1,661 results for Working or discussion paper, All rights reserved

  • Theories of Urban Land Use and their Application to the Christchurch Property Market

    McDonagh, J.

    Working or discussion paper
    Lincoln University

    Contrary to popular opinion, our cities are not primarily formed by the actions of local body politicians or town planners, but rather it is the aggregate activity of property developers of all types, that ultimately determine the form a city will take. Multiple, and often conflicting factors influence developers decisions and therefore ultimately influence the land use distribution within a city. These factors can generally be categorised as: demographic, economic, sociological, legal and political. Of these demographic, economic and sociological factors tend to drive demand. Economic factors again are employed as the decision making tools choosing between various alternatives. Whereas the legal and political factors will establish the framework within which the development takes place and will attempt to influence, for the benefit of society in general, the direction of that development. The interrelationship of factors under the previous five headings is extremely complex and one factor cannot be adequately viewed in isolation from the others. One "holistic" technique that can be used to analyse this interaction, is to study historic urban land use throughout the world in an attempt to see if any consistent patterns of development have occurred. If such urban land use patterns can be determined, and by deduction, their causes identified, this will help in predicting the future shape of cities in a similar set of circumstances. In this essay the main theories that seek to explain city land use patterns will be analysed and critiqued followed by an attempt to relate these theories to the existing situation in Christchurch. From this, predictions will be made regarding where future growth will occur in Christchurch for the different types of real estate usage.

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  • Credit accessibility and small and medium sized enterprises growth in Vietnam

    Nguyen, Nhung; Gan, Christopher; Hu, Baiding

    Working or discussion paper
    Lincoln University

    Small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs) have been highly conducive to economic development in Vietnam. SMEs are a mean of income generation, job creation, poverty reduction, and government revenue contribution, etc. However, SMEs have lagged far behind other business sectors in terms of performance. It is claimed that one of the major reasons is their inability to access credits. This study empirically tests the impact of access to different sources of financing on SMEs’ growth. Primary data was obtained from a survey of 487 SMEs in Hanoi in June 2013. The empirical models include Ordinary Least Square (OLS) estimation and Heckman Two Stage Procedure model to account for endogeneity issue. The models reject the claim that the inability to access credit adversely affects SMEs growth. The result is consistent in both OLS model and the Heckman Two Stage Procedure model. Furthermore, the results from the Heckman Two Stage Procedure model indicated that there is a remarkable difference in the growing pattern of externally and internally financed group. The fastest growing SMEs are those who did not borrow externally and their growth strategy relies on the owner’s human capital (i.e. young and well‐educated), direct export and network developed with customers. On the other hand, the SMEs group that obtained external finance grows faster as their enterprise size increases and they keep financial records.

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  • Mixed Reality Experience Questionnaire (MREQ) -Reference

    Regenbrecht, Holger; Botella, Cristina; Baños, Rosa; Schubert, Thomas (2017-02-28)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

    The Mixed Reality Experience Questionnaire (MREQ) is designed to be used as a measure of a user's sense of presence and their general experienced perception of an Augmented Reality, Virtual Reality, or Augmented Virtuality environment. It consists of 33 seven-point-Likert-like items. Researchers might want to apply all or only some of those items. This Technical Report serves as a reference. Researchers who use this MREQ are asked to send their findings and/or publications to the first author and to cite this Technical Report.

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  • The Center Matters for the Periphery: On the Predictive Ability of a GZ-Type Spread for Economic Activity

    Guender, A.V.; Tolan, B. (2013)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Canterbury Library

