67 results for Working or discussion paper, 1996

  • Maori identity within whanau: A review of literature.

    Moeke-Pickering, Taima Materangatira (1996-01-01)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Waikato

    The study of identities is an enormous and complex undertaking. Research on identity formation has revealed a clear link between family practices and identity development. In traditional Maori times, the whanau was the place where initial teaching and socialisation of things Maori took place. While there is no single exact measure of what constitutes Maori identity (Durie, 1994), that Maori identity is still being asserted today means that the shaping of Maori identity is still occurring. Rather than attempt to cover all aspects of how Maori shape their identities, I have chosen to focus on the shaping of Maori identity within whanau. Given that this paper is about both Maori identity and whanau identity it seemed logical to review and examine the literature surrounding these two notions. In this paper I also discuss the ecological threats and supports that influenced Maori and whanau identity. Then I review literature on whanau identity from traditional and contemporary works, and explore the concept of whanau identity as a management framework. The literature on whanau does not vary from what Maori authors have expressed regarding their conceptualisations of Maori identity. The tribal structures, descent and cultural practices provide integral pathways through which whanau and Maori identity can be developed and maintained. What is of significance, is that the formation of a secure whanau identity is likely to contribute toward an overall stable Maori identity. Creating an environment where a sense of secure wellbeing among members of a whanau is nurtured, leads to members constructing a whanau and Maori identity that is meaningful to them in their lives.

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  • Bi-level document image compression using layout information

    Inglis, Stuart J.; Witten, Ian H. (1996-01)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Waikato

    Most bi-level images stored on computers today comprise scanned text, and their number is escalating because of the drive to archive large volumes of paper-based material electronically. These documents are stored using generic bi-level image technology, based either on classical run-length coding, such as the CCITT Group 4 method, or on modern schemes such as JBIG that predict pixels from their local image context. However, image compression methods that are tailored specifically for images known to contain printed text can provide noticeably superior performance because they effectively enlarge the context to the character level, at least for those predictions for which such a context is relevant. To deal effectively with general documents that contain text and pictures, it is necessary to detect layout and structural information from the image, and employ different compression techniques for different parts of the image. Such techniques are called document image compression methods.

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  • Software for the rest of the world

    Yeo, Alvin; Barbour, Robert H. (1996-02)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Waikato

    A survey is made of facets of the process of providing software across national and cultural boundaries. Internationalisation (i18n), localisation (1 10n) and globalisation (g11n) are identified as three descriptors for recent Information Technology developments in this field. Current practice and advice for successfully providing software in places other than countries and cultures of origin is reported. Suggestions for further work are made in the light of the survey.

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  • An MDL estimate of the significance of rules

    Cleary, John G.; Legg, Shane; Witten, Ian H. (1996-03)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Waikato

    This paper proposes a new method for measuring the performance of models-whether decision trees or sets of rules-inferred by machine learning methods. Inspired by the minimum description length (MDL) philosophy and theoretically rooted in information theory, the new method measures the complexity of text data with respect to the model. It has been evaluated on rule sets produced by several different machine learning schemes on a large number of standard data sets. When compared with the usual percentage correct measure, it is shown to agree with it in restricted cases. However, in other more general cases taken from real data sets-for example, when rule sets make multiple or no predictions-it disagrees substantially. It is argued that the MDL measure is more reasonable in these cases and represents a better way of assessing the significance of a rule set's performance. The question of the complexity of the rule set itself is not addressed in the paper.

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  • Keeping free-edited textual and graphical views of information consistent

    Grundy, John C.; Hosking, John G. (1996-03)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Waikato

    Multi-view editing is useful in many situations where users of a software application want to see and interact with different representations of the same information. This paper describes a new approach to keeping free-edited multiple textual and graphical views of information consistent. Descriptions of changes to information items are displayed in various ways in the multiple views of these items. Users can request an editing tool to automatically apply changes to a view, select a change to make from a range of possible changes, or manually implement changes to maintain view consistency. Semantic errors, user-defined changes and hierarchical changes can be represented, and this technique also supports flexible view consistency for cooperative work systems. Experience with this technique in several diverse multi-view editing environments is described.

