322 results for Working or discussion paper, Lincoln University Research Archive

  • Credit accessibility and small and medium sized enterprises growth in Vietnam

    Nguyen, Nhung; Gan, Christopher; Hu, Baiding

    Working or discussion paper
    Lincoln University

    Small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs) have been highly conducive to economic development in Vietnam. SMEs are a mean of income generation, job creation, poverty reduction, and government revenue contribution, etc. However, SMEs have lagged far behind other business sectors in terms of performance. It is claimed that one of the major reasons is their inability to access credits. This study empirically tests the impact of access to different sources of financing on SMEs’ growth. Primary data was obtained from a survey of 487 SMEs in Hanoi in June 2013. The empirical models include Ordinary Least Square (OLS) estimation and Heckman Two Stage Procedure model to account for endogeneity issue. The models reject the claim that the inability to access credit adversely affects SMEs growth. The result is consistent in both OLS model and the Heckman Two Stage Procedure model. Furthermore, the results from the Heckman Two Stage Procedure model indicated that there is a remarkable difference in the growing pattern of externally and internally financed group. The fastest growing SMEs are those who did not borrow externally and their growth strategy relies on the owner’s human capital (i.e. young and well‐educated), direct export and network developed with customers. On the other hand, the SMEs group that obtained external finance grows faster as their enterprise size increases and they keep financial records.

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  • Credit constraints and impact on farm household welfare: evidence from Vietnam's north central coast region

    Tran, M. C.; Gan, Christopher; Hu, Baiding

    Working or discussion paper
    Lincoln University

    This study aims at identifying factors affecting formal credit constraint status of rural farm households in Vietnam’s North Central Coast region (NCC). Using the Direct Elicitation method (DEM), we consider both internal and external credit rationing. Empirical evidences confirm the importance of household head’s age, gender and education to household’s likelihood of being credit constrained. In addition, households who have advantages of farm land size, labour resources and non‐farm income are less likely to be credit constrained. Poor households are observed to remain restricted by formal credit institutions. Results from the endogenous switching regression model suggest that credit constraints have negative impact on household’s consumption per capita and informal credit can act as a substitute to mitigate the influence of formal credit constraints.

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  • Battle of the nations: consumer perceptions of wine origins

    Forbes, S. L.

    Working or discussion paper
    Lincoln University

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine whether purchasers identify a wine’s country of origin and what their perceptions are of products originating from various wine producing nations. Design/methodology/approach: An interviewer‐administered questionnaire was used to examine the views of 399 consumers as they made actual purchase decisions inside stores in New Zealand, Australia, the United Kingdom and the United States. Findings: The results indicate that the majority of consumers can identify the origin of the wine they purchase (83%). In addition, the perceptions of wine that consumers hold do vary based upon a wine’s country of origin. Practical implications: These results suggest that country of origin perceptions differ across wine producing nations and that these differences are likely to be associated with a financial cost or benefit to wine producers. Originality/value: Few previous country of origin studies have asked consumers, at the time of purchase, if they can identify the origin of the product they have chosen. This study adds to current knowledge by providing evidence that wine purchasers are likely to know the origin of the wine they purchase and that their perceptions of these origins will indeed vary.

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  • Wine purchasing: Planned or unplanned behaviour

    Forbes, Sharon L.

    Working or discussion paper
    Lincoln University

    This exploratory research examines the planned and unplanned wine purchasing behaviour of consumers across four nations and identifies the factors that influence whether wine is a planned or unplanned purchase. A structured questionnaire and intercept interview technique were used to obtain information from 399 respondents inside supermarkets, liquor stores and specialty wine stores in New Zealand, Australia, the United Kingdom and the United States. The findings reveal that a majority of consumers do plan to purchase wine before they enter a store. Discounted prices and bottle or label designs were more important to those consumers who made unplanned wine purchases. Factors such as wine knowledge, wine involvement and various demographic characteristics were found to have no significant influence on the proportion of planned to unplanned wine purchasing behaviour. This research suggests to marketers that discount pricing is a strategy that can lead consumers to making unplanned wine purchase decisions.

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  • Efficiency and productivity change in the banking industry: empirical evidence from New Zealand banks

    Adgei‐Frimpong, K.; Gan, Christopher; Ying, L.; Cohen, D.