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  • Sailing for Survival

    Mennis, Mary R. (2014)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

    Sailing for Survival is a comparative study of the trading systems and canoes of two groups of people in Papua New Guinea: the Bel people of Bilbil/Yabob on the North Coast, near Madang and the Motu people on the South Coast, near Port Moresby. There is now no doubt that they shared a common ancestry in West New Britain. They both belong to Austronesian language groups but had no contact with each other on their trade routes, separated as they were by twisting coastlines and rugged mountain ranges, nor did any trade items [apart from obsidian] pass from one trading zone to the other for over two thousand years. Yet the trade systems they developed independently have an amazing array of commonality harking back to their common ancestry in the Bismarck Archipelago. The association between archaeological and linguistic distributions suggests that the movement of Papuan Tip Cluster speakers to the west along the Papuan Coast took place about 2800 years ago, and the time depth for the spread out of the Bismarcks area of North New Guinea cluster languages may be within the last 1500 years. The members of each group, the Bel and the Motu evolved their own system of survival through trading pots on long trading voyages which became a focal point of their culture, beliefs and ritual. In their response to their environmental conditions and, influenced by introduced technological features, they developed quite different trading vessels: the lagatoi of the Motu people and the lalong and balangut of the Madang people. One of the aims of this report is to relate the construction of each of these vessels and compare and contrast them with the conclusion that form follows function. Many of the characteristics of the two trading systems the dadeng/waing of the Madang area and the hiri of the Motu are comparable: the need to trade because of infertile soil; the clay pots that the women made; the position of the women in the trading system; the mythology and origin myths of the trading system; the belief in magic to protect the traders and enhance the weather; the use of geographic points; the winds; and the stars to aid navigation. Their similar ancestral origins and culture was adapted to the environmental conditions in which the people found themselves. Although there were cultural and social reasons for the trading trips, the primary reason was economic - the men were Sailing for Survival.

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  • Admirality Islands

    Nevermann, Hans (2013)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

    Translated by John Dennison

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  • Text categorization and similarity analysis: implementation and evaluation

    Fowke, Michael; Hinze, Annika; Heese, Ralf (2013-12)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Waikato

    This report covers the implementation of software that aims to identify document versions and se-mantically related documents. This is important due to the increasing amount of digital information. Key criteria were that the software was fast and required limited disk space. Previous research de-termined that the Simhash algorithm was the most appropriate for this application so this method was implemented. The structure of each component was well defined with the inputs and outputs constant and the result was a software system that can have interchangeable parts if required.

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  • Social interactions using an electronic rabbit

    Zaicu, Alexandru Calin; Hinze, Annika (2013-12)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Waikato

    In this project we use an electronic rabbit called Karotz, created by French company Violet. The rabbits have the ability to connect autonomously to a WI-FI network. IN this project we use Karotz to record an audio log that will contain sounds of the environment. We also programmed a way for the rabbit to send audio to its other Karotz friend. We explored if Karotz can be used to help people stay in contact with each other and to feel less homesick.

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  • Text categorization and similarity analysis: similarity measure, architecture and design

    Fowke, Michael; Hinze, Annika; Heese, Ralf (2013-12)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Waikato

    This research looks at the most appropriate similarity measure to use for a document classification problem. The goal is to find a method that is accurate in finding both semantically and version related documents. A necessary requirement is that the method is efficient in its speed and disk usage. Simhash is found to be the measure best suited to the application and it can be combined with other software to increase the accuracy. Pingar have provided an API that will extract the entities from a document and create a taxonomy displaying the relationships and this extra information can be used to accurately classify input documents. Two algorithms are designed incorporating the Pingar API and then finally an efficient comparison algorithm is introduced to cut down the comparisons required.

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  • Text categorization and similarity analysis: similarity measure, literature review

    Fowke, Michael; Hinze, Annika; Heese, Ralf (2013-12)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Waikato

    Document classification and provenance has become an important area of computer science as the amount of digital information is growing significantly. Organisations are storing documents on computers rather than in paper form. Software is now required that will show the similarities between documents (i.e. document classification) and to point out duplicates and possibly the history of each document (i.e. provenance). Poor organisation is common and leads to situations like above. There exists a number of software solutions in this area designed to make document organisation as simple as possible. I'm doing my project with Pingar who are a company based in Auckland who aim to help organise the growing amount of unstructured digital data. This reports analyses the existing literature in this area with the aim to determine what already exists and how my project will be different from existing solutions.