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  • Coordinating collaborative work in an integrated information systems engineering environment

    Grundy, John C.; Venable, John R.; Mugridge, Warwick B. (1996-03)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Waikato

    The development of complex Information Systems requires the use of many Information Systems engineering tools. These diverse tools need to be integrated in order to be effectively used by multiple cooperating developers. In addition, the users of these environments require features that facilitate effective cooperation, such as support for collaboratively planning cooperative work, notification of changes to parts of a system under development (but only when necessary or desired), support for keeping aware of other developers' work contexts, and the ability to flexibly engineer or adapt development processes and methods. We describe an integrated Information Systems engineering environment which includes a work coordination tool supporting these requirements.

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  • Conservative parallel simulation of ATM networks

    Cleary, John G.; Tsai, Jya-Jang (1996-03)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Waikato

    The development of complex Information Systems requires the use of many Information Systems engineering tools. These diverse tools need to be integrated in order to be effectively used by multiple cooperating developers. In addition, the users of these environments require features that facilitate effective cooperation, such as support for collaboratively planning cooperative work, notification of changes to parts of a system under development (but only when necessary or desired), support for keeping aware of other developers' work contexts, and the ability to flexibly engineer or adapt development processes and methods. We describe an integrated Information Systems engineering environment which includes a work coordination tool supporting these requirements.

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  • A non-linear, criterion-referenced grading scheme for a computer literacy course

    Rogers, Bill; Treweek, Phillip; Cunningham, Sally Jo (1996-04)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Waikato

    The development of complex Information Systems requires the use of many Information Systems engineering tools. These diverse tools need to be integrated in order to be effectively used by multiple cooperating developers. In addition, the users of these environments require features that facilitate effective cooperation, such as support for collaboratively planning cooperative work, notification of changes to parts of a system under development (but only when necessary or desired), support for keeping aware of other developers' work contexts, and the ability to flexibly engineer or adapt development processes and methods. We describe an integrated Information Systems engineering environment which includes a work coordination tool supporting these requirements.

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  • Learning agents: from user study to implementation

    Maulsby, David; Witten, Ian H. (1996-04)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Waikato

    Learning agents acquire procedures by being taught rather than programmed. To teach effectively, users prefer communicating in richer and more flexible ways than traditional computer dialogs allow. This paper describes the design, implementation and evaluation of a learning agent. In contrast to most Artificial Intelligence projects, the design centers on a user study, with a human-simulated agent to discover the interactions that people find natural. Our work shows that users instinctively communication via "hints," or partially-specified, ambiguous, instructions. Hints may be input verbally, or by pointing, or by selecting from menus. They may be unsolicited, or arise in response to a query from the agent. We develop a theory of instruction types for an agent to interpret them. The implementation demonstrates that computers can learn from examples and ambiguous hints. Finally, an evaluation reveals the extent to which our system meets the original design requirements.

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  • Notes: an experiment in CSCW

    Apperley, Mark; Gianoutsos, Simon; Grundy, John C.; Paynter, Gordon W.; Reeves, Steve; Venable, John R. (1996-04)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Waikato

    Computer Supported Co-operative Work (CSCW) systems are complex, yet no computer-based tools of any sophistication exist to support their development. Since several people often need to work together on the same project simultaneously, the computer system often proves to be a bottleneck. CSCW tools are a means of allowing several users to work towards their goal. Systems development is essentially a team process, yet support for CSCW on these systems is in its infancy.

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  • Visible-C: a simple visualisation for C data structures

    Rogers, Bill (1996-04)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Waikato

    I teach half of a second year "Programming with Data Structures" course in which students learn to program with dynamic memory and build linked data structures. In this paper I describe a piece of software, VisibleC, which I have developed to assist in teaching these concepts.

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  • High performance simulation for ATM network development

    Cleary, John G.; Pearson, Murray W.; Graham, Ian; Unger, Brian (1996-06)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Waikato

    Techniques for measuring and modeling ATM traffic are reviewed. The requirements for cell level ATM network modeling and simulation are then outlined followed by a description of an ATM traffic and network (ATM-TN) simulator. This ATM-TN simulator is built upon parallel simulation mechanisms to achieve the high performance needed to execute the huge number of cell events required for a realistic network scenario. Results for several simulation experiments are reported using this high performance simulation including scenarios for the Wnet and OPERA networks. Finally, a preliminary evaluation of the application of high performance simulation to the design and analysis of ATM network performance is provided.

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  • Current techniques for measuring and modeling ATM traffic

    Pearson, Murray W.; Cleary, John G.; Unger, Brian; Williamson, Carey (1996-06)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Waikato

    ATM has now been widely accepted as the leading contender for the implementation of broadband communications networks (Brinkmann, Lavrijsen, Louis, et al, 1995) ATM networks are no longer restricted to research laboratories, and commercial products such as switches and interfaces manufactured by well known computer and communications companies have started to appear in the market place. The main advantage seen in ATM over other broadband networking technologies such as Synchronous Transfer Mode (STM) is its ability to transmit a wide variety of traffic types, including voice, data and video efficiently and seemlessly.

