28,621 results for Thesis

  • Measuring the relationship between audit committee characteristics and earnings management: evidence from New Zealand listed companies

    Toh, Moau Yong

    Thesis
    Lincoln University

    The recent corporate accounting scandals, such as the Enron scandal in 2001 and the WorldCom scandal in 2002, have increasingly drawn the attention of regulators around the globe to the monitoring role of audit committees in the financial reporting process. The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between the NZX’s recommendations on audit committee characteristics and earnings management in NZX listed companies. In particular, this study examines the relationships between earnings management and audit committee size, independence, financial expertise and diligence, as per the NZX’s recommendations. This study finds that the NZX’s recommendations that audit committees should comprise a majority of independent directors and at least one financial expert are associated with lower earnings management. Besides, companies whose audit committees meet at least quarterly report lower earnings management. Since the NZX does not recommend best practice for audit committee meetings, this finding has implications for New Zealand regulators and practitioners that meeting at least quarterly is a key criterion of audit committee effectiveness, hence, a change to corporate governance rules and principles may be necessary. However, this study finds that audit committee size is not related to lower earnings management, suggesting that detection and control of earnings management relies more on the independence, financial expertise and diligence of audit committees to generate quality discussions and monitoring duties. Except for the U.S.A., the results of this study do not differ materially from other major countries, such as Australia. This study contributes to the existing literature by providing evidence about the relationship between audit committee characteristics, as per the NZX’s recommendations, and earnings management in countries with similar institutional and legal environment to New Zealand.

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  • Understanding Carbon Emission Mitigation in the New Zealand Accommodation Industry: A Mixed Methods Study

    Knowsley, Amber

    Masters thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    The accommodation sector is a key source of greenhouse gas emissions within tourism, and therefore there is a need to understand emission mitigation in the sector. As there is a geoscientific consensus that excessive emissions are responsible for climate change, international efforts towards a low carbon economy need to be realised. The 2015 Paris Climate Agreement will facilitate efforts by all parties to mitigate carbon, with New Zealand's current target to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 30 per cent below 2005 levels by 2030. It is suggested that due to its high energy use, the accommodation sector has excellent potential to lower its emissions. Previous research in New Zealand on the accommodation industry has not focused specifically on the mitigation initiatives being undertaken, nor the motivations for doing so. Therefore, the primary aim of this study is to examine the extent to which carbon emission mitigation initiatives in the New Zealand accommodation industry are currently being implemented. A mixed methods research design, with two sequential phases, was adopted for this study. Phase One consisted of a national online survey, gathering information on the accommodation industry’s emission mitigation initiatives and motivations for implementing them. Phase Two undertook a case study which holistically investigated emission mitigation initiatives, environmental certification and corporate motivations at New Zealand’s only carbon neutral certified hotel. Statistical analysis of 566 survey responses reveals that recycling is the most implemented initiative throughout the industry, with almost all properties undertaking this initiative. Accommodation categories in the luxury cluster implement more emission mitigation measures than either mid-­range or budget cluster properties. Accommodation providers that hold a Qualmark™ Enviro award are more likely to implement LED lighting, have a ‘Switch Off’ policy and provide a towel reuse option, however, they are equally as likely as those who do not hold the award to recycle and select Energy Star appliances. In addition, analysis shows that some establishments who hold this award do not actually implement some of the initiatives studied. Corporate motivations for implementing initiatives indicate that ‘ecological responsiveness’ is behind recycling; however, the other four main initiatives are reported to be undertaken due to ‘competitiveness’. The case study reveals specific details of environmental sustainability and mitigation initiatives at New Zealand’s only certified carbon neutral accommodation establishment. This provides a role model establishment for other accommodation providers to emulate in a move towards a lower carbon operation. However, it is also suggested that there were still opportunities for the organisation to further lower its emissions, and capitalise on its carbon neutral status through marketing and advertising. Implications of this study showed that there is potential for the New Zealand accommodation sector to become a role model of environmental sustainability and emission mitigation behaviour, as the majority of respondents were interested in lowering their carbon emissions further, as well as currently undertaking initiatives to do so. The results should be of interest to carbon mitigation businesses such as Enviro-­mark, industry stakeholders such as Tourism New Zealand, Qualmark Enviro and tourists, and government policy makers when considering New Zealand’s 2015 Paris Climate Agreement targets, as mitigation of emissions will be required from all sectors, including accommodation.