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  • Catching and displaying memory cues for a mobile augmented memory system

    Bellamy, Jake; Hinze, Annika (2013-12)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Waikato

    This report goes over and details the progress of the 2013 COMP477 project “Augmenting Memory: The Digital Parrot on Mobile Devices” undertaken by Jake Bellamy and supervised by Annika Hinze at the University of Waikato. The report begins with an overview on the problem with remembering events in people’s lives and details the background information on the Digital Parrot system. It also describes the previous project that preceded this one, which began to conceptualize the Digital Parrot on mobile devices. It analyses problems with the current design of the system and addresses them. The report then goes on to conduct an in depth user study with the functioning version of the software. The user study finds design flaws and incorrect functionality in the application that would not have otherwise been apparent. Finally, the report concludes with a proposed user interface concept that addresses all of the issues found in the user study and describes how the system would work. It describes the initial implementation that has begun in building this system.

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  • The Empress Augusta/Sepik River

    Reche, Otto (2015)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

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  • Credit constraints and impact on farm household welfare: evidence from Vietnam's north central coast region

    Tran, M. C.; Gan, Christopher; Hu, Baiding

    Working or discussion paper
    Lincoln University

    This study aims at identifying factors affecting formal credit constraint status of rural farm households in Vietnam’s North Central Coast region (NCC). Using the Direct Elicitation method (DEM), we consider both internal and external credit rationing. Empirical evidences confirm the importance of household head’s age, gender and education to household’s likelihood of being credit constrained. In addition, households who have advantages of farm land size, labour resources and non‐farm income are less likely to be credit constrained. Poor households are observed to remain restricted by formal credit institutions. Results from the endogenous switching regression model suggest that credit constraints have negative impact on household’s consumption per capita and informal credit can act as a substitute to mitigate the influence of formal credit constraints.

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  • Battle of the nations: consumer perceptions of wine origins

    Forbes, S. L.

    Working or discussion paper
    Lincoln University

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine whether purchasers identify a wine’s country of origin and what their perceptions are of products originating from various wine producing nations. Design/methodology/approach: An interviewer‐administered questionnaire was used to examine the views of 399 consumers as they made actual purchase decisions inside stores in New Zealand, Australia, the United Kingdom and the United States. Findings: The results indicate that the majority of consumers can identify the origin of the wine they purchase (83%). In addition, the perceptions of wine that consumers hold do vary based upon a wine’s country of origin. Practical implications: These results suggest that country of origin perceptions differ across wine producing nations and that these differences are likely to be associated with a financial cost or benefit to wine producers. Originality/value: Few previous country of origin studies have asked consumers, at the time of purchase, if they can identify the origin of the product they have chosen. This study adds to current knowledge by providing evidence that wine purchasers are likely to know the origin of the wine they purchase and that their perceptions of these origins will indeed vary.

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  • Wine purchasing: Planned or unplanned behaviour

    Forbes, Sharon L.

    Working or discussion paper
    Lincoln University

    This exploratory research examines the planned and unplanned wine purchasing behaviour of consumers across four nations and identifies the factors that influence whether wine is a planned or unplanned purchase. A structured questionnaire and intercept interview technique were used to obtain information from 399 respondents inside supermarkets, liquor stores and specialty wine stores in New Zealand, Australia, the United Kingdom and the United States. The findings reveal that a majority of consumers do plan to purchase wine before they enter a store. Discounted prices and bottle or label designs were more important to those consumers who made unplanned wine purchases. Factors such as wine knowledge, wine involvement and various demographic characteristics were found to have no significant influence on the proportion of planned to unplanned wine purchasing behaviour. This research suggests to marketers that discount pricing is a strategy that can lead consumers to making unplanned wine purchase decisions.

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  • Efficiency and productivity change in the banking industry: empirical evidence from New Zealand banks

    Adgei‐Frimpong, K.; Gan, Christopher; Ying, L.; Cohen, D.

    Working or discussion paper
    Lincoln University

    This paper examines the New Zealand banking industry’s efficiency and productivity changes during the period 2007‐2011, a period dominated by the US subprime mortgage crisis. Data envelopment analysis (DEA) is used to identify the technical efficiency frontier (static in nature). The DEA‐based Malmquist productivity index is used to further analyse the Malmquist components to account for dynamic shifts in the efficiency frontier. Findings indicate that New Zealand retail banks generally have high levels of efficiency. This suggests that the banks wasted relatively less of their input resources over the period under study. In addition, the results suggest that a large part of overall technical inefficiency of retail banks could be attributed to scale inefficiency rather than pure technical inefficiency. Furthermore, the results indicate that New Zealand banks experienced a modest productivity growth rate over the 2007 to 2011 period. This increase is mainly attributed to technological progress, since the average efficiency change declined, thus generating a negative impact on the total productivity growth. This decline appeared to be a result of the decreasing rate in both scale efficiency change and pure technical efficiency change.

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  • Home-based internet businesses as drivers of variety

    Sayers, Janet; Van Gelderen, Marco; Keen, Caroline

    Working or discussion paper
    Massey University

    The paper shows how and why Home-Based Internet Businesses are drivers of variety. This paper argues, by means of five theoretical perspectives, that because of the variety HBIBs generate, they contribute to the economy over and above their direct and indirect contributions in terms of revenue and employment. A multiple case study approach is employed studying the best practices of eight HBIBs. It is found that HBIBs generate variety because of the unique way in which they operate, and because of the reasons why they are started. How HBIBs operate can be captured in the acronym SMILES: Speed, Multiple income, Inexpensive, LEan, and Smart. They are founded (amongst other motives) for reasons of autonomy, freedom and independence. Both aspects – the how and why – of HBIBs are conducive to the creation of variety as they facilitate trial-and-error commercialization of authentic ideas. Five theoretical perspectives posit that variety is important for the industry and the economy: evolutionary theory, strategic management, organic urban planning, opportunity recognition, and the knowledge economy. The findings are discussed in the context of each perspective.

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  • Rethinking Polynesian mobility: A new Polynesian Triangle?

    Barcham, Manuhuia; Scheyvens, Regina; Overton, John

    Working or discussion paper
    Massey University

    No abstract available

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  • A preliminary Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) study of magnetite surface microtextures from the Wahianoa moraines, Mt Ruapehu, New Zealand.

    Mandolla, Stephanie; Brook, Martin S

    Working or discussion paper
    Massey University

    Scanning electron microscope (SEM) of quartz micro‐textures has routinely been used to identify the depositional environment of sediments in areas of former ice‐sheet glaciation. On volcanic mountains, where the geomorphic origin of ridge deposits is often poorly understood, quartz is much less abundant, so SEM analysis has not been used as a depositional discriminator. Preliminary research on surface micro‐textures of abundant magnetite grains from the Wahianoa moraines, south‐eastern Mt Ruapehu, suggests that SEM of magnetite may be useful in determining the process‐origin of deposits. We describe micro‐textures and surface characteristics of samples of magnetite, and our study shows that many of the micro‐textures visible on quartz, thought to be diagnostic of glacial transport, are present on magnetite too. However, evaluating whether SEM analysis of magnetite is an applicable technique will require a better understanding of the microtextures occurring on known glacial, fluvioglacial and aeolian deposits on volcanic mountains.

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  • Potentially dysfunctional impacts of harmonising accounting standards: the case of intangible assets

    Mathews, M. R.; Higson, A. W.

    Working or discussion paper
    Massey University

    Intangible Assets as a category within accounting and reporting disclosures have become far more noticeable in recent years, including large amounts associated with brands, mastheads, franchises, and patents. Many of these items are not purchased but internally generated within the organisation, and may account for much of the difference in magnitude between book value and market capitalisation. The International Accounting Standards Committee has recently issued IAS 38 to regulate the reporting of intangible assets, and includes therein the prohibition of those intangible assets, which have been internally generated. This prohibition would cut across recently developed practices in Australia and New Zealand. The problem is compounded by an increasingly close relationship between IASs and the national standards of both Australia and New Zealand, making it very likely that the problem areas within IAS 38 will be transferred to the national standards. This paper examines the areas within IAS 38, which are likely to lead to undesirable consequences, both for internally generated intangible assets but also in terms of the reinforcement of somewhat conservative aspects of financial accounting including historical cost and the inhibiting effects on new developments generally. The possible compounding effects of an expectations gap between the traditional and expected role of financial statements is briefly examined as a possible explanation of the divergence of opinion between different groups involved in the development of accounting standards and reports.

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