    Working or discussion paper
    Lincoln University

    This paper examines the New Zealand banking industry’s efficiency and productivity changes during the period 2007‐2011, a period dominated by the US subprime mortgage crisis. Data envelopment analysis (DEA) is used to identify the technical efficiency frontier (static in nature). The DEA‐based Malmquist productivity index is used to further analyse the Malmquist components to account for dynamic shifts in the efficiency frontier. Findings indicate that New Zealand retail banks generally have high levels of efficiency. This suggests that the banks wasted relatively less of their input resources over the period under study. In addition, the results suggest that a large part of overall technical inefficiency of retail banks could be attributed to scale inefficiency rather than pure technical inefficiency. Furthermore, the results indicate that New Zealand banks experienced a modest productivity growth rate over the 2007 to 2011 period. This increase is mainly attributed to technological progress, since the average efficiency change declined, thus generating a negative impact on the total productivity growth. This decline appeared to be a result of the decreasing rate in both scale efficiency change and pure technical efficiency change.

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  • Summary financial reports : review of international guidelines and literature : NZ evidence and issues

    Laswad, Fawzi; Weil, Sidney H.; Clark, Murray B.

    Working or discussion paper
    Lincoln University

    Although there are no professional guidelines or statutory regulations that permit or guide the presentation of summarised financial reports in New Zealand, a number of NZ companies provide such reports to their shareholders as alternatives for the comprehensive GAAP-based financial reports. Developments in other countries suggest that it is likely that increasing numbers of NZ companies may choose to follow this trend. It has been suggested that summary financial reports would lead to cost savings and improving communication with shareholders. However, the evidence from the literature is not conclusive that these objectives have been achieved by the publication of such reports. In this article, we review the guidelines and literature relating to summary financial reports in other countries, evaluate the content of summarised financial reports provided by New Zealand companies, and identify issues relating to the preparation of such statements.

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  • Student perceptions of the pedagogical features of a computer-aided learning program in introductory accounting

    Weil, Sidney H.; Clark, Murray B.; Wegner, T.

    Working or discussion paper
    Lincoln University

    Computer usage in accounting education is increasing, with computer-aided learning (CAL) packages becoming readily available. A consequent challenge facing accounting educators is to ensure that the increased use of computers occurs in a way that maximises its contribution to student learning. Some studies have examined whether CAL packages produce performance benefits for students. Few studies, however, have investigated the pedagogical features of these packages.This study identifies such features and measures student perceptions about the features used in a particular package, and their perceived value in meeting stated educational outcomes. Data was gathered by way of a questionnaire, and the responses analysed using the Analytic Hierarchy Process. The results indicate that the package was regarded as a highly beneficial learning resource, with the content and available support mechanisms rated as the two most useful pedagogical features.

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  • Does tenure review in New Zealand’s South Island give rise to rents?

    Brower, Ann L.; Meguire, P.

    Working or discussion paper
    Lincoln University

    Under “tenure review,” a New Zealand pastoral lessee surrenders part of his leasehold toconservation and acquires a freehold interest in the remainder. 28 new freeholders paid the Crown$6.9 million for freehold rights to 101,752ha, then sold 46% of that land for $135.7 million. Wemodel tenure review as a sequential real option – first to acquire freehold, then to subdivide andsell all or part of their new freeholds. We find little evidence that the Crown accounted for theseoption values when negotiating tenure review, and conclude that the capital gains enjoyed byformer lessees are rents.

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  • Existence advertising, price competition, and asymmetric market structure

    Eaton, B. C.; MacDonald, Ian A.; Meriluoto, L.

    Working or discussion paper
    Lincoln University

    We examine a two stage duopoly game in which firms advertise their existence to consumers in stage 1 and compete in prices in stage 2. Whenever the advertising technology generates positive overlap in customer bases the equilibrium for the stage 1 game is asymmetric in that one firm chooses to remain small in comparison to its competitor. For a specific random advertising technology we show that one firm will always be half as large as the other. No equilibrium in pure price strategies exists in the stage 2 game and as long as there is some overlap in customer bases the mixed strategy equilibrium is far from the Bertrand equilibrium.