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  • Bird fossils from the Takatika Grit, Chatham Island, New Zealand.

    Blokland, Jacob Christopher (2017)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

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  • The financial implication of the three design guidelines used during the Christchurch rebuild.

    Botha, P. S. (2016)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    With the occurrence of natural disasters on the increase, major cities around the world face the potential of complete loss of infrastructure due to design guidelines that do not consider resilience in the design. With the February 22nd, 2011 earthquake in Christchurch, being the largest insured event, lessons learnt from the rebuild will be vital for the preparation of future disasters. Therefore the objective of this research is to understand the financial implications of the changes to the waste water design guidelines used throughout the five year rebuild programme of works. The research includes a study of the SCIRT alliance model selected for the delivery that is flexible enough to handle changes in the design with minimal impact on the direct cost of the rebuild works. The study further includes the analysis and compares the impact of the three different guidelines on maintenance and replacement cost over the waste water pipe asset life. The research concludes that with the varying ground conditions in Christchurch and also the wide variety of materials in use in the waste water network up to the start of the CES, the rebuild was not a ‘one size fits all’ approach.

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  • Carbon and root system architecture : key regulators in nitrogen uptake in Lolium perenne L. and Brassica napus L.

    Guo, Qianqian (2017)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Nitrogen (N) is an essential macronutrient that limits plant yield and productivity. In order to increase crop yield, considerable amounts of nitrogenous fertilizers are applied to agriculture systems each year. However, about 25-70% of the applied fertilizer in ecosystem has been leached and released to the environment, in the form of NO, N₂O and NH₃, aggravating environmental pollution. Therefore, increasing nitrogen use efficiency in agriculture systems is essential to maintain the food production while alleviating the deleterious environmental effects of applied N. The mechanisms linking C/N balance to N uptake and assimilation are central to plant responses to changing soil nutrient levels. Defoliation and subsequent regrowth of pasture grasses both impact C partitioning, thereby creating a significant point of interaction with soil N availability. Using defoliation as an experimental treatment, the dynamic relationships between plant carbohydrate status and NO₃⁻-responsive uptake systems, transporter gene expression and N assimilation were investigated in Lolium perenne. High- and low-affinity NO₃⁻ uptake were reduced in an N-dependent manner in response to a rapid and large shift in carbohydrate remobilization triggered by defoliation. This reduction in NO₃⁻ uptake was rescued by an exogenous 1% glucose supplement, confirming the carbohydrate-dependence of NO₃⁻ uptake. The regulation of NO₃⁻ uptake in response to the perturbation of plant C/N was associated with changes in expression of the nitrate high-affinity transporter LpNRT2.1b. Furthermore, NO₃⁻ assimilation appears to be regulated by the C/N balance, implying a mechanism that signals the availability of C metabolites for NO₃⁻ uptake and assimilation at the whole-plant level. This study also shows that cytokinins are involved in the regulation of nitrogen acquisition and assimilation in response to the changing C/N ratio. Root architecture is also a crucial component that impacts the capacity of plants to access nutrients and water. By using the recently developed package RootNav, comprehensive morphological changes in root system architecture in response to different N sources were investigated in Brassica napus. In order to avoid a light-induced morphological and physiological responses affecting whole plant growth, an existing solid agar vertical-plate system was modified so that to allow roots to be shielded from light without sucrose addition and the emerging shoot to be grown without direct contact with the medium, thereby mimicking more closely the environmental conditions in nature. The results of 10-days-old B. napus seedlings showed that total root length, LR density and root exploration area decreased with increasing external NO₃⁻ concentrations from 0.5 mM to 10 mM. The application of 0.5 mM NO₃⁻ induced more branching in the root system relative to the treatments with higher N concentrations (5 mM and 10 mM). The proportion of biomass allocation occupied by roots was greater in the low NO₃⁻ treatment relative to the high NO₃⁻ treatments, reflecting the fact that plants invested more resources in their roots when nutrient uptake from the environment was limited. In treatments of increasing NH₄⁺ concentration from 0.5 mM to 10 mM, primary root length, total root length, LR branching zone, LR density and root exploration area were reduced. These results indicated that NH₄⁺ toxicity usually leads to a stunted root system in B. napus, whereas a low concentration of NH₄⁺ is an optimal nitrogen resource for plant growth. Increasing L-glutamate concentration from 0.01 mM to 0.1 mM suppressed primary root length, whilst the LR branching zone did not change in the different L-glutamate treatments, suggesting that L-glutamate even at micromolar level could arrest primary root growth and LR branching in B. napus. By using in situ ¹⁵N isotope labelling, morphological and molecular phenotypes generated pharmacologically were employed to investigate whether the impacts of contrasting root traits are of functional interest in relation to N acquisition. Brassica napus L. were grown in solid medium containing 1 mM KNO3 and treated with cytokinin, 6-benzylaminopurine, the cytokinin antagonist (PI-55), or both in combination. The contrasting root traits induced by PI-55 and 6-benzylaminopurine were strongly related to ¹⁵N uptake rate. Large root proliferation led to greater ¹⁵N cumulative uptake rather than greater ¹⁵N uptake efficiency per unit root length. This relationship was associated with changes in C and N resource distribution between the shoot and root, and in expression of BnNRT2.1. The root/shoot biomass ratio was positively correlated with ¹⁵N cumulative uptake, suggesting the functional utility of root investment for nutrient acquisition. These results demonstrate that root proliferation in response to external N is a behaviour which integrates local N availability and systemic N status in the plant. In conclusion, using two major economic forage species, L. perenne and B. napus, this thesis illuminates the impacts of carbon and root system architecture on N uptake. This work contributes to our understanding of the mechanisms regulating N uptake and will help further in efforts to improve nitrogen use efficiency.

