57 results for Working or discussion paper, 2000

  • Option pricing in the real world: a generalized binomial model with applications to real options

    Arnold, Tom; Crack, Timothy (2000-08)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

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  • Strategic Issues for GMOs in Primary Production: Key Economic Drivers and Emerging Issues

    Campbell, Hugh; Fitzgerald, Ruth; Saunders, Caroline; Sivak, Leda (2000)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

    The Warrant of the Royal Commission of Enquiry into Genetic Modification asks a range of questions about the kinds of consequences (health, environmental, legal, cultural, ethical and economic) that might occur should GM technologies be commercially released in New Zealand. These are important questions, as New Zealand is one of only a few countries that rely on food exports to generate a major proportion of national revenue, but which have not yet released GMOs into commercial production of food, fibre or nutriceuticals. Focussing specifically on the economic consequences of commercial GM production, there is clearly both an opportunity for unique economic outcomes that must be considered, and also a series of major methodological challenges surrounding how we might quantify the nature of these opportunities given that such an exercise is entirely predictive (ie. we have no actual commercial production of GMOs to evaluate). This difficulty is evidenced by the level of claims-making taking place about the potential