73 results for Working or discussion paper, Modify

  • Copyright Payments in Eighteenth-Century Britain, 1701–1800

    Fielding, David; Rogers, Shef (2015-06)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

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  • Understanding the Etiology of Electoral Violence: The Case of Zimbabwe

    Fielding, David (2015-06)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

    Recent theoretical and empirical work indicates that incumbent governments are likely to attempt to influence election outcomes by violent means (rather than by bribery and fraud) when their level of popular support is relatively low. However, evidence also suggests that in some countries electoral violence can be quite easy to thwart through peaceful means. This may seem surprising when the incumbent has control over an extensive and well-equipped state security apparatus. The analysis of Zimbabwean data in this paper suggests an explanation: the incumbent prefers to avoid the direct involvement of the state security apparatus when intimidating voters (perhaps because such involvement would undermine the incumbent’s legitimacy abroad), and relies instead on informal groups with very limited organizational capacity. One consequence in Zimbabwe is that the intimidation is heavily focused in places where the incumbent is relatively popular, ceteris paribus.

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  • Does Charity Begin at Home or Overseas?

    Knowles, Stephen; Sullivan, Trudy (2015-06)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

    We conduct a field experiment to analyse whether a representative sample of the population has a preference for giving money to an international development charity or to a charity helping families in need in the home country. The majority of participants reveal a preference for giving to the local charity, rather than the international development charity. Participants were given the option of commenting on why they chose the charity they did, and we conduct a qualitative analysis of these responses. We also analyse quantitatively whether participants’ individual characteristics are correlated with the choice of charity.

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  • Incunabula in Special Collections, University of Otago Library

    Kerr, Donald (2010)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

    Special Collections, University of Otago Library, houses 42 examples of pre-1501 early printed books that represent 15th century printmanship from Italy, German, Switzerland, and France. There is one highly unusual English sample: four binding fragments printed by William Caxton, and John Lettou, about 1480 and bound in a 1481 edition of Nicolas de Lyra’s Commentaria in bibliam (no.7). There is a selection of printers, ranging from Johann Amerbach, Peter Drach, Ulrich Han, and Georg Husner to Anton Koberger, Aldus Manuitus, Johann Mentelin, and Johannes Trechsel. Operating from European towns such as Basel, Speyer, Rome, Strassburg, Nuremberg, Venice, Strassburg, and Lyon, their productions reflect their expertise and resources in this burgeoning industry. Typefaces, style, and quality of printing and bookmaking also vary. Indeed, the collection contains items that are typographical masterpieces (no. 7); others are downright pedestrian. Barring one book in German and another in Latin and Greek, all of the other books are in Latin, the predominant language for the printed word before 1500. Given that most of the books are tied to established bibliographies, the descriptions attached are brief. However, the descriptions are grounded in the books at Otago, especially to condition and provenance. There has been some modernization of letters. References used follow the catalogue listing, as do printer and location indexes. Images accompany most entries, offering a brief glimpse of the book and its make-up. They highlight bindings, decorations such as woodcut initials and illustrations, title-page samples, rubrications, typefaces, colophons and printer’s devices, and provenance and bibliographical information (often on endpapers). Notable highlights include Liber chronicarum (The Nuremberg Chronicle, 1493), Boccaccio’s De genealogiae deorum gentilium, an encyclopedia of pagan gods, a book of medical aphorisms translated from Arabic in to Latin (1484), the Aldine printing of Institutiones Graecae Grammaticae (1497), and a leaf of the Nuremberg Bible, printed by Anton Koberger, 1483. The prime purpose of this descriptive list is to raise the awareness of the existence of these books in New Zealand (and at the University of Otago, Dunedin) and encourage scholarly use in them. Like their vellum counter-parts, the medieval manuscripts, these survivors of a bygone age have their own distinct beauty and specific usefulness, be it textual or physical. They stand as very useful resources, especially to Early Modern scholars. Special thanks to Dr Christopher de Hamel (Parker Library, Cambridge); John Goldfinch (British Library); Dr Falk Eisermann (State Library, Berlin); Klaus Graf (University of Freiburg), Michael Laird (Texas), Bettina Wagner (Bavarian State Library, Munich); and Anthony Tedeschi (University of Melbourne Special Collections). No list is without flaws. To this end, feedback is appreciated, either through email, letter, or in person. I welcome comments and suggestions.