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  • An integrated water-electricity market design for multi reservoir, mixed operation.

    Mahakalanda, Indrajanaka (2016)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Water markets are often regarded as the most promising method of managing this increasingly important natural resource, but the literature on water market concepts is only emerging. Most of the focus is on physical trading arrangements, but financial property rights appear both conceptually and practically appealing, as a way to develop commercial and organizational arrangements to improve liquidity and ultimately increase efficient resource use. This thesis focuses on market arrangements to manage hydrology dependent surface water supplies, where consumptive and/or non-consumptive use occurs in a network with storage. Binding resource constraints create temporal and locational price differences. Moreover, the uncertainty about price differentials creates barriers to trade. Participant bids, reflecting their marginal use values, are assumed to be cleared by a benefit-maximising optimisation, such as Stochastic Linear Programming. This also creates price differences between locations, and time periods, and causes the market to accumulate a “settlement surplus” of rents associated with resource constraints. This thesis draws on the Financial Transmission Right (FTR) concepts developed for electricity markets to outline a general structure of financial hedging instruments that could be used to deploy this settlement surplus to hedge against price risks, across space and time. We also consider a swing option based approach, which bundles the above rights to create a virtual “slice of system” model that could be practically and conceptually appealing to both aggregated and disaggregated hydro reservoir systems. While only preliminary, our discussion of these options suggests that developments along these lines may be important in creating a water market environment that is acceptable to potential consumptive and non-consumptive participants. The remainder of this thesis is about the problem of intra-period consumptive and non-consumptive water allocation in a mixed-use catchment. We develop a deterministic nodal Constructive Dual Dynamic Programming (CDDP) procedure which implicitly clears a market determining both consumptive and non-consumptive water allocations, across all nodes in a catchment with a single reservoir. Consumptive users extract water from the system, so each unit of water flow can only be used for a single consumptive use. A non-consumptive user transfers water from one node to another, extracting some benefit, or incurring some cost. Arc flow bounds may limit the opportunities for using water at the nodes. Costs can be associated with arc flow bounds and distributary demands to represent in-stream and environmental reserve flows enforced using penalty costs. The algorithm constructs the intra-period demand curve for release by sequentially forming marginal water value curves at each node, passing these curves towards the reservoir. This approach can generate net demand curves representing all possible market-clearing solutions at nodal and user levels. It can also be used to construct net demand curves for water release from the reservoir, in each period, which could then be used in a stochastic inter-temporal CDDP model to construct marginal water value curves stored in the reservoir over an appropriate time horizon. Several variants on this approach are explored. We discuss extending the procedure to assess the marginal value of water stored in two inter-connected reservoirs in a mixed-use catchment. A “lower level” intra-period CDDP is applied to construct a two dimensional “demand surface” for transfer, representing the marginal benefit from net release into either end of the inter-reservoir chain between the two reservoirs. Then a higher level inter-period CDDP demand-curve-adding method could be deployed to strike the optimal trade-off between the current release demands for the inter-reservoir chain and other sub-trees leading from the two reservoirs and the future storage demands.

