28,621 results for Thesis

  • Longitudinal relationships between phonology and the lexicon in typically developing toddlers and late talkers : a psycholinguistic perspective.

    Ahmat, Hamimah (2016)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Background: Research spanning more than two decades has emphasised the lexical deficits of late talkers. However, late talkers have been found to have associated delayed phonological acquisition. Given the close connection between these two linguistic domains, it may be that the late language emergence often observed in these children, arises from deficits in their underlying phonological processing system. This thesis explored the longitudinal relationships between the phonological and lexical development in typically developing toddlers (TD) and those who fit the criteria of late talkers (LT), in light of a psycholinguistic speech processing framework. Methods: The cohort comprised 168 children aged 2;0 (years; months) at intake who were reassessed when they were about 3;6 and 5;0 years, on measures of phonological accuracy and expressive language. Phonological accuracy (expressed in terms of a percentage of consonants correct) was used as the main behavioural indicator of children‘s phonological development and was measured in two conditions; in a test of nonword repetition (NWR), and a standardised picture naming/articulation test. Children‘s lexical development was assessed using standardised tests of language. Relationships between phonology and expressive language were derived based on correlation and regression analyses of groups‘ scores, as well as in the varied clinical profiles characterised by children‘s abilities in one domain of language relative to the other. With the dataset, analysis of concurrent correlations was conducted in order to identify and compare statistical significance between individual measures of phonological accuracy and the lexicon at each time-point for TD children and LTs. Regression analyses were conducted to identify the proportion of variance in expressive language explained by each measure of phonological accuracy in TD children and LTs. Differences between TD and LT groups in mean scores for phonology and expressive language at each time point were analysed to determine statistical significance. Results and conclusions: Late talkers‘ performance on a range of measures was significantly different to that of their typically developing peers at all time points. Results indicated that the patterns of individual and combined relationships between phonological accuracy and expressive language also differed between TD and LT children across development. Sufficient phonological representations and motor programs were prerequisites for expressive language development at age 2;0. By age 3;6 and 5;0 continued vocabulary acquisition and expressive language development increasingly relied on their ability to employ phonological units for generating new / nonwords (i.e., the motor programming facility of their speech processing system). The LTs were found to form a heterogeneous group with varied profiles across development. The emergence of subgroups of LTs and observed shifts in their patterns of phonological relative to expressive language over time, suggested differential underlying deficits in terms of access to different levels of the processing system depending on their phases of development and profiles at different ages. By age 5;0 although the early language difficulties for a majority of LTs resolved, more than half manifested delayed phonological development indicating persistent immaturity in motor programs. The corollary of persisting phonological difficulties in children is that it places them at risk for literacy difficulties at school age. Implications for clinical practice and research were discussed.

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  • A geospatial approach to measuring the built environment for active transport, physical activity and health outcomes.

    Donnellan, Niamh Marie (2016)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Active transport and physical activity behaviours are recognised as important determinants of a number of health outcomes, including obesity. Over the last decade, there has been a significant amount of research focused on the need to quantify the ‘walkability’ of neighbourhoods or urban environments as a means of predicting physical activity behaviours. The most common methods used to create indices of walkability focus on a combination of land use mix, street connectivity and dwelling density, as developed by Frank et al., (2005). What is largely missing in this research, however, is a focus on other modes of active transport (such as cycling) and a related recognition of how different delineations (Euclidean and network) of neighbourhoods may affect results. This thesis investigates the influence of the built environment at a number of spatial levels and different neighbourhood delineations, using both standard and novel methods. This research advances and improves our current understandings of the built environment by being the first to use a novel method based on kernel density estimation, to measure associations between the built environment, active transport, physical activity, and health outcomes in a city in New Zealand (Wellington City). This novel method is used to create an Enhanced Walk Index, improving on standard walk indices by including measures of slope, street lights and footpaths and tracks. In addition, this research is the first to test and validate indices of bikeability and neighbourhood destination accessibility (NDAI), based on the novel method. Results of the study suggest that the novel Basic and Enhanced Walk Indices had strong significant positive associations with active transport and overweight/obesity. In comparison the standard method had weaker significant associations, potentially indicating previous research has underestimated the effect of the built environment on active behaviours and health outcomes. In addition, the novel indices of bikeability and NDAI also showed significant positive associations with active transport and overweight/obesity, however effect sizes were small. Furthermore, results varied depending on the type of neighbourhood delineation and spatial scale used. However, in general, the network buffer showed stronger associations between indices of the built environment and active transport, physical activity and overweight/obesity. This research thus strengthens current international and national evidence on how the built environment affects active transport, physical activity behaviours and health outcomes. It expands a preoccupation with walkability to encompass other modes of transport, such as bikeability. Furthermore it provides an alternative, and potentially more nuanced novel method to assess the relationships between the built environment, active transport, physical activity and health outcomes.

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  • The co-creation of gamified fitness experiences

    Hawkins, Tess E. (2017)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    This thesis aims to investigate the different motivations of fitness technology users. Specifically, this thesis examines technology-based fitness experiences and the motivations and value that users derive from these experiences. Three literature streams are used to explain user engagement in technology-based fitness experiences: experience marketing, co-creation and gamification. In order to understand user motivations and the value derived from using this type of technology, an online survey was created using Qualtrics and a sample was recruited through Mechanical Turk. The scales used in the survey were sourced and adapted from the co-creation and gamification literature streams. A total of 360 responses were collected, and statistically analysed using multivariate procedures, including factor analysis and cluster analysis. On the basis of this analysis, users were put into distinct groups and profiled. The results revealed that functional, social and emotional value are significant sources of motivation for engaging in technology-based fitness experiences. It was also found that gamification is a significant area of value for users and, therefore, is as an important consideration for fitness app designers. The most relevant and influential constructs, in relation to technology-based fitness experiences and product usage co-creation, were also identified. These include the risk and accessibility components of the DART framework and the four factors of the mobile Internet experience. In contrast, personalisation and flow were identified as unimportant to users. It was found that users predominantly utilise fitness apps to help meet their need to achieve fitness and health related goals. However, it was also identified that the gamification aspects of fitness apps are highly valued by users. This study demonstrates that fitness app designers must endeavour to make their apps functional and entertaining as it will likely elicit user adoption.

