and intestinal (37 °C, 180 min)) were studied. The storage effects on the digestibility of PEF treated frozen lamb were also investigated. It was the first time to study the FAAs digestibility of HPP and PEF treated meat, particularly in lamb, by measuring the release of FAAs. In addition, the colour and moisture were also measured. A static in vitro digestion model was used to simulate the digestion process of HPP and PEF treated lamb. ANOVA and mixed-linear model analysis using R were applied for statistical analysis in this study. Nineteen FAAs (nine essential and ten non-essential amino acids) were identified and quantified in both of HPP and PEF samples by using a commercial EZ-Faast kit and gas chromatography. For HPP samples, the total FAAs in three digestion phases of two lamb cuts (flat and inside) were significantly different from one another (P<0.01) in different muscle cuts with respect to the storage times. Among seven PEF processed cuts, the full back contained the highest total FAAs at the end of the intestinal phase, while the bolar contained the least. To sum up, both HPP and PEF technologies have shown satisfactory characteristics as meat preserving technologies, which not only maintain microbial safety of lamb, but also promote favorable nutritional values and digestibility of lamb meats.

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  • Using Technology to Support the Parent-child Relationship: Observations Within the Context of the Child’s Learning

    Young, Miranda

    Masters thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    The effect of technology use on the parent-child relationship is poorly understood, yet sufficiently studied to confirm technology does influence this relationship. Despite being a large demographic, literature about the effect on middle-class families that live together, have school-age children, and no special social or physical needs is especially sparse. This present research aimed to better understand this effect and identify patterns that could benefit the parent-child relationship. Observations were conducted of four parents interacting with their child using technology related to the child’s learning. Behaviour that had an effect on the parent-child relationship was identified as behavioural patterns. These patterns evolved and were clarified as the observations progressed. There were three common patterns observed in the parent-child dyads. The first was the physical and verbal intimacy the dyads displayed when using technology; this appeared to have a positive effect on the relationship. The second pattern was the parents using technology as a tool to extend an interaction with their child and benefit the relationship in the process. Findings showed the quality of time, rather than quantity, had most influence on the relationship. The final pattern was the parents seeking to protect their child from failure. This pattern showed both positive and negative effects on the relationship. The love that parents had for their children was evident and the children demonstrated how much they appreciated their parents being involved in what they were doing. By its very nature, this exploratory research generated many more questions than it answered. This research has provided an intriguing starting point for further research, practical tools for parents, and a different mindset for product managers. I anticipate that by following on from research in this area, the understanding of the dynamics occurring in the parent-child relationship will be greatly enhanced. In time, the potential for technology to support and develop the parent-child relationship will be realised.

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  • The spectra of transition-metal ions in solids

    Johnstone, I.W. (1975)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The results of an investigation of the Raman and infrared spectra of cobaltous ions in cadmium-chloride, cadmium-bromide, and manganese-chloride, and of cobalt-chloride are presented. The cobalt ions substitute for the cation in these crystals and experience a trigonal crystal-field which splits the lowest ⁴T₁g (⁴F) cubic-field term into six Kramers doublets with energies in the range 0-1200 cm⁻¹. The Raman spectra, measured as a function of temperature and of cobalt concentration show all five single ion electronic transitions together with several lines due to cobalt ion pairs. The infrared spectra comprise both magnetic-dipole allowed electronic transitions and electric-dipole allowed vibronic lines and bands. They confirm the identity of the electronic transitions seen by Raman scattering and also yield information concerning the lattice modes of the host and the possible interactions within cobalt ion pairs. The strong field matrices of the trigonal crystal-field and Zeeman interactions are calculated for the d³ (d⁷) configuration and quantitatively explain the experimental data. The crystal-field analysis provides single ion wavefunctions for further calculations which successfully explain the spectra of antiferromagnetic CoCl₂ and exchange coupled colbalt pairs in CdCl₂ (Co²⁺) and CdBr₂ (Co²⁺). A preliminary investigation of the infrared absorption of an oxygen-induced impurity site in CdCl₂-type crystals is also presented.

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  • Interpretation of some Paleocene fluvial sediments from the Upper Pakawau and Kapuni groups, Pakawau Sub-basin, North-West Nelson