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  • The effects of sub-lethal concentrations of biocides copper, pyrethrins and atrazine on antibiotic tolerance of Escherichia coli.

    Jun, Hyun (2017)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Biocides are used in different stages of crop production as herbicides, insecticides and fungicides. The toxicological mechanisms of these chemicals on their target organism is known, however, their sub-lethal effects on microbes are not. Previous work from this laboratory had shown that commercial formulations of herbicides can change the susceptibility of bacteria to antibiotics upon concurrent exposure. This is most likely due to changes in the expression of genes involved in influx and efflux and hence a physiological effect, reversible without requiring mutation. Out of the 12 combinations of biocide formulations and antibiotics tested, nine exhibited statistically significant differences in the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) between treatments in the presence and absence of biocides. The strongest effect was a greater than 30- fold change in MIC following exposure to copper and tetracycline. Where changes in susceptibility due to biocide exposure were observed, minimum inducing concentrations were identified from dose response curves. All observed effects were induced by biocide concentrations lower than the recommended application rate. The formulation had no observed effect on mutation frequency and the change in susceptibility was displayed uniformly by the population. Thus the effects on phenotype are consistent with adaptive resistance. To test whether efflux pumps were indeed responsible for the observed effects, different pump mutant strains were tested for the effect of copper on tetracycline resistance. The tolerance to tetracycline and copper in the pump mutant strains were significantly lower than the wildtype, indicating that the pump contributes to intrinsic resistance to both substances. In the mutant strains, copper exposure increased the tetracycline MIC 3 to 5 folds. This indicates that the AcrAB-TolC efflux system is not the only contributors to adaptive resistance. The persistence of the elevated tetracycline tolerant phenotype in the absence of copper fungicide was quantified. Although reversible, the induced phenotype was heritable for approximately 1 generation and the population uniformly reverted to a susceptible phenotype in the second generation post exposure. Continuous exposure to copper and tetracycline induced a morphological change in most or all exposed bacteria. The morphology changes included filamentation and then return to single cells, depending on exposure time. The morphological changes did not correlate with changes in genotype because the frequency of acquired resistance did not change. Dilution and re-growth experiments were used to determine whether the single cell form was outgrowth of a minority population or arose from filaments. The source of single cells was determined to be filaments.

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  • Tourism’s impact on the environment : a systematic review of energy and water interventions.

    Paul-Andrews, Leroy (2017)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The purpose of this research was to examine longitudinal assessments of the ways in which behavioural and policy interventions have been used to reduce energy and water use in tourism. Although previous research has used single-shot cases or surveys to study interventions there is little knowledge of the extent to which interventions result in sustainable personal or organisational behaviour over time. Therefore this thesis specifically focuses on identifying those studies in the literature that are longitudinal in nature to gain a better understanding of sustainable behaviour change. A systematic review was conducted to identify relevant studies. The systematic search returned a total of 333 papers relating to energy use, and 430 papers relating to water use. After screening and reviewing those returned papers against a predetermined, and specific criteria, only two papers relating to each topic remained. The two papers for each topic were then analysed and specific factors noted. The most effective outcomes of the energy papers were that of investing in modern, efficient technologies, and that of investing in and managing education of staff. The most effective outcomes of the water papers were again that of upgrading to modern, water-efficient equipment, and effective management of water resources. However, a critical finding was the absence of longitudinal studies of interventions which raises significant questions regarding the helpfulness of previous findings based on one-shot studies alone. The research was also the first of its kind looking at long-term interventions within sustainable tourism, and provides many avenues for future research.

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  • Integrated response as a process for enhancing the incident command system

    Fakuade, Dolapo (2017)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The devastating societal impacts of disruptive events have emphasised the need for more effective and unified emergency response arrangements. While policies that guide strategies, measures or approaches are not lacking in the emergency sector, they tend to be inadequate for response and relatively ineffective during response to large-scale or unprecedented events. This research critically examines theoretical bases and practice systems for emergency response, in order to identify useful community functions which can be integrated with emergency management response. The aim is to develop an integrated response framework that can be adopted to improve response to disruptive events. The data for this research were gathered through case study analyses of communities in Christchurch, which provided context for and helped define the scope of community functions required for emergency response. Data were also collected in semi-structured interviews and focus group sessions with different community groups and organisations, emergency management professionals, and officials working in Christchurch City Council. The analysis indicates that relevant functions exist within communities, and that four types of community functions can be used for improving emergency management response. Community functions identified were seen to possess relationships, interactions and qualities lacking in the emergency sector; characteristics that are essential for operational command and control response processes. The major research outcome is the development of a framework that integrates community functions with command and control structure as a contribution to improving response to disruptive events.