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  • Robert Graves: Poeta 1895-1985. Works by Robert Graves in Special Collections, University of Otago Library

    Kerr, Donald (2012)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

    On the headstone that marks his grave at Deyá, Marjorca, there is the simple: ‘Robert Graves Poeta 1895-1985’. And it was this aspect that attracted Charles Brasch, editor, patron and poet, to the works of Graves, calling him ‘among the finest English poets of our time, one of the few who is likely to be remembered as a poet.’ Indeed, not only did Brasch collect his own first editions volumes written by Graves, but he encouraged the University of Otago Library to buy more. Thanks to Brasch, Special Collections at the University of Otago now has an extensive collection of works (poetry, novels, essays, children’s books) by him. Born at Wimbledon in 1895, Graves had an Irish father, a German mother, an English upbringing, and a classical education. Enlisting in the Royal Welch Fusiliers, Graves faced the horrors of World War I. He was wounded by shrapnel, left for dead and later able to read his own obituary in The London Times. In 1929, he penned Goodbye To All That, his war-time autobiography which gave him success and fame. And aside from his regular output of poetry books, he wrote historical novels such as I Claudius (1934) and Claudius the God (1934), The White Goddess (1948), the heady study on matriarchal worship and poetry that in the sixties became a source book for readers of the Whole Earth Catalog, and the very successful The Greek Myths (1955). By 1975, effectively the end of his writing career, he had written a total of some 135 books, including The Golden Fleece (1944), Seven Days in New Crete (1949), his critical The Crowning Privilege (1956) and Oxford Addresses on Poetry (1964), and Collected Poems of 1975. If nothing else is claimed for him, this unkempt (thick curly hair, broken nose, an irregular face), honest, independent, sometimes truculent, unorthodox romantic wrote for a living and to support himself as a poet. The Robert Graves Collection in Special Collections consists of first and second editions, signed limited publications, reprints, translations, and illustrative editions, all of which reveal the full scope and range of topics that Graves dealt with. They also reflect his sheer industry. And there is the all-important poetry, at first about the war, then to the three loves of his life: Nancy Nicholson, Laura Riding, and Beryl Pritchard. The collection is by no means complete, and when possible volumes will be added to it. To date, there are no manuscripts.

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  • The Archives of Joseph William Mellor (1869-1938): Chemist, Ceramicist & Cartoonist

    Smith, Romilly (2015)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

    Joseph William Mellor (1869-1938) was an Otago graduate who became a ceramicist, a cartoonist, and, more importantly, a famous chemist. Indeed, his single-handed effort to complete his 16 volume definitive work A Comprehensive Treatise on Inorganic and Theoretical Chemistry (1922-1937), which amounted to over 15,000 pages and 16 million words, has never been equalled. From very humble beginnings and self-initiated study, Mellor obtained a place at the University of Otago, and then won a scholarship to study for a research degree at Owens College, Manchester. He then moved to Stoke-on-Trent, where he became principal of the Technical College (now part of Staffordshire University). During the First World War, Mellor’s research was directed towards refractories, high-temperature ceramics relevant to the steel industry and thus the war effort. It was for this work that he was offered a peerage, which he turned down. In 1927 he was elected to the Royal Society for work related to ceramics, the only other being Josiah Wedgwood in the eighteenth century. Mellor retained a boyish sense of humour all his life, and he was dubbed by colleagues the ‘Peter Pan of Ceramics’. He was also a skilled cartoonist and his Uncle Joe’s Nonsense (1934) contains a collection of humorous stories illustrated with clever pen sketches. Just before Mellor died in May 1938, he received a C.B.E.

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  • International tourism and economic growth in New Zealand

    Jaforullah, Mohammad (2015-04)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

    This paper examines whether the tourism-led growth hypothesis holds for the New Zealand economy. Using unit root tests, cointegration tests and vector error correction models, and annual data over the period 1972-2012 on international tourism expenditure, real gross domestic product (GDP) and the exchange rate for New Zealand, it finds that the tourism-led growth hypothesis holds for New Zealand. The long-run elasticity of real GDP with respect to international tourism expenditure is estimated to be 0.4, meaning that a 1% growth in tourism will result in a 0.4% growth of the NZ economy. This finding implies that the New Zealand Government’s policy to promote New Zealand as a preferred tourism destination in the key international tourism markets may boost economic growth.