    Stark, C.J. (1996)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Fifteen key measured sections form the basis for detailed facies analysis of Paleocene upper North Cape Formation (Pakawau Group) and Farewell Formation (Kapuni Group) sediments, northwest Nelson. Based on structural, textural and compositional variations, the sediments were divided into eight lithofacies associations (LAA3, LAA4, LAA5, LAA6, LAA7, LAB1, LAB2 and LAB3). Associations A3 to A7, North Cape Formation, represent a progradational sequence of floodplain (LAA3), lacustrine (LAA4), low energy meander (LAA5 and LAA6), and braided river deposits (LAA7). LAB1, LAB2 and LAB3 are interpreted as meander, gravel dominated and sand dominated braided systems. The conformable boundary between LAA3 and LAA5 on the northwestern side (Moki Point) of the Whanganui Inlet means the transition from an axial system to system flowing perpendicular to the axis of the Pakawau Sub-basin does not represent the contact between the Kapuni Group and Pakawau Group. Progradation of a fluvial system passing through the space between en echelon faults in the west would explain the paleocurrent change from parallel to perpendicular to the main axis of the Pakawau Sub-basin. A higher rate of subsidence toward the north along the Wakamarama Fault is inferred from a lateral northerly-coarsening trend between LAA6 and LAA7. Erosional contact between LAA6 and LAB2 on the northern side of the Whanganui Inlet is interpreted as the upper contact of the North Cape Formation. The absence of fluvial association LAA5-LAA7 on the southern side of the Whanganui Inlet Entrance suggests a period of uplift and subsequent erosion of prior to the deposition of associations LAB1-LAB3 deposits. The preferred explanation for the localized uplift and erosion of fluvial association A deposits is by activation of intrabasin antithetic and synthetic faults. LAB1 is inferred to represent a 'feeder' system associated with LAB2 and LAB3. The basal contact of LAB1 on the southern side of the Whanganui Inlet is thus inferred to represent the boundary between the North Cape and Farewell Formations. The downstream coarsening of LAB2 and LAB3 is best interpreted by coarse grained sediment being fed from active (penecontemporaneous) intrabasin antithetic and synthetic faults and/or the Kahurangi fault in the west. The interpretation of the Wakamarama Fault as a growth fault during the deposition of LAB1, LAB2 and LAB3 is supported by the lack of change in grain size of LAB1 up-section and the fine grained texture of LAB3 at Abel Head. The change in position of the North Cape Formation upper contact results in the recognition of a new lithostratigraphic unit, the Wharariki member, for the fluvial deposits upon LAA3. Also LAB1 is deemed sufficiently structurally, texturally and compositionally distinct to suggest it be called the Whanganui Member of the Farewell Formation. The boundary between association A and association B sediments is interpreted as a type 1 sequence stratigraphic boundary.

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  • Leadership in Early Childhood Education: The Journey of Pasifika Educators

    Moodley, Emeavallie

    Masters thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    Leadership theory and practice are well developed in the business sector, corporate organisations and in the compulsory schooling sector. However, leadership in the early childhood sector lacks direction and effective support from Government (Cooper, 2014; Thornton, 2005). Furthermore, these mainly Western notions of educational leadership, in relation to a definition and guidelines for practice, are predominant in contrast to literature concerning the cultural paradigms and indigenous ways of leading that are yet to be fully acknowledged (Fitzgerald, 2003). Statistics collected by the Ministry of Education about early childhood teachers reveal that, of the six percent of teachers from Pasifika ethnic groups working in the sector, an even smaller proportion of this statistic accounts for Pasifika educators in leadership roles (Ministry of Education, 2014). The purpose of this study was to critically examine the aspirations and perspectives of Pasifika educators in regard to leadership in early childhood education, in order to identify the factors that have led to the appointment of leadership roles among these educators, and the challenges they have faced along the way. A qualitative research methodology was employed in this research to emphasise the voices of Pasifika leaders and educators in examining the issue of the under-representation of Pasifika women in leadership roles in the early childhood sector. The major findings from this study indicate that traditional Pasifika approaches to leadership that apply to male leaders are at odds with the early childhood sector in which females dominate. Women tend to be relational in their leadership approach and several authors canvas the need to develop a leadership model that emphasises the strengths of women and that aligns with early childhood pedagogical approaches (Cooper, 2014; Fitzgerald, 2006; Thornton, 2005; Thornton et. al., 2009). This study concurs with the position of Scrivens (2003) who argues, that women prefer leadership models that embrace power for rather than power over people. The findings highlighted several challenges faced by Pasifika women in leadership in early childhood education. The most significant challenge that most Pasifika women face has been described as “walking between two worlds” (Fitzgerald, 2006, 2010). As Indigenous women in stereotypically male dominated leadership structures and as Indigenous Pasifika women working and living in a Western society, whilst trying to preserve their cultural values, beliefs and identity (Fitzgerald, 2006, 2010). The findings also suggest that professional development specific to leadership is integral for future leadership development within the sector. Professional mentoring and coaching offers a starting point to building and sustaining Pasifika leadership in early childhood education. Furthermore, this study indicates that models for leadership should be developed that recognises: Indigenous ways of leading, in order to address the issues of uncertainty and reluctance of educators to participate in leadership, and to promote leadership among Pasifika educators in early childhood education. This study has provided insight into the association between leadership in the cultural contexts of Pasifika leadership and the concept of servant leadership in early child education. It is concluded that servant leadership offers a valid culturally appropriate paradigm of leadership that may inform the future development of Indigenous ways of leading in the early childhood sector. This research study affirms a structure of direction and effective support that aligns with the statement by Thornton (2005); “There is not just one way to be a leader and leadership will vary from culture to culture and situation to situation” (p. 2).

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