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  • Scott’s and Shackleton’s huts : Antarctic heritage and international relations.

    Lintott, B. J. (2016)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Three British wooden huts remain on Ross Island, Antarctica from Scott’s and Shackleton’s expeditions: the Nimrod Hut and the Terra Nova Hut were operational bases with accommodation, laboratories, darkrooms and used as workshops while Discovery Hut was a general purpose storeroom, workshop and shelter. In 1957, the New Zealand Government decided that it would retain and maintain the huts in situ as a geopolitical statement to the United States of America that New Zealand remained firm in its Antarctic territorial claim. Throughout the Huts Project (1957 onwards) there have been two central issues. The first are the technical and financial challenges of retaining the huts (temporary wooden buildings) in their historical settings given that the Antarctic environment is one of the most hostile on the planet, and how they should be interpreted. Associated with this is a prevailing myth that items in the Polar Regions can remain frozen in a state of “timelessness”. This thesis argues that this misinformed the “Huts Project” in its early years (once removed from the ice, artefacts quickly began to decay) and that in the latest restoration many artefacts have been treated so as to reproduce their original appearance, removing the patina of age and compromising their authenticity. The second is how New Zealand has conducted its interrelationships regarding the huts with the United States of America and the United Kingdom. The United States is New Zealand’s strategic ally and provides logistical support for its Antarctic endeavours and whilst it respects the huts as being historic it does not accept that they could enhance a future Antarctic territorial claim by New Zealand. The United Kingdom retains a strong cultural interest in the huts and has diplomatically, morally and – to a limited extent – financially supported the Huts Project. The Huts Project has been successfully utilized in cultural diplomacy since its beginnings however, since 2000, two activities proposed by New Zealand related to the huts have not proceeded due to diplomatic concerns. This thesis provides the cultural and historical background to New Zealand’s decision in 1957 to retain the huts and the subsequent external factors which influenced the project. A review of how the concept of “timelessness” was developed and deployed leads onto the substantive chapters about the heritage aspects of the project. The huts are then considered in the context of international relations and how they have been utilized and affected by diplomatic concerns. The thesis concludes by considering the possible futures of the huts, e.g. climate change, and areas for future research on Antarctic heritage and international relations.

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  • Upper atmospheric studies using radio meteors

    Wilkinson, Philip James (1973)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The atmospheric motions in the 80-110 km height region, and methods of measuring them are discussed. Wind measurements using radio meteor trails are then considered in greater detail and an account is given of the equipment at the field station of the Physics Department of Canterbury at Rolleston near Christchurch, as well as details of the data reduction methods used. An analysis of the errors associated with the collection of data indicates that approximately half the variance in an average of wind velocities observed in a thirty minute period is due to atmospheric variability. Results from the first year's observations suggest that the solar diurnal and semidiurnal tides are of roughly the same magnitude, this magnitude being in agreement with the latitudinal variations observed at other stations.

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  • The population of unresolved pulsars explanation of the Galactic Center excess.

    Ploeg, Harrison (2017)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    It has been suggested that a population of unresolved millisecond pulsars (MSPs) could explain the observed Galactic Center Excess (GCE). However, it has been claimed that, based on the luminosity distribution of observed MSPs, many would already have been resolved. In this work, gamma-ray MSPs detected by the Fermi Large Area Telescope (Fermi-LAT) and the GCE data are used to constrain the luminosity function through the use of a Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) algorithm. The results indicate that it is indeed possible that a population of unresolved MSPs with the same luminosity distribution as those observed are the source of the GCE and that it would require further improvements in sensitivity for these to be resolved.