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  • Dire Straits v The Cure: Emphasising the Problem or the Solution in Charitable Fundraising for International Development

    Clark, Jeremy; Garces-Ozanne, Arlene; Knowles, Stephen (2016-10)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

    We conduct a laboratory experiment to test the effect on charitable donations to international development NGOs (INGOs) of emphasising current deprivation in a developing country, versus emphasising the potential good a donation can achieve. Using a double-blind dictator experiment with earned endowments, we find that varying the information/emphasis has no significant effect on total donations, or on the probability of donating. An emphasis on current deprivation does, however, significantly raise the variance of donations, so that conditional on donating, it significantly raises donations compared to emphasising potential gains from the charity’s work.

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  • How do empowerment and self-determination affect national health outcomes?

    Garces-Ozanne, Arlene; Kalu, Edna Ikechi; Audas, Richard (2016-10)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

    There remains a persistent gap in health outcomes between wealthy and poor countries. Basic measures such as life expectancy, infant and child mortality remain divergent, with preventable deaths being unacceptably high, despite significant efforts to reduce these disparities. We examine the impact of empowerment, measured by Freedom House’s ratings of country’s political and civil rights freedom, while controlling for per capita GDP, secondary school enrollment and income inequality, on national health outcomes. Using data from 1970-2013 across 149 countries, our results suggest, quite strongly, that higher levels of empowerment have a significant positive association with life expectancy, particularly for females, and lower rates of infant and child mortality. Our results point to the need for efforts to stimulate economic growth be accompanied with reforms to increase the levels of empowerment through increased political and economic freedom.

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  • Excavations on Motupore Island (Vol 1)

    Allen, Jim (2017)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

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  • Excavations on Motupore Island. (Vol 2)

    Allen, Jim (2017)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

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  • A balancing approach: using the living standards framework to assess different retirement income policies

    Coleman, Andrew (2017-03)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

    This paper evaluates four retirement income policies that could be adopted in response to increasing longevity in terms of their marginal effects on economic performance, equity, risk, social infrastructure, and sustainability. Compared to three policies involving save-as-you-go funding (voluntary saving, government prefunding, or a supplementary mandatory saving scheme), a pay-as-you-go funded expansion New Zealand Superannuation is unattractive as it has the most disadvantages for all but current middle-aged people. The other schemes provide different tradeoffs between risk, economic growth, and equity. There are many good arguments to use structured saving schemes in addition to New Zealand Superannuation.

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  • Housing, the ‘Great Income Tax Experiment’, and the intergenerational consequences of the lease

    Coleman, Andrew (2017-04)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

    This paper provides an analysis of how the New Zealand tax system may be affecting residential property markets. Like most OECD countries, New Zealand does not tax the imputed rent or capital gains from owner-occupied housing. Unlike most OECD countries, since 1989 New Zealand has taxed income placed in retirement savings funds on an income basis, rather than an expenditure basis. The result is likely to be the most distortionary tax policy towards housing in the OECD. Since 1989, these tax distortions have provided incentives that should have lead to significant increases in house prices and the average size of new dwellings, should have reduced owner-occupier rates, and should have led to a worsening of the overseas net asset position. The tax settings are likely to be regressive, and are not intergenerationally neutral, as they impose significant costs on current and future generations of young New Zealanders (and new migrants). Since it does not appear to be politically palatable to tax capital gains or imputed rent, to reduce the distortionary consequences of the tax system on housing markets New Zealand may wish to reconsider how it taxes retirement savings accounts by adopting the standard OECD approach.