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  • Tree browsing

    Apperley, Mark; Chester, Michael (1996-07)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Waikato

    Graphic representations of tree structures are notoriously difficult to create, display, and interpret, particularly when the volume of information they contain, and hence the number of nodes, is large. The problem of interactively browsing information held in tree structures is examined, and a design for a tree browser proposed. This design is based on distortion-oriented display techniques and intuitive direct manipulation interaction. The tree layout is automatically generated, but the location and extent of detail shown is controlled by the user. It is suggested that these techniques could be extended to the browsing of more general networks.

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  • Digital libraries based on full-text retrieval

    Witten, Ian H.; Nevill-Manning, Craig G.; Cunningham, Sally Jo (1996-07)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Waikato

    Because digital libraries are expensive to create and maintain, Internet analogs of public libraries-reliable, quality, community services-have only recently begun to appear. A serious obstacle to their creation is the provision of appropriate cataloguing information. Without a database of titles, authors and subjects, it is hard to offer the searching and browsing facilities normally available in physical libraries. Full-text retrieval provides a way of approximating these services without a concomitant investment of human resources. This presentation will discuss the indexing, collection and maintenance processes, and the retrieval interface, to public digital libraries.

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  • CSCW in New Zealand: a snapshot

    Blackett, Colin; Reeves, Steve (1996-07)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Waikato

    This report has been produced as one of the outputs of the FORST funded project "Improved Computer Supported Collaborative Work Systems" which is currently running in the Department of Computer Science at the University of Waikato. Its aim is to give a snapshot of the uses of and possibilities for Computer Supported Collaborative (also Co-operative) Work (also Working) (CSCW) within New Zealand.

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  • Compression and explanation using hierarchical grammars

    Nevill-Manning, Craig G.; Witten, Ian H. (1996-07)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Waikato

    Data compression is an eminently pragmatic pursuit: by removing redundancy, storage can be utilised more efficiently. Identifying redundancy also serves a less prosaic purpose-it provides cues for detecting structure, and the recognition of structure coincides with one of the goals of artificial intelligence: to make sense of the world by algorithmic means. This paper describes an algorithm that excels at both data compression and structural inference. This algorithm is implemented in a system call SEQUITUR that efficiently deals with sequences containing millions of symbols.

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  • Serendipity: integrated environment support for process modelling, enactment and improvement

    Grundy, John C.; Hosking, John G. (1996-08)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Waikato

    Large cooperative work systems require work coordination, context awareness and process modelling and enactment mechanisms to be effective. The Serendipity environment provides visual languages for specifying process models and event processing. Enacted models can be modified during or after use and can act as plans of work to be done, describe work in progress, and record work done on a project. Serendipity has been integrated with an Information Systems engineering environment and office automation applications, without modification to these pre-existing tools. Animation of process models allows collaborating users to remain aware of the work contexts of their collaborators. Information about the current enacted process stage is attached to descriptions of changes made to work artefacts, recording the context of work. Such changes are also stored by the process stage, allowing collaborators to review the stage work history. Serendipity's visual event processing language allows users to specify rules and actions triggered by enactment, process or work artefact modification, or tool events. This paper describes Serendipity, our experiences using it, and its architecture and implementation.

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  • Machine learning applied to fourteen agricultural datasets

    Thomson, Kirsten; McQueen, Robert J. (1996-09)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Waikato

    This document reports on an investigation conducted between November, 1995 and March, 1996 into the use of machine learning on 14 sets of data supplied by agricultural researchers in New Zealand. Our purpose here is to collect together short reports on trials with these datasets using the WEKA machine learning workbench, so that some understanding of the applicability and potential application of machine learning to similar datasets may result.

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  • Theory combination: an alternative to data combination

    Ting, Kai Ming; Low, Boon Toh (1996-10)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Waikato

    The approach of combining theories learned from multiple batches of data provide an alternative to the common practice of learning one theory from all the available data (i.e., the data combination approach). This paper empirically examines the base-line behaviour of the theory combination approach in classification tasks. We find that theory combination can lead to better performance even if the disjoint batches of data are drawn randomly from a larger sample, and relate the relative performance of the two approaches to the learning curve of the classifier used.

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