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  • Understanding Tsunami hazard knowledge and preparedness : before and after the 2010 Tsunami in Mentawai (Indonesia)

    Panjaitan, Berton Suar Pelita (2017)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    This thesis is about the people from the Mentawai Islands (in Indonesia) in the context of disaster risk reduction. It results from a curiosity to deeply explore the tsunami hazard knowledge existing before the 2010 Mentawai tsunami occurred, and current tsunami preparedness. It also provides theoretical frameworks and key research concepts in relation to the issues. In order to understand the picture of Mentawai in the past and the present, the thesis also includes how the tsunami vulnerability progression has been formed. The progression presents from the era of solitary lives of the people, the era of destroying the traditional beliefs and tools, and up to the current era when the people live in unsafe locations. In order to obtain a full picture of the topics, a qualitative case study was designed with the consideration of how to plot and to show a number of illuminating facts. The people’s reflections and perspectives on their tsunami hazard knowledge before the 2010 tsunami occurred and devastated the islands, and their current tsunami preparedness, were examined. There were a number of substantial facts showing how the research participants captured, shared, and internalized explicit knowledge on tsunami hazards into their tacit knowledge. These processes occurred with little support from the district government and local non-government organizations, and were further impacted by their low socio-economic and educational status. The processes of the knowledge internalization were obviously influenced by their traditional beliefs and personal perceptions. Thus, the implications of the internalization were also different when it came to anticipating tsunami waves. Subsequently, the 2010 tsunami also brought different impacts to the participants. In the context of current measures, tsunami preparedness is applied differently at various levels, even though the people have experienced the 2010 tsunami. At the individual level, the participants mostly ignore their own preparedness, although some of the participants have specific personal efficacy and protective behaviour to avoid tsunami waves. At the household level, some would most likely leave their household members to save themselves, while others would try to help their family members. At the sub-village (dusun) level, the people tend to abandon the evacuation processes. Meanwhile, at the district level, although some important documents exist for the district government to follow, tsunami preparedness measures are less prioritized. The last parts of the study are how the local community of Mentawai can increase their capacity to encounter potential tsunamis. In the absence of modern technologies, the community has a number of traditional strategies to anticipate hazards and various opportunities to reduce their vulnerability. Developing coping capacity is essential for the people through implementing community early warning systems. These systems will provide risk knowledge, strategies to monitor the surroundings, understandable warning communication, and qualified response capability in the event of a tsunami. For the longer term, the leaders and the community need to work hand in hand to create an adaptive mechanism for living in Mentawai. This will be achieved by utilizing and reutilizing their traditional tools and strategies, and taking any opportunity to improve their livelihoods, and consequently, their coping and adaptive capacities to deal with tsunamis.

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  • A descriptive study of how teachers identify and respond to children's challenging behaviour in early childhood education settings.

    Koh, Glorianne Elizabeth (2017)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Children’s challenging behaviour appears to be increasing with teachers reporting that they require additional knowledge and skills to address this problem. There also appears to be very little research on the strategies teachers currently use to address this behaviour. The aim of this study was to examine how eight teachers identified and responded to children’s challenging behaviour in four different early childhood education (ECE) settings, and directions for future professional development. Data was collected via a mixed method design that included two-hour direct observation of the teacher during a typical day and individual teacher interviews. The findings indicate that all eight teachers identified both externalising and internalising challenging behaviours and referred to the child’s social environment as contributing to challenging behaviour. All teachers indicated a range of strategies to address the challenging behaviour and identified these as having learned through experience, professional development and trial and error. Little reference was given to their ECE teacher training or to the early childhood curriculum, Te Whāriki, indicating a gap between theory and practice. For these teachers, future professional learning and development programmes could provide more emphasis on bridging the gap between theory and practice in terms of responding positively to children’s challenging behaviour in early childhood education (ECE) settings.

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  • The group theory of the harmonic oscillator with applications in physics.

    Haskell, T. G. (1972)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The possibility of the group SU₃ being used in the description of the (d+s)N and (d+s)npm many-electron complexes is examined by symmetrization of the Coulomb Hamiltonian. By dividing the Coulomb interaction into symmetry conserving and symmetry violating terms it is found that while the SU₃ scheme tends to give a better description in the (d+s)N case it shows no improvement over the configurational scheme in the (d+s)npm complex. The scheme is, however, very useful for the calculation of matrix elements of operators normally found in atomic spectroscopy and a complete set of symmetrized , scalar, Hermitian spin-independent two particle operators acting within (d+s)npm configurations is constructed. The radial wavefunctions of the harmonic oscillator are found to form a basis for the representations of the group 0(2,1) in the group scheme Sp(6,R) ⊃ S0(3) x 0(2,1). The operators Tkp = r2k are shown to transform simply under the action of the group generators. The matrix elements of Tkq and a selection rule similar to that of Pasternack and Sternheimer are derived. Finally the rich group structure of the harmonic oscillator is investigated and a dynamical group proposed which contains, as subgroups, the groups Sp(6,R), SU(3), H₄ and the direct product 0(2,1) x S0(3). Some remarks are made about contractions of groups, semidirect and direct products, and the generalization of the method to n-dimensions.