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  • An Archaeology of Madang Papua New Guinea

    Gaffney, Dylan; Summerhayes, Glenn R. (2017)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

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  • The true significance of ‘high’ correlations between EQ-5D value sets

    Ombler, Franz; Albert, Michael; Hansen, Paul (2017-03)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

    High correlation coefficients for EQ-5D value sets derived from different samples, e.g. across countries, are conventionally interpreted as evidence that the people in the respective samples have similar health-related quality of life preferences. However, EQ-5D value sets contain many inherent rankings of health state values by design. By calculating coefficients for value sets created from random data, we demonstrate that ‘high’ correlation coefficients are an artefact of these inherent rankings; e.g. median Pearson’s r = 0.783 for the EQ-5D-3L and 0.850 for the EQ-5D-5L instead of zero. Therefore, high correlation coefficients do not necessarily constitute evidence of ‘true’ associations. After calculating significance levels based on our simulations – available as a resource for other researchers – we find that many high coefficients are not as significant as conventionally interpreted, whereas other coefficients are not significant. These ‘high’ but insignificant correlations are in fact spurious.

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  • Delays in Public Goods

    Chatterjee, Santanu; Posch, Olaf; Wesselbaum, Dennis (2017-02)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

    In this paper, we analyze the consequences of delays and cost overruns typically associated with the provision of public infrastructure in the context of a growing economy. Our results indicate that uncertainty about the arrival of public capital can more than offset its positive spillovers for private-sector productivity. In a decentralized economy, unanticipated delays in the provision of public capital generate too much consumption and too little private investment relative to the first-best optimum. The characterization of the first-best optimum is also affected: facing delays in the arrival of public goods, a social planner allocates more resources to private investment and less to consumption relative to the first-best outcome in the canonical model (without delays). The presence of delays also lowers equilibrium growth, and leads to a diverging growth path relative to that implied by the canonical model. This suggests that delays in public capital provision may be a potential determinant of cross-country differences in income and economic growth.

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  • When does it matter how you ask? Cross-subject heterogeneity in framing effects in a charitable donation experiment

    Fielding, David; Knowles, Stephen; Robertson, Kirsten (2017-01)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

    In this paper we present results from an experiment that draws on insights from economics on different possible incentives for generosity and insights from social psychology on different possible personality types. Firstly, we test whether the effect of an appeal to a pure altruism motive versus an appeal to a self-interest motive varies across subjects. We find that there is substantial variation, and this variation is strongly correlated with a subject’s level of materialism. Secondly, we test whether spoken appeals and written appeals have different effects. We find no evidence for such a difference. These results have important implications for the fundraising strategies of charities and for experimental design.

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  • Health Shocks and Child Time Allocation Decisions by Households: Evidence from Ethiopia

    Dinku, Yonatan; Fielding, David; Genc, Murat (2017-04)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

    Little is currently known about the effects of shocks to parental health on the allocation of children’s time between alternative activities. Using longitudinal data from the Ethiopian Young Lives surveys of 2006 and 2009, we analyze the effect of health shocks on the amount of children’s time spent in work, leisure and education. We find that paternal illness increases the time spent in income-generating work but maternal illness increases the time spent in domestic work. Moreover, maternal illness has a relatively large effect on daughters while paternal illness has a relatively large effect on sons. Overall, parental illness leads to large and significant increases in the amount of child labour as defined by UNICEF.

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  • The impact of climate change on crop production in Ghana: A Structural Ricardian analysis

    Etwire, Prince M.; Fielding, David; Kahui, Victoria (2017-04)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

    We apply a Structural Ricardian Model (SRM) to farm-level data from Ghana in order to estimate the impact of climate change on crop production. The SRM explicitly incorporates changes in farmers’ crop selection in response to variation in climate, a feature lacking in many existing models of climate change response in Africa. Two other novel features of our model are an estimate of the response of agricultural profits to differences in land tenure, and a comprehensive investigation of the appropriate functional form with which to model farmers’ responses. This final feature turns out to be important, since estimates of the effect of climate change turn out to be sensitive to the choice of functional form.

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  • Access to Financing and Firm Growth: Evidence from Ethiopia

    Regasa, Dereje; Fielding, David; Roberts, Helen (2017-04)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

    Using Ethiopian firm-level data, we model the effect of different types of financing on firm growth. The form of financing is potentially endogenous to firm growth, and one contribution of this paper is to introduce a new instrumental variable which captures local variation in financial depth. Unlike previous studies of firms in low-income countries, we find evidence for a negative relationship between the use of external finance and firm growth, which suggests that there are substantial cross-country differences in the finance-growth nexus. We discuss possible explanations for this phenomenon and its implications for development policy.

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