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  • Perceptions of Chinese People in New Zealand Towards Nature and Possums

    Niu, Bo (2016)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    This study explores perceptions of Chinese people in New Zealand toward nature and the environment, particularly towards possums, an introduced pest species that people have been trying to eradicate from New Zealand for decades. Perceptions of possums by Chinese people and other people living in New Zealand have been compared and contrasted in the study as well. Chinese people who have never been to New Zealand were excluded from the research. Before the research, previous research studies on topics relating to public perceptions of various ethnicities towards nature or pests in New Zealand, were investigated as supportive backgrounds for this study. Only a few studies were found. Out of those studies, there were either no Asian people separated as one ethnic group, or they were under-represented. This research, through the combination of quantitative survey research and qualitative research interviews with Chinese academics in New Zealand, has deduced that: Chinese people in New Zealand have no less knowledge about possums in terms of their effects than New Zealand people have; also, Chinese people have more neutral perceptions towards possums compared with those of New Zealanders. However, as the survey received rather limited respondents, even with the complementary data from qualitative interviews with Chinese academics, we cannot conclude that the survey results represent all the Chinese people in New Zealand. My small non-representative sample was of people with higher average education and with more outdoor activities than the Chinese population in New Zealand as a whole. As a case study, this research can still help guide future research in New Zealand in terms of differences between ethnicities and quantitative research surveys. Further research could focus on using quantitative research methods with available data in New Zealand, to differentiate the perceptions among different ethnicities, in order to help future policymaking and policy execution.

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  • BYOD (Bring Your Own Device) and its impact on teacher pedagogy: a New Zealand case study

    Rae, Genevieve (2017)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The practice of students bringing their own device to school BYOD (Bring Your Own Device) has now become reasonably common in New Zealand primary schools after being first introduced in the late 1990s. It has become a strategy that schools can use to provide 21st century learning opportunities for students without having to provide school-­‐owned devices. This study raises important questions for teachers and schools to ask themselves before implementing BYOD. This study explores the experiences of three New Zealand primary school teachers as they introduce BYOD into their classrooms. The case study sought to understand what factors impacted on their ability to implement new pedagogical practices and how professional learning might help support teachers with BYOD. The literature review examines national and international literature on the implementation and impact of BYOD. It discusses how and why teachers do or do not engage with ICT in classrooms and how BYOD impacts on their practice. This case study utilises SAMR (Puentedura, 2006) and TPACK (Mishra & Koehler, 2006) in order to analyse the data and discuss the findings. The findings suggest that, in order for teachers to maximise the potential of BYOD, professional learning and technical support is essential. The teachers experienced a number of challenges as they introduced BYOD, yet all managed to persevere and remain positive as they trialled new teaching methods, and utilised new programs and applications. The study concludes by making a number of pertinent recommendations that can be actioned by schools in order to ensure implementation is smooth and successful. It is very important that teachers are supported adequately by the school and are given opportunities to engage in relevant and timely professional learning.

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  • Phenological, physiological, and ecological factors affecting the epiphyte Notheia anomala and its obligate host Hormosira banksii

    Metcalfe, Isis Hayrunisa (2017)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Notheia anomala is an obligate epiphyte commonly found on the abundant habitat-forming alga Hormosira banksii in intertidal areas throughout temperate Australasia. The tight co-evolved relationship between these species is unique because: (i) Notheia is a true obligate epiphyte, which is uncommon in the marine environment, (ii) the order Fucales is over 70 million years old and includes over 10 families, but Notheia is one of few fucoid epiphytes, and (iii) phylogenetically close species are rarely so closely linked (Hormosira, the obligate host of Notheia, is also a fucoid). This project is the first to address the phenological, physiological, and ecological factors affecting the Notheia-Hormosira relationship through a combination of field surveys and manipulative experiments. Phenological observations indicated that the two species may have asynchronous life cycles. I found that Notheia reproduction peaked in April (Austral autumn) when seawater temperatures were mild, whereas previous studies have shown peak reproduction in Hormosira during the period July to October (Austral winter/spring). There were differences in the development of Notheia conceptacles across different habitats (high shore areas, low shore areas and tide pools). Conceptacles developed faster, and were at full maturity for longer in the tide pool habitat. It is likely that lower levels of desiccation stress in tide pools allow faster conceptacle development and longer periods of reproductive maturity. From an evolutionary and ecological perspective, it is expected that the distribution of Notheia should closely resemble that of Hormosira across spatial and temporal scales. To test this, I compared distribution patterns of Hormosira and Notheia from the large continental scale to the small individual host plant scale. While Notheia biogeographical distribution is intricately linked to its host Hormosira, I found contrasting ecological habitat preferences, with tide pools hosting the lowest abundance of Hormosira and the highest abundance of Notheia respectively. At the host plant scale, I found that Hormosira plants from the high shore had the greatest number of Notheia clumps attached near the low-holdfast region. In the low shore and tide pools the pattern was opposite, with most Notheia clumps attached to the mid and high regions of the host. Notheia was equally likely to be found attached to male and female host plants, and more epiphytes were found attached to older than younger host plants. Using field tagging and translocation experiments, I also quantified the survival and growth of Notheia at different densities exposed to various stressful environmental conditions. Tagged Notheia clumps, with different plant densities and sizes, from the low shore and tide pools all experienced high mortality over a five-month period associated with high dislodgement rates of the host Hormosira. In translocation experiments of Notheia fronds (without its host), I found that individuals translocated to the high shore experienced close to 100% mortality, suggesting that desiccation and possibly photo inhibition are the main factors limiting the upward distribution of Notheia. Translocations to the low shore and tide pools demonstrated that Notheia fronds can survive and grow detached from its obligate host and suggest that the obligate dependency is most likely an early life stage requirement. Finally, I tested whether the abundance of invertebrate inhabitants associated with Hormosira varies in the presence of Notheia across spatio-temporal scales. Field surveys showed that, as predicted, there were strong positive density-dependent effects of Notheia on both richness and abundance of invertebrates, regardless of the spatio-temporal context and resident invertebrate taxa, providing one of the first examples of a habitat cascade occurring in rocky intertidal systems. Through a recolonization experiment, I tested whether invertebrate abundance was driven by (1) Notheia or Hormosira, (2) high or low amounts of Notheia and (3) living Notheia fronds or abiotic mimics. Hypotheses 1 and 2 were strongly supported, with more biomass of Notheia (as opposed to Hormosira) supporting more invertebrates, but not Hypothesis 3, as richness and abundances of inhabitants were similar between living Notheia fronds and artificial mimics. This suggests that Notheia is primarily providing habitat rather than food to the invertebrate inhabitants. Based on these results I hypothesized that invertebrates exert little or no grazing pressure on Hormosira and Notheia. This was tested in a laboratory food choice experiment focusing on potential grazing effects from herbivorous gastropods. In contrast to this hypothesis, I found negative effects of gastropods on both Hormosira and Notheia, with stronger grazing on Notheia. However, grazing rates were low overall and are likely to play only a minor role in regulating the abundance and distribution of the two species under natural field conditions. In support of the spatio-temporal surveys and colonization experiment, the grazing experiment also suggests that Notheia provide a better habitat for small invertebrates than Hormosira. Seaweeds are key components of coastal ecosystems, providing habitat and food for a wide range of marine organisms. Therefore, understanding their life history patterns and reproduction dynamics is essential for managing coastal areas and assessing ecosystem health. This study is the first to explore the long-term phenology and periodicity of reproduction in Notheia. Furthermore, my results support a growing number of habitat cascade studies from different ecosystems, and suggest that these processes are common in marine benthic systems.

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  • Tagalog Language Maintenance and Shift Among the Filipino Community in New Zealand

    Umali, Ronalyn

    Masters thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the factors that affect the attitudes and behaviours of Filipino migrants regarding their ethnic language maintenance in New Zealand. The research design was guided by a social psychological perspective, focusing on the attitudes and behaviours of 15 participants based on particular situations and social interactions. Qualitative data were collected through one-on-one interviews and informal fieldwork observations. Interviews were recorded, transcribed, coded, and analysed using Thematic Analysis. Results showed that the majority of participants have positive attitudes towards ethnic language maintenance in the Filipino-New Zealand community. Their positive attitudes were influenced by their constant involvement with the Filipino ethnic group, good relationships with members of the host society, and their views on heritage language as core to their ethnic identities. It was also found that the participants tended to fulfil the linguistic expectations of their family members and the wider Filipino community by using the ethnic language often. However, despite the participants’ positive attitudes, findings revealed that the use of the Tagalog language is not maintained among second-generation Filipino migrants. Regardless of their desire to pass on their ethnic language, most participants with New Zealand-born children use English as their main language of communication at home. In cultural events and gatherings, it was also found that Filipino adults would use English when speaking with Filipino children, but would switch back to Tagalog when conversing with other Filipino adults. Tagalog is only used by the first generation and those who have already acquired it, while the younger generation is left isolated from the language. There is a clear contradiction between the participants’ positive attitudes and their behaviours towards ethnic language maintenance. This suggests that English will most likely be the main language of the succeeding Filipino-New Zealand generations. Without proper attention and diligent use of Tagalog among Filipino children, a language shift seems inevitable among the second and third-generation Filipino migrants.

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  • Selective Laser Re-melting

    Chung, Sonia

    Masters thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    The additive manufacturing (AM) industry is heavily employed in a wide variety of applications today. Initially, the different processes have been used for concept modelling and rapid prototyping but are now capable of building fully functional parts. Selective laser melting (SLM) is one of the rapidly growing technologies since its inception in early 2000s. It creates parts by melting powder materials in layers using a laser heat source based on the information provided by a three-dimensional computer-aided design model. The parameters of SLM have been continuously optimised while attempting to produce fully dense parts comparable to the traditionally counterparts. This is an ongoing area of research due to the considerable number of variables involved in the process, including but not limited to powder material properties (powder deposition, particle morphology, particle size, particle size distribution and particle porosity), laser parameters (laser power, laser scan speed and laser scan spacing), and build chamber conditions (atmosphere, powder bed temperature and substrate plate preheating). Selective laser re-melting (SLR) is yet another approach visualised for improving the quality of SLM parts by integrating the laser surface re-melting (LSR) schemes into the SLM process planning. By re-melting every layer of a part, improved mechanical and physical properties can be obtained through decreased porosities. The re-melting process promotes grain refinement with a larger temperature gradient and balling within solidified layers is reduced leading to the reduction of pores and defects. However, the SLR technique further complicates the small SLM process window and requires careful selection of parameters for a successful build. Additionally, past SLR experiments employed laser powers less than 100 W as were made available with the older SLM machines. This study explores the effects of laser re-melting in SLM with varying energy density settings, establishing the process to structure and the structure to property relationships. Laser powers up to 375 W are used, with appropriate laser scan speed settings, ensuring the minimum energy densities as required for the laser melting of 316L stainless steel powders. Microstructural analyses are performed on the cross-sectional areas of the parts evaluating the formation of melt pools and the structures within. Both mechanical and physical properties including surface roughness of the top and the lateral faces, hardness, tensile strength, and density are the critical responses measured and analysed based on experimental conditions with varying levels of laser re-melting. Other aspects such as the laser scan strategies and the build orientations are also given due considerations in the experimental designs. All the experiments are conducted on the Renishaw laser melting system. One of the main problems faced is that the re-melting approach led to excessive heating, bubbling and loss of the layer structures when attempted at the same original density levels as required for the first pass. This has led to limiting the energy densities in the repeated passes at either a half or a quarter of the original energy density level. Certain improvements are noticed from the laser re-melting process, though the end results are the combined effects of a number of factors. 

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  • Trustworthy and participatory community-based disaster communication : a case study of Jalin Merapi in the 2010 Merapi eruption in Indonesia.

    Gultom, Dwie Irmawaty (2016)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Less attention has been paid to the information receivers in disaster communication, particularly the way disaster information is considered to be trustworthy by the affected community and how it can increase collective participation in disaster communication, both at research and practice levels. Meanwhile, a lack of trust will prevent the transformation of information into usable knowledge for an effective disaster response because people are unlikely to pay attention and act on information provided by someone with whom they have a lack of trust. Thus, this study aims at gaining an in-depth understanding of community-based disaster communication by conducting a qualitative case study of Jalin Merapi (Jaringan Informasi Lingkar Merapi - Merapi Circle Information Networks) in the 2010 Mt. Merapi eruption with 35 in-depth interviews and 2 focus groups in Mt. Merapi surroundings. Data analysis was conducted with constructivist grounded theory in order to construct a theoretical understanding of how disaster communication is regarded as trustworthy and able to encourage collective participation. by the affected community, and the combined usage of traditional media and new media in disaster communication. This thesis explains that the perception of the affected community of trustworthy and effective official communication is strongly related to the government‘s promptness in sharing complete and accessible official disaster information, and willingness to engage the affected community and their local knowledge. Thus, this thesis argues that the affected community is worth to be engaged in disaster communication for their culturally-embedded communication and tie strength of the social network, which can encourage trust and collective participation. In order to effectively facilitate community participation, disaster communication needs to engage multiple media, both the advanced internet-based and traditional media, based on the local communication behaviours. Moreover, this thesis details important roles of the affected community as reliable sources, couriers, and on-the-ground verifiers of local information about the needs of survivors and the affected areas during a disaster response. Finally, this thesis acknowledges the challenges of disaster communication with a bottom-up communication approach by involving local communities, based on their knowledge and vulnerabilities in responding to a disaster. Also, this thesis has a number of important implications for the future practice of disaster communication, especially in facilitating effective and trustworthy disaster information for the affected community.

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  • Motivation for hearing aid uptake amongst Malay adults in the Klang Valley, Malaysia.

    Ali Hanafiah, Nurlin (2016)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Hearing rehabilitation is not a straightforward process as evident from established factors influencing adults’ rehabilitation decision. However, it cannot be assumed that the factors identified apply to Malaysian malay adults due to differences in culture, religious belief, health belief, social support, and service delivery. The objectives of this study were to: 1) describe the audiometric and demographic profiles of adults consulting for audiological services at the Hospital Sungai Buloh (HSB) and Hospital Tengku Ampuan Rahimah (HTAR), in the Klang Valley, Malaysia, 2) explore the internal and external factors perceived to influence hearing aid uptake amongst the adults with hearing impairment, and 3) apply the World Health Organisation’s International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF) terminologies in describing the internal (personal in ICF terminology) and external (environmental in ICF terminology) factors perceived to influence hearing aid uptake. A sequential quantitative-qualitative mixed method research design was selected to achieve the research objectives. A retrospective cohort study design was selected for the Part 1 study in order to identify profiles of adults consulting for audiology service at the HSB and HTAR. One hundred data points from each hospital containing demographic and audiological information were analysed and described quantitatively. The result served to guide participant selection criteria for the Part 2 qualitative study. Twenty-two Malay adults, 11 from each hospital, participated in the Part 2 study. The participants recruited from HSB aged between 40 and 69 years, while those from HTAR were aged between 50 and 69 years. In the Part 2 study, two-stage semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted: 1) Stage 1 interviews were carried out following the participants’ hearing assessment, and 2) Stage 2 interviews were conducted following the participants’ hearing demonstration. Through qualitative content analysis, categories generated were grouped into eight factor groupings, developed using the ICF terminologies, delineating personal factors, environmental factors and factors associated with activities and participation. While many of the results corroborated findings from previous research, new categories found included those associated to hearing aid demonstrations, perceptions of hearing aids and its use, stage of life, cultural practice, and religious belief. Hearing aid demonstration session was found to be an important factor facilitating hearing aid uptake. In summary, this study showed that Malaysian malay adults with hearing impairment who seek hearing help for the first time perceive a multitude of factors that influence their decisions to adopt hearing aids. The identified factors inform audiologists to be more perceptive of the clients’ needs and issues regarding hearing aids. This study also demonstrated that these factors can be contextualised using the ICF terminologies, providing a common language for clinical applications and future research. Areas for improvement for the audiology public service were identified and gaps of knowledge highlighted for future studies.

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  • Estimating leaf area index from airborne laser scanning.

    Pearse, Grant Dennis (2017)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Leaf area index (LAI) quantifies the amount of leaf surface area per unit ground area. LAI in forest ecosystems regulates the upper limit of possible light interception, atmospheric gas exchange, and primary production. These properties make LAI one of the most important ecophysiological variables with a wide range of potential applications. In the context of forests managed for production, knowledge of LAI offers the potential to align management activities with fundamental biophysical properties. For example, LAI offers the potential to precisely target and monitor management activities such as fertiliser application or disease control. Despite the potential benefits knowledge of LAI offers, usage is seldom seen outside of research applications. A key reason for this is the difficulty in obtaining LAI measurements over large areas, with field based optical methods largely constrained to use under uniform, diffuse sky conditions. Remote sensing of LAI offers one potential solution to obtain large-scale estimates of LAI. However, promising spectral-based approaches have been shown to have limited usefulness for forests with high LAI such as intensively managed coniferous plantations. Airborne laser scanning (ALS) data (lidar) offers enhanced ability to estimate LAI in a range of forest types with a high degree of accuracy, but the optimum methods for estimating LAI from lidar are not well established. This thesis aims to develop and demonstrate a method for estimating LAI from lidar in New Zealand’s intensively managed Pinus radiata D. Don forests. To accomplish this, two distinct areas of research are addressed. First, this thesis addresses the need for acquiring a large number of LAI field measurements covering a range of stand conditions in order to calibrate ALS-LAI models. This was accomplished by validating the use of the newly developed LAI-2200C (LI-COR Biosciences Inc., Lincoln, NE, USA). This instrument allows measurement of LAI under clear sky conditions through the application of a model to correct for the impact of scattered light on gap fraction estimates. This thesis presents the first in situ comparison of LAI measurements acquired under diffuse and clear sky conditions in a coniferous forest. These results were obtained by repeatedly measuring LAI in plots of pure P. radiata in New Zealand. In addition, the thesis presents the first assessment of the importance of acquiring accurate needle spectra to parameterise the scattering correction model. These values were acquired using newly developed methods that allow accurate spectra to be acquired from needle-leaved species via spectroradiometer. The thesis also addresses the stability of needle optical properties with respect to position in the canopy, abaxial and adaxial measurements, and variability between individual trees. The second part of this thesis used a large number of LAI measurements made possible by the new instrumentation to address key questions on the topic of estimating LAI from lidar. To date, most ALS-LAI research has been divided between establishing empirical or physical links between lidar metrics and LAI. This has resulted in a proliferation of proposed methods and lidar metrics for estimating LAI, and few studies have compared these approaches. In addition, factors known to impact ALS-LAI estimation such as the choice of plot parameters have gone relatively unexplored, as has the use of new statistical learning approaches. This thesis attempts to offer the first simultaneous assessment of the optimum combination of lidar metrics, plot parameters, and modelling approaches for estimating LAI from ALS lidar data in P. radiata forests. Results from the instrument validation suggest that the scattering correction model performs well in coniferous forests. Overall, clear sky LAI measurements were higher on average than diffuse sky measurements. However, there was evidence that this difference resulted from a reduction in erroneous readings obtained from the largest outer sensor ring under diffuse sky conditions. Traditionally, data from this part of the instrument have been error-prone and there was some evidence that clear sky LAI measurements offer increased accuracy by reducing scattering induced error across the range of zenith angles observed by the instrument. The method used to obtain spectroradiometer measurements from needle-leaved specimens was well suited to collecting accurate needle reflectance and transmittance for use in the scattering correction model. Use of these values improved agreement between clear and diffuse sky LAI measurements and reduced the magnitude of the largest differences at the extremes of the range. The results demonstrated that P. radiata spectra did not differ significantly with canopy position and were reasonably stable between trees. Measured P. radiata needle spectra are presented as part of this thesis and values are suggested for future users of the LAI-2200C scattering correction model in this forest type. Overall, use of measured spectra in combination with masking of outer ring data allowed LAI to be measured under both clear and diffuse sky conditions; however, clear sky conditions offered considerable reductions in the maximum potential measurement error resulting from changes in sky condition over time and between sensor locations. Results presented in the second part of this thesis demonstrate that LAI can be accurately estimated from lidar data in P. radiata forests. A key finding from this work was that use of standard approaches developed for use in other forest types produced some of the worst models of all those trialled, indicating that successful ALS-LAI estimation in P. radiate depends on careful selection of lidar metrics, plot parameters, and modelling approach. Specifically, results showed that (1) metrics that form a proxy for gap fraction by computing the ratio of returns above and below a chosen height threshold (ratio metrics) were key predictors of LAI; (2) choice of height threshold for ratio metrics strongly impacted model performance and P. radiata appeared to require higher thresholds than other forest types; (3) the concept of a variable height threshold was beneficial in accommodating differences in tree height across plots and led to improved estimates of LAI; (4) a larger fixed plot radius generally improved model performance; (5) use of a variable plot radius linked to instrument view distance was better than any fixed radius trialled; (6) metrics linking lidar penetration to the Beer-Lambert law were only marginally less accurate than empirical models and showed strong predictive ability. This approach may offer a means of estimating LAI without calibration by inverting the Poisson model using gap fraction from lidar and an empirical projection coefficient. Finally, the research found a high level of correlation present between lidar metrics, strongly emphasising the need for modelling approaches robust to these effects. Regularised regression via the elastic net was found to be a useful method for providing both variable and model selection in high-dimensional space while accounting for the presence of high correlation between metrics. Results from models produced by the random forests algorithm were similar to results from elastic net but provided some useful insights into variable importance.

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  • Controversies, instabilities and (re)configurations : an actor-network account of abortion in Christchurch, New Zealand.

    Meadows, Letitia (2016)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Abortion is an object of enduring controversy. Perhaps not surprisingly, abortion has been the focus of a significant body of research and academic debate. This body of research has addressed abortion prevalence, methods and circulation across different localities, legislative frameworks, as well as cultural and social practices. Despite this plethora of academic literature there is an absence of material that addresses the complexities of abortion networks by considering the relationships between the human and non-human actors. This study joins an emerging trend in social work research that looks beyond the traditions of centring the person as the focus of the research endeavour to explore non-human agency. Such approaches offer new methodological possibilities for understanding human/non-human relations and the non-human actors that populate ‘social’ worlds. In this thesis, Actor-network theory (ANT) is the methodological toolkit for exploring the assemblages of abortion. ANT-inflected research is distinct in the way it takes seriously the analytical currency of both human and non-human actors. Its sensibilities of ‘slow research’ have aided this study to closely follow the controversies that can be found where heterogeneous relationships are formed. In this way, this research has been responsive to multiplicities and contradictions that thread through articulations of abortion, and its practices. This ethnographic study provides rich descriptions and ‘snapshots’ of practices at Lyndhurst Day Hospital (Lyndhurst) in Christchurch, New Zealand. The observations, interviews and document analysis on which this thesis is based were generated from the concurrent activities of research fieldwork and social work practice at Lyndhurst from 2008 to 2011. Even with a local focus, this research shows that abortion is not a stable phenomenon, but mutable, multiple, and uncertain. The descriptive text of this thesis reveals glimpses into some of the complex abortion practices and (re)configurations that emerge in and through the relational work between human and non-human actors. The ANT-inflected descriptions in this thesis reveal that abortion controversies can be followed, and that descriptions of these controversies can extend beyond a dichotomous split. Controversies emerge in the relations between human and non-human actors, through their interests, their disagreements, and the compromises they make. Moreover, that they can be traced to reveal multiple abortion ‘truths’, realities, and networks.

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  • Mental health and factors related to mental health among Pakistani university students.

    Irfan, Uzma (2016)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    This study investigated potential factors contributing to mental health in university students in Pakistan. The specific factors selected for investigation were fathers warmth, extraversion vs. introversion, self-esteem, and peer relationships. Two demographic factors, gender and socio-economic status (based on parental income), were also examined to determine potential relationships with mental health problems. A quantitative research design was utilized and data were obtained through participants completing five different standardized surveys. The participants were 314 undergraduate students from different departments, attending one university in Karachi. The age of participants ranged from 18 to 24 years, and 149 were female and 165 were male. The findings of this study revealed a positive correlation between extraversion and mental health, fathers warmth and mental health, and self-esteem and mental health, along with significant gender differences: male students reported more positive mental health levels than female students. There was also a trend for those students from the lowest parental income category to report lower mental health levels. Additionally, of the factors assessed, fathers warmth predicted most variabilityin mental health scores. These findings provide insights into students perception of their mental health and factors that maybe related to these self-reports. Such work highlights the importance of raising awareness of mental health among university students, their families, and university administration, particularly in cultures where these is potentially less acceptance of mental health problems. The findings should support the planning and development of effective interventions and strategies, not only for university students experiencing mental health problems, but also universityadministration: the influence of fathers warmth on mental health self-reports in this context suggests a need to consider parental involvement in effective interventions, for example. Findings are also discussed in terms of potential gender differences and cultural factors that influence students perceptions of their psychological well-being.