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  • Challenges and Facilitators Influencing Physical Activity and Sedentary Behaviour Among South Asian Migrant Women in New Zealand

    Silva, Wasani

    Masters thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    This qualitative descriptive study was conducted to fill the knowledge gap identified in the past literature by answering the research question, what are the challenges and facilitators influencing physical activity and sedentary lifestyle among South Asian migrant women in New Zealand? From the study findings, it is evident that the study has accomplished its goal as a number of challenges and facilitators to physical activity and sedentary lifestyle particularly relevant to the New Zealand environment were revealed. The study also presents an in-depth discussion of the findings, introducing suggestions to overcome the identified challenges and to strengthen the recognised facilitators. A need for culturally and gender-appropriate public health policies to improve the engagement of physical activity among South Asian migrant women in New Zealand, which may ultimately aid in reducing the burden of lifestyle diseases, was highlighted. Every possible step was taken to ensure the trustworthiness of this research project. With all the strengths of the study, few limitations were are also noted. Finally, this study can be seen as drawing the attention of New Zealanders to public health issues among minority women.

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  • Development and Examination of In-browser GPU Accelerated Cryptography

    Win, Dajne

    Masters thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    Many of us use encryption frequently whether realising it or not; it is the active yet often invisible element keeping our information and data safe. Despite this, many of us underestimate the value of encryption in our daily lives. Schneier (2016) explains encryption is instrumental in protecting identities, governments, lawmakers, law enforcement, military, critical infrastructure, communications networks, power grids, transportation, and everything else we rely on in society. “As we move to the Internet of Things ... encryption will become even more critical to our personal and national security” (Schneier, 2016). Understanding the ever-changing threat landscape, predicting potential trends, and current security issues are the core roles of the security researcher. The process of establishing frameworks helps mitigate risks of the critical reliance on encryption. One of the challenges encryption faces is it is inherently computationally intensive and therefore slow. Due to mobile devices' focus on performance over security, it is vital to find methods to accelerate modern encryption algorithms to preserve information security in the future. Previous research has successfully investigated the use of hardware to accelerate encryption algorithms. Algorithm accelerators have used Graphics Processing Units (GPU) for many years and have proven these to be effective for parallel workloads. An advantage is that GPUs are already part of most computer systems, making them a fertile area for research into hardware performance. However, previous research has been limited to system specific compiled code. This research explores the ability to perform acceleration on any modern browser through a scripted programming language. The selection of NTRUEncrypt for this experiment was due to its suitability towards acceleration, protection against quantum computers and as an alternative to RSA or Elliptic Curve Cryptography (ECC). A pure JavaScript and GPU accelerated version of NTRUEncrypt were developed. The Three.js library was selected to utilise the latest version of WebGL in modern browsers and reduce development time. OpenGL ES 1.0 compatible shaders then replaced the addition and convolution operations of NTRUEncrypt, utilising the system GPU for processing. Performance comparison of encryption and decryption between NTRUEncrypt.js and NTRUEncrypt-GPU.js was then performed. Polynomial convolution at the highest security settings was 1.6 times faster on the GPU compared to the Central Processing Unit (CPU). However, results from this experiment show NTRUEncrypt-GPU.js failed to accelerate the NTRUEncrypt cryptographic algorithm. Furthermore, comparisons within this research showed JavaScript was up to 80 times slower than C, C++, and Java. Future research into accelerated cryptography would provide further knowledge, understanding and open new opportunities for improvement to information security. While NTRUEncrypt-GPU.js failed to accelerated NTRUEncrypt using currently available standards, preliminary testing using Compute Shaders proved successful and warrents further investigation.