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  • Spam: solutions and their problems

    Eaton, B.; MacDonald, Ian A.; Meriluoto, L.

    Working or discussion paper
    Lincoln University

    We analyze the success of filtering as a solution to the spam problem when used alone or concurrently with sender and/or receiver pricing. We find that filters alone may exacerbate the spam problem if the spammer attempts to evade them by sending multiple variants of the message to each consumer. Sender and receiver prices can effectively reduce or eliminating spam, either on their own or when used together with filtering. Finally, we discuss the implications for social welfare of using the different spam controls.

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  • Social dimensions of sustainable agriculture: a rationale for social research in ARGOS

    Campbell, H.; Fairweather, John R.; Hunt, Lesley M.; McLeod, C.; Rosin, C.

    Working or discussion paper
    Lincoln University

    As the rationale for the social research objective within ARGOS, this documentprovides a preliminary discussion of the theoretical and methodological approachbeing taken by the social researchers in the project. As such, it articulates the ‘socialcorner’ of the research and details the approaches and issues that we consider centralto a social scientific analysis of agricultural sustainability.

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  • Proceedings of the Rural Economy and Society Section of the Sociological Association of Aotearoa (N.Z.)

    Fairweather, John R.

    Working or discussion paper
    Lincoln University

    This Discussion Paper records the 14 papers presented in the Rural Economy and Society Section of the Sociological Association of Aotearoa (New Zealand) held at Lincoln University 7-9 December, 1990. The papers cover development issues, rural history, contemporary research and issues relating to the discipline of rural sociology in New Zealand. The development paper examines landownership in Northern England and the tensions surrounding different land uses. The history papers examine the impacts of transport technology, long term trends in agriculture exports, and Shelley's activities in rural education in Canterbury. The contemporary research papers, while wide ranging, include common themes such as how farm people have responded to the economic downturn in recent years by seeking off farm income. Another focus is the rural community with one paper examining local politics and another paper examining public drinking. The disciplinary papers look back at our rural research and then examine prospects and priorities for research in future. This discussion paper includes the full text of the following papers: Olivia Wilson, Landownership and rural development in Britain: a case study of the North Pennines (extended extract); James Watson, Rural New Zealand and the second industrial revolution; Neville Bennet, Cycles and booms in New Zealand agriculture exports (abstract only); Box, car and ace: Shelley in rural Canterbury, 1920-1936; Valerie Walton, Women's economic contribution to the farm; Margaret Begg, Dairy farm women; Richard Le Heron, Mike Roche, Tom Johnston and Susan Bowler, Pluriactivity in New Zealand's agro-commodity chains; Ian Gray, Issues and non-issues in rural local politics; Alison Loveridge, Formal qualifications and farm employees: does getting school certificate really help people become farm owners?; John Fairweather and Hugh Campbell, Public drinking and social organisation in Methven and MT. Somers; Ian Carter and Alison Loveridge, The strange absence of New Zealand rural sociology; Trevor Showdon, Rural sociology in New Zealand: dimensions; interdisciplinary intersections, institutional settings and future research.

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  • The importance of pre-commitment in international environmental agreements

    MacDonald, Ian A.

    Working or discussion paper
    Lincoln University

    In the face of transboundary pollution externalities, cooperation in regulatory efforts between countries is required to move the economy towards the efficient outcome. Existing research in this field concludes that such cooperation is unlikely to occur because of the free rider problem. This paper introduces the institution of international treaties and shows that a cooperative outcome supported by a treaty is sustainable. One effective treaty structure requires countries to reduce their pollution levels by a common percentage from the non cooperative benchmark level, but only if all countries sign it. Under such a teaty arrangement, welfare improvements are generally significant.

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  • Topics for rural social research

    Fairweather, John R.

    Working or discussion paper
    Lincoln University

    This report delineates a range of topics that could be included in MAF social research using mainly the suggestions available in the current sociology literature. Suggestions from five MAF personnel were used to supplement the literature. Both sources lead to a list of topics including the farm and the rural community, international linkages and consumers. In addition, there is a need for research on public opinion. The report suggests that an appropriate research strategy should include the development of a rural data base which is supplemented with farm and community studies using the full array of social science research methods. Agro commodity chains should be examined and rural public opinion regularly surveyed.

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  • Farm resilience for sustainable food production: a conceptual framework

    Moller, H.; Darnhofer, I.; Fairweather, John R.

    Working or discussion paper
    Lincoln University

    So far resilience work has mostly focused on regional‐scale, extensively managed ecosystems. Weargue that, as over 40% of the earth’s surface is used for agriculture, it would be fruitful to apply resiliencethinking to agro‐ecosystems. Resilience thinking could contribute to shifting farming systems from equilibriumbasedcommand‐and‐control management approaches towards sustainable food production through a betterunderstanding of the factors and processes that contribute to farm resilience. We focus on farms, understoodas intensively managed local‐level social‐ecological systems. Focusing on the local level could allow newinsights for resilience thinking, especially on the influences of human perceptions and the dynamics of decisionmakingprocesses. To enable a farm to persist both in times of predictable growth and in times of turbulentchange, a farmer needs to implement strategies that exploit current strengths, while simultaneously buildingadaptability and transformability. The challenge is that these strategies compete for scarce resources. Theappropriate mix of strategies will thus depend on the farmer’s preferences, the state of the farm along itsadaptive cycle and the co‐evolutionary processes between the farm and its environment, taking into accountvarious spatial and temporal scales. To assess the resilience of farms, resilience thinking will need to beoperationalized, but there are temporal and spatial hurdles involved in identifying suitable surrogates, as wellas the challenge to capture the ‘human dimension’ through surrogates.

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  • Proceedings of the International Conference on Invention, Innovation and Commercialisation with special emphasis on Technology Users Innovation (TUI)

    Fairweather, John R.

    Working or discussion paper
    Lincoln University

    Research work in the AERU has covered the topic of innovation in a number of ways formany years. Recently, we have sharpened our focus on user innovation and reported NewZealand’s first empirical research on this topic in AERU Research Report No. 320. Thisdiscussion paper continues this theme by reporting the papers presented at an internationalconference on user innovation.This discussion paper should appeal to those interested in user innovation. The conferencecovered a wide variety of topics, including theoretical approaches to user innovation,innovation policy and the first-hand experiences of innovators. It also features results from aprogramme of research at Lincoln University on user innovation and draws the results ofthree years of research into a synthesis with policy implications. This discussion paper willtherefore be of particular interest to policymakers wanting to know how best to supportuser innovation in New Zealand. This discussion paper includes the full text of the following papers: Stephen Flowers, User innovation: Theory, Practice, and Policy; Alan Afuah and Marcel Bogers, Why do users innovate? A theory of the locus of innovation; Jim Birkemeier, Full vigour forestry: Sustainable forest management from the forest owner’s point of view; Enrico Tronchin, Disruptive innovation for sustained economic growth: Why New Zealand’s innovation system should be open, distributed and inclusive of innovative users; Bhaskara Rao Suddapalli and Kanimoli Ramaiah, Experience gained from inventing human heart valve prosthesis; MirShahin Seyed Saleh, New cellulosic fibres; Tiffany Rinne, International comparisons of models of innovation models: Whatis to be learned about the New Zealand situation?; Julian Williams, TUI and innovation policies in selected European, Asian and PacificRim countries; G. Daniel Steel, Principles that guide innovation: Predicting the Global InnovationIndex score with dimensions of human values; Keith Alexander, SpringFree Trampoline - and some lessons learned; John Fairweather, Introduction to the New Zealand TUI Research Programme; Ralph Lattimore, Timberworks; Simon Lambert, The socio-technical networks of technology users in New Zealand; Janet Stephenson, Mapping innovators’ networks: Actors and flows in smallinnovation firms; Brett Stanley, The Rollawipa; Tiffany Rinne, Cultural Limits to Innovation in New Zealand; G. Daniel Steel, Comparisons, contrasts, and a case study: Innovation implicationsof New Zealand’s scores in values and personality; Dean Satchell, Novel sawing of eucalypt: a solution leading to a new forestindustry?; John Lay, iAgri; John Fairweather, Tiffany Rinne, Gary Steel, Simon Lambert, Janet Stephenson, Synthesis of New Zealand TUI research and policy implications: Is ittime to support user invention in New Zealand?; Peter Hone, Commercialisation of IP for inventors and SMEs and why so many ideasfail to enter the market; Manthan D. Janodia, N. Udupa, J. Venkata Rao, Virendra S. Ligade, Generating innovations in developing countries: Policy formulation andits implications.

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  • Email pricing

    Eaton, B. C.; MacDonald, Ian A.; Meriluoto, L.

    Working or discussion paper
    Lincoln University

    We compare the magnitude of, and welfare generated by, uniform welfare-maximising,Ramsey and monopoly pricing in email networks. Messages are defined by the utilitythey give to their sender and receiver. Senders tend to pay more than receivers when theaverage sender utility is higher than the average receiver utility, and vice versa. Whenmessage preference distributions are symmetric receivers pay more than senders. Becauseprices cannot be (too) negative, the interior solutions for all price types hold onlywhen the distributions for sender and receiver utility are similar. The comparative welfareanalysis shows that in some situations the use of uniform, Ramsey and zero priceswill not generate substantial welfare losses relative to feasible perfectly discriminatoryprices. Monopoly prices are unlikely to be efficient.

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  • Social research compendium: key questions on social dimensions of agricultural sustainability

    Campbell, H.; Fairweather, John R.; Hunt, Lesley M.; McLeod, C.; Rosin, C.

    Working or discussion paper
    Lincoln University

    Following on from the Social Research Rationale, this document takes the rationalean important step further by developing a list of key research topics (and specificissues) that form a comprehensive list of research items that the Social Objectiveconsider to be of interest.Three general instructions are useful before going further into this document.1) A comprehensive list of research topics is necessarily big. Like Objective 4, thegeneral research process for Objective 5 is to start broad and use the first two years ofdata gathering to refine the topics down to a more focused set of issues and foci.2) The topics are positioned to answer five very broad questions about our ARGOSfarms:• Who are they?Describe the sociological characteristics of the participating farmers, householdsand enterprises.• What do they think?What is the positioning (or key ideas) of our participants in terms of a list of coreconcepts in the project?• What is their capacity to act?Even if people think a particular way, or want to do some things, individuals arenonetheless constrained in many ways. Social scientists consider this key issue tobe central to any analysis: their capacity to act.• What changes over the period of the project (and in retrospect)?Both looking back in time, and through the period of the project, what are the keydimensions of change in the farms?• What are the key influences on these changes?What the key processes and ‘sites of action’ that influence farm activity, andwhich can assist us in understanding how more pro-active intervention to achievechange might be undertaken?3) What gaps are left?This document contributes to getting all the different researchers around the SocialObjective clearly aligned and coordinated in framing up and delivering the next phaseof research. It also helps to very clearly define the interests and foci of the socialresearch for the other participants in ARGOS. However, maybe its most importanttask is to provide an opportunity for discussion around those points of interest thatObjective 5 shares with the other Objectives, as well as where there are significantgaps as yet unaddressed by the project.

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  • Methven and Mt. Somers : report on socio-economic history and current social structure

    Campbell, H. R.; Fairweather, John R.

    Working or discussion paper
    Lincoln University

    This is one of a number of publications arising from a Lincoln University study conducted in Methven and Mt. Somers during 1989 and 1990. The main report examines both public drinking and social organisation. The purpose of this smaller report is to give a socio-economic perspective on the history of these two small towns. The local history of each has already been documented for the relative centenaries of each town, and each of these works gives a strong impression of incidents and characters that make up the flavour of a particular towns history. This brief report is presented in three sections. The first deals with the history and current social structure of Methven, which was the major area studied. A second section presents material on Mt. Somers which was added into the study to provide comparative material for the Methven data. A final chapter provides an overview of some of the important issues facing these rural communities at the present time.

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  • Public sector reform in the Asia-Pacific

    Williams, Lesley E.; Addison, Ramzi

    Working or discussion paper
    Lincoln University

    The world recessionary period of the 1980's forced many governments to re-evaluate their economic management strategies. Today, existing strategies are being supplanted by a belief that economic growth is best achieved by less government intervention in the economy. This paper examines public sector reforms in Indonesia, Malaysia and New Zealand, three Asia-Pacific trading partners. While descriptive in nature, the researchers believe that the contribution of this research is its socio-cultural and historical accounts of these changes, as well as its Asia/Pacific focus.

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