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  • The influence of drought on Neochanna apoda metapopulation persistence under global warming and land-use change.

    White, Richard S. A. (2016)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Population size is the primary criteria used globally to determine species extinction risk and prioritise conservation risks due to the widely documented positive scaling of population persistence with abundance. However, it is unknown how such scaling is affected by land-use change combined with climate change which, for many populations, is expected to decrease population growth rates and increase population variability. Moreover, it is unknown how such changes to scaling in sub-populations will impact the persistence of larger interconnected metapopulation networks. Using empirically-derived models of Neochanna apoda (brown mudfish) metapopulations, I investigated the interactive effects of land-use- (forest clear-felling) and climate-change (extreme drought frequency) on the scaling of population persistence with carrying capacity and quantified how changes in scaling controlled metapopulation persistence. The metapopulation matrix model was parameterised using data from a long-term mark-recapture study of over 70 brown mudfish sub-populations living in forest pools affected by frequent extreme droughts (including a 1/25 year extreme drought), historic clear-felling and wind disturbances. After correcting these data for climate driven uncertainty in capture probability using Cormack-Jolly-Seber models, I found that mudfish survival during droughts was high for populations occupying pools deeper than 139 mm, but declined steeply in shallower pools. This threshold was caused by an interaction between increasing population density and drought magnitude associated with decreasing habitat size, which acted synergistically to increase physiological stress and mortality. Pool depths were lowest in forests affected by historic clear-felling due to the absence of large trees to fall over and excavate deep pools. Consequently, the metapopulation matrix model parameterised by these data showed that the scaling of time-to-extinction with carrying capacity in sub-populations was driven by an interaction between land-use change (forest clear-felling) and increasing extreme drought frequency with global warming. Population persistence increased exponentially with carrying capacity in large stable habitats, but this relationship was asymptotic at small population sizes in shallow habitats contracted in size by forest logging. Metapopulation persistence in logged forests dropped by over 50 percent due to such asymptotic scaling and lost persistence of large populations. Thus even large populations are likely vulnerable in stochastic environments, with their loss having disproportionately large negative effects on metapopulation persistence in landscapes affected by human disturbances. These results confirm longstanding theory predicting asymptotic population size-persistence thresholds under environmental stochasticity, and by doing so, highlight the keystone role large populations play in mitigating the impacts of global warming and land-use change.

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  • A case study of an international joint venture : how key stakeholders make sense of their experience of a Sino-New Zealand collaboration.

    Zhao, Xiaoli (2016)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    A review of the extensive international business collaboration (IBC) literature reveals scholars’ predisposition to focus on either knowledge or resources at the company level. Very little research has been conducted at the level of the key internal stakeholders within the collaborating companies that form international business alliances, commonly termed international joint ventures (IJVs). The result is that we know very little about the lived-in reality of these stakeholders who create an IJV and even less about the sense they make of their own strategy practice (SP, also called strategy-as-practice, SaP) and that of the key stakeholders in their partner company. My study sought to address these shortcomings in the literature by undertaking a qualitative, exploratory case study to uncover how key internal stakeholders in two companies collaborating in a Sino-New Zealand international joint venture (IJV) collaboration made sense of their own and the other company’s strategic actions during the development of their IJV. My study posed the following questions:  How do key internal stakeholders in a particular Sino-NZ context make sense of and give sense to strategic actions related to the development and maintenance of an international business collaboration?  How does this sensemaking and/or sensegiving influence international business collaboration in this case? To answer these research questions an inductive interpretive approach was adopted and three stages of interlinked data collection and analysis were conducted. Data were collected from company documents, semi-structured interviews, and limited participant observation. Interpretive analysis was performed using NVivo (10) software. In the stage 1 analysis, 39 documents and 7 interviews were used to construct two composite narratives of IJV collaboration (one for each company). In the stage 2 analysis, 16 meetings and 30 interviews were used to compare SP and practices of the two companies. The insights gained triggered the search for complementary theoretical concepts and contributed to development of the conceptual models produced in stage 3. The stage 3 analysis sought to conceptualise the disjunction in the ways the two companies made sense of the strategy practices revealed in their composite narratives and resulted in two theoretical models based on the analysis of data from 15 interviews and the Stage 1 and 2 data: a model conceptualising the sensemaking discrepancies between the partner companies in the IJV collaboration and a model of the sensemaking about performance in the IJV collaboration. These two models are the primary contributions of this study. The first model explicates 11 interrelated aspects that the analysis suggested were responsible for a sensemaking discrepancy (SMD) in the IJV collaboration. These were sensemaking about learning, sensemaking about experience, sensemaking about strategising, barriers to communication, habitus, cultural values, business practices, work environment, expectations, emotions, and beliefs. The second model conceptualises the flow of sensemaking actions that were found to constitute the complex context of the IJV collaboration and explained the participants’ sensemaking about their own and others’ performance as they maintained and developed the IJV collaboration over time. Two new concepts were created as part of the development of these models: A sensemaking discrepancy (SMD) embedded in the IJV relationship that disrupts or challenges collaboration and collaboration focused interaction (CFI) (or lack of it) which is proposed as the underlying mechanism influencing discrepancies in sensemaking about performance in an IJV collaboration. In addition to the conceptual models and the two new concepts embedded in them, three significant observations emerged from the case study. First, the collective narratives for each partner company showed that at the company level strategic practices were aligned with the key stakeholders’ fundamentally different views of the partnership relationship. This is not surprising as the key stakeholders in both companies were reticent about engaging with each other once the IJV was in place, suggesting that these individuals felt challenged by the prospect of confronting frustrations caused by their fundamentally different views of the IJV relationship. Second, a comparison of each company’s collective narrative suggested the two companies developed strategy practices to ameliorate the tensions caused by their different ways of doing business, rather than confronting these tensions. These practices then led to dissatisfaction with each other’s performance in the IJV and prompted a change in the shareholding structure. Third, sensemaking itself could be a strategic action when it occurred in situations where there was misalignment of values, business practices and habitus between the IJV partners. It was found that a sensemaking discrepancy (SMD) was embedded in the IJV relationship and disrupted collaboration, mutual learning, mutual communication, and knowledge sharing between the partner companies. In conclusion, this study produced two conceptual models conceptualising the link between sensemaking and SP as it played out in a Sino-NZ IJV. It contributes new insights about collaboration, sensemaking, and SP to the IJV, sensemaking and strategy literatures. At the heart of the contributions are two theoretical models that explain how sensemaking and SP combine to create participants’ sense of an IJV collaboration, answer the research questions, and address an important gap in these literatures. The research findings suggest that improving sensemaking ability should be considered as an important strategic management skill, and should be included in training agendas for managers who operate IJVs.