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  • Samoa: Exploring the Linkages Between Climate Change and Population Movements

    Flores-Palacios, Ximena

    Doctoral thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    This Samoan study explores people’s experiences and understandings of climate change, including whether and how climate-related factors have influenced internal and international mobility patterns in the last 30 years. This interdisciplinary village and family-based study combined a Samoan worldview which acknowledges the place of traditional knowledge, values, beliefs and practices in people’s responses to climate change, and Western-based perspectives to set the knowledge base. Findings were: (a) that family resilience in dealing with the effects of climate change was grounded in fa’a Samoa norms including access to customary land and reciprocity, (b) that mobility has become an integral adaptation strategy as seen in relocation from coastal areas to inland customary lands, temporary and permanent migration to the capital, and overseas migration, and (c) that climate change effects have exacerbated differences among groups. Those with limited access to resources and support systems have fewer adaptation options and are less able to use mobility as an adaptive mechanism. The main implication for policy design is that the voices of people affected by climate change must be incorporated in both research and policy. While this may serve a political purpose, axiomatic also is that the voices carry considerable knowledge.

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  • Recasting knowledge governance: the struggle of accommodating divergent knowledge systems in East Java, Indonesia

    Nugroho, Hesthi

    Thesis
    Lincoln University

    The role of knowledge in environmental policy development and implementation is gaining more attention nowadays. Scholars have argued for some time that the implementation of environmental policy should appreciate the local situation more, as people’s understanding about the environment is diverse, and scientific knowledge cannot be the only knowledge to view, explain and solve environmental issues. It is believed that including the knowledge of local people can improve the implementation of environmental policies. Nevertheless, what happens when local knowledge is explicitly included in the decision-making process? Drawing on a knowledge governance conceptual framework and an analysis of documents, field observations and 35 semistructured interviews, this qualitative research investigates knowledge governance in practice through a conservation agriculture programme introduced to two rural villages in East Java, Indonesia. The programme endeavoured to integrate the scientific knowledge of public agency scientists and the local knowledge of farmers with the expectation that this integrative approach would foster social, economic and environmental sustainability and improve the water quality of the Brantas River at the same time. Inspired by Arnstein’s (1969) ladder of participation, this thesis develops a knowledge governance ladder as a way to understand and assess the processes of knowledge production in environmental decision-making in terms of power sharing, divergent ways of knowing, and the ontologies held by different groups of stakeholders. This research concludes that the knowledge governance ladder needs to incorporate a pathway of “coexistence” to move beyond current conceptions of coproduction. It is argued that coexistence highlights mutual understanding, recognition and respect for different ways of knowing and ontologies of different stakeholders. The thesis concludes that recent definitions of knowledge governance in the context of environmental management lack sufficient applicability in developing countries as they do not adequately address the existence of traditional/ or local traditions and rituals. The definition of knowledge governance should, therefore, include respect for local knowledge and the elements within it, which are traditions, rituals, and religious values. The expected goals to be achieved from knowledge governance must be based on the consent of all stakeholders without overlooking others’ beliefs and values. This thesis also provides recommendations for both practice and further research.

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  • Investigation of ovine DGAT1 intron 1 variation and its association with variation in carcass traits

    Barr, Sarah

    Thesis
    Lincoln University

    The economic importance of a carcass is determined by the quantity of saleable meat. The quality of a carcass is determined by the lean meat yield and the ratio of lean meat to fat. Therefore, the heightened quality is portrayed by a carcass that is low in subcutaneous fat, high in lean meat yield with a minimum of 3% of intramuscular fat to give the meat marbling, enhancing eating attributes such as, juiciness and tenderness. Diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1 or DGAT1 has shown to have a strong association with fat production as the last committed step to triglyceride synthesis. In this trial, 338 NZ Romney lambs were genotyped using PCR-SSCP to see if variation occurred in DGAT1 intron 1. It was determined that a variation occurred, and following sequencing, the variation was identified to be a C to T substitution at position 171 between primer sites and equated to three genotypes; AA, AB and BB. 190 lambs were further investigated for association between their genotypes and carcass traits. Three data sets were used, 2015, Glenleith progeny 2014 and Doughboy progeny 2014, of these, two (2015 and Glenleith 2014) showed a strong correlation, P=0.040, P=0.027 respectively, between an increase in leg yield and the presence of allele B. With further analysis it showed that the presence of B increased the leg yield by between 670-706g. It may be assumed that this increase is due to heightened intramuscular fat and therefore the identification of the presence of allele B may be incorporated into a selective breeding system to enhance the intramuscular fat in a leg cut in NZ Romney lambs.

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