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  • "We have a lot to tell" An ethnography of children’s understandings of health and illness

    Persendt, Rosa (2016)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Little is known about children's ideas, understandings and coping mechanisms regarding health and illness in Namibia, where children are greatly valued and engaged in social life, but their perspectives are rarely sought or understood. This thesis uses children’s own perspectives as the focal point for examining health and illness in northern Namibia. The study ethnographically investigates the circumstances and practices of twenty-six young participants between the ages of nine and twelve. It explores the connections between agency and care, responsibility, hope and resistance as the children aim to create meaningful, healthy lives for themselves, their families and their communities. The research techniques involved ethnographic fieldwork and participatory methods, including body mapping, drawings, free listing, photographs and health diaries. In this thesis I argue that children have what I term multi-layered agency that helps them to navigate health and illness challenges. Drawing upon Sherry Ortner (2006), James Laidlaw (2000), Michel de Certeau (1984), and others, I reveal how children’s agency reflects their individual wills, hopes and modes of resistance, at the same time that it uncovers their relationally constituted responsibilities, duties and identities. It shows that rural communities’ strategies regarding wellbeing are not just shaped by adults, but by the lived experiences of individual children. By showing how health and illness are embedded within wider family, community and kinships relationships, as well as unequal socio economic realities and broader cultural understandings of taboo and the body, this thesis demonstrates the wide range of factors that children must navigate in order to live and manoeuvre within the health challenges that they face. Furthermore, this thesis emphasises that in addressing health challenges, children’s involvement matters. The aim of this thesis is therefore to challenge Namibian health authorities, policy makers and broader communities to deepen their understandings of the daily involvement and challenges children face in their agentive roles and responsibilities towards others. The hope is that relevant interventions will be created which might contribute effectively to improved outcomes for children living and experiencing health and illness challenges in the context of the ongoing HIV/AIDS crisis in Namibia and Southern Africa more broadly.

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  • Corporate scandal or industry corruption? how the VW emissions crisis was framed in public print media and company communication

    Brown, Olivia R. (2016)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    On 3 September 2015, the Volkswagen emissions scandal was dramatically drawn to the public’s attention when the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) discovered the company was intentionally installing ‘defeat’ software to misrepresent its diesel cars’ exhaust emission levels. The scandal resulted in a global recall of hundreds of thousands of cars, billions of dollars in fines and a loss of reputation for the company. This research adopted an interpretive perspective and a social constructionist ontological position to explore how public print media together with the company constructed the emissions scandal. To do this, I applied a framing analysis that involved examining newspaper articles from seven countries and the company’s website articles over 12 months, from the scandal’s discovery in September 2015 until the settlement of lawsuits in September 2016. Seventy one company website communications from Volkswagen and 751 newspaper articles from The Guardian, The New York Times, The Sydney Morning Herald, China Daily, The Times of India, O GLOBO and Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung were collected. These represent the most influential of the digitally accessible newspapers in Volkswagen’s seven most important international car markets. The analysis involved two phases: First, the articles were subjected to a preliminary analysis using Leximancer and NVivo software to identify potential frames that could arise in the framing analysis. Secondly, a framing analysis was applied to those articles to identify dominant frames, recognise recurring patterns, and identify the similarities and differences between the newspapers and the company’s communications. There were five key findings. First, 10 dominant frames occurred in both the global and local reporting. Secondly, of these the frames, the company accountability, individual accountability, investigative, scandal, and solution frames appeared consistently. Thirdly, these emerged at the same point on the scandal’s timeline which points to the frames being used to show the story’s progression and to respond to events. Fourthly, the cooperation, future, accepting accountability, redemption, solution and staff restructuring frames constantly appeared in the company’s online communications. Fifthly, together these findings revealed that the print media and Volkswagen operated in parallel worlds characterised by a complete lack of ideational engagement. This research represents the first study to compare the framing of the Volkswagen emissions scandal in public print media with the company’s communications, both across countries and over time. The findings from this study reinforce the value of employing framing analysis to understand the degree of collaboration between media and a corporate across a developing corporate risk, providing valuable insights into the degree to which the media and company communications are synchronised during a scandal as well as filling a gap in the current literature on the Volkswagen emissions scandal.

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  • Orbital characteristics of meteoroids

    Steel, Duncan (1984)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The bulk of meteoroidal particles follow pseudo-random orbits and are termed sporadic meteoroids. These are thought to be derived from the correlated streams of particles released by comets, although the mechanisms by which their orbits are dispersed have been the subject of some confusion. By developing techniques to compute the frequency of close encounters with each of the planets, and also the gross outcome of such events, it is shown that most sporadic orbits are a result of gravitational scattering by the giant planets. Jupiter plays the major role. Although catastrophic impacts with smaller particles limit the lifetimes of meteoroids, this mechanism is not responsible for the bulk of the stream disruption. With a simple model of the zodiacal cloud, the method is also used to find the collisional lifetime of meteoroids including for the first time the dependence upon inclination. The rate of meteoroid depletion by planetary collisions and hyperbolic ejections resulting from close approaches is calculated. It is found that for Jupiter-crossing meteoroids these losses are as rapid as those due to the PoyntingRobertson effect. This theory is also applied to six peculiar asteroids, including Hidalgo and Chiron. These prove to have extremely short-lived orbits: large orbital variations occur on a timescale of only ~10³ years. It is also shown that Pluto exists in its Neptune-crossing orbit solely because of the stable resonance which prohibits approaches between the two in the present epoch. The collision rate between the Apollo-Amor-Aten asteroids and each of the terrestrial planets is calculated using all 76 known objects. The result using this new procedure (4-6 Earth impacts per million years) is somewhat higher than previous estimates, indicating that these asteroids do not represent a steady-state population.

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  • Acoustic analysis of slow click function and foraging in sperm whales (Physeter macrocephalus) off Kaikoura, New Zealand

    Fernandes, Manuel Goulartt de Medeiros de Carvalho (2016)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Sexually immature male sperm whales (Physeter macrocephalus) disperse from their natal areas and move to higher latitude male-only foraging grounds, such as those off New Zealand and Norway. In these areas they are found in aggregations, in which a relatively high concentration of animals congregate in a specific area. Males within aggregations continuously forage, yet seemingly dive in a solitary manner. The Kaikoura submarine canyon off New Zealand is an area where male sperm whales aggregate. This canyon is among the most productive deep sea regions in the world, and has been used for foraging both by individual male sperm whales over years, as well by transient animals which have only been seen once. Slow clicks are vocalisations only used by males. Typically displayed in bouts with inter-click intervals of 3-9 s, they consist of low frequency (2-4 kHz) sharp clicks with a strong reverberation and apparent source levels around 201 dB peak re 1 μPa at 1 m. Slow clicks have much lower directionality than regular echolocating clicks, resulting in their characteristic strong and lasting seafloor echo. At breeding grounds, slow clicks seem to be displayed in long sequences while males are close to, or at the surface, and these have been suggested to function as vocal display used in competition and/or to attract females. In contrast, at male-only foraging grounds, slow clicks are heard in shorter sequences at the end of foraging dives (and also, at times, during surfacing), with these being heard in almost half of all foraging dives recorded in this study. The diving-phase pattern associated with slow clicks appears consistent across male aggregations recorded here, off Kaikoura, and those found off Norway1. While the function of slow clicks is still unclear, the different social and slow-clicking patterns observed suggests a context-dependent function in communication. I used a towed hydrophone array and photo-identification data from individually-tracked whales during complete foraging dives to further understand the function of slow clicks in the Kaikoura foraging ground. I investigated the presence and number of slow clicks as a function of other acoustically-detected whales in the area, which indicated an increased rate of slow clicking with increasing number of ‘neighbours’. I examined slow click structure, including centre frequency, waveform, and, as body size-related information is encoded in regular echolocating clicks, the occurrence of multiple pulses within clicks, to examine the relationship between this vocalisation and body length. The centre frequency of slow clicks differed between individuals and their waveform revealed a multi-pulsed structure in seventy percent of clicks analysed. However, neither the inter-pulse interval (time between pulses within a click) of slow clicks, nor their centre frequency, correlated with body size. Additionally, the analysis of the pulse structure and amplitude of slow clicks within bouts suggests that slow clicks display a broad but somewhat defined directionality, which may allow slow clicking whales to target goals by adjusting their body posture. Additionally, I explored the use of slow clicks and codas, which are stereotyped patterns of clicks used for communication, produced by a pair of males synchronising their surfacing time and dives. Over a complete dive cycle and surfacing time I examined the spectral characteristics and waveform of codas (click sequences) and slow clicks, as well as coda duration. Codas made using clicks with spectral and waveform characteristics of slow clicks were termed “slow click codas”. These were longer, and showed lower centre frequency and higher relative amplitude than traditional codas and may suggest some form of communication between whales in synchrony. Finally, I looked at the feeding vocalisation (creak) rate, duration, and the relationship between creak presence, bathymetry and the commercial fisheries within the underwater canyon off Kaikoura as a proxy for areas with an abundance for potential prey. Results suggest that males in this area may be targeting fewer but larger and/or more nutritious prey (i.e. fewer but longer creaks) compared to other studied areas. In conclusion, the diving phase-related use of slow clicks, their acoustic properties, including the centre frequency and waveform related information, coupled with the field observations analysed and the history of male bachelor group composition, suggests that slow clicks may function as a contact call, which could be used for individual and/or group recognition.

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  • Taxonomic delimitation and the evolutionary history of the Australasian Lautusoid group of Senecio (Asteraceae)

    Liew, Chia-Sin (Jasmine) (2016)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Taxonomic delimitation can be a challenging task for systematists, because of the dynamic and complex evolutionary processes that shape patterns of biodiversity. Yet, it is an essential aspect of biology, because it defines units of evolutionary significance, which form the basis for studying all aspects of biodiversity. In this thesis, I studied the taxonomic delimitation and evolutionary history of the Australasian Lautusoid group of Senecio at the infrageneric, species, and infraspecific level. Members of the Lautusoid group are morphologically very diverse and occupy a wide array of habitats. Moreover, the Lautusoid group has a large diversity of chromosome profiles compared to other Australasian Senecio, which indicates the possible occurrence of hybridization in its evolutionary history. These patterns of diversity make it an attractive system for various evolutionary and ecological studies. Despite these interesting characteristics and the inclusion of members of the Lautusoid group in a number of taxonomic treatments, it is not known how many and which species form the Lautusoid group. To determine the delimitation of the Lautusoid group and to investigate the origin of Lautusoid species with higher chromosome numbers, a molecular phylogenetic study was carried out. The results of this study indicate that the group is a morphologically and phylogenetically distinct Senecio lineage with an Australasian distribution. These results also highlight the important role of hybrid speciation in the evolutionary history of the Lautusoid group by identifying allopolyploid hybrids between members of the Lautusoid group and members of other Australasian lineages. An allopolyploid species complex that was found to be affiliated with the Lautusoid group, S. glaucophyllus, was the focus of subsequent studies. Senecio glaucophyllus and a morphologically similar informally named taxon, S. aff. glaucophyllus, were examined to determine if they are distinct species. The results confirm that the two taxa are indeed morphologically and genetically distinct. However, against expectation, this study revealed that S. aff. glaucophyllus is the true S. glaucophyllus and that the plants that were called S. glaucophyllus belong to a species that is presently unnamed. This taxon, tentatively called S. “pseudoglaucophyllus”, aligns with S. glaucophyllus sensu Ornduff excluding S. glaucophyllus Cheeseman. In order to revisit the current classification of recognizing four infraspecific groups for S. “pseudoglaucophyllus” and to propose taxonomic recommendations, studies that look into its morphological and genetic diversity were performed. The results of these studies show that patterns of morphological variation in S. “pseudoglaucophyllus” are not congruent with patterns of genetic variation and that neither supports the current classification in which four infraspecific groups are recognized. Because infraspecific taxon boundaries cannot be unambiguously determined for S. “pseudoglaucophyllus”, this species is therefore best regarded as a single variable New Zealand species for which infraspecific groups should not be formally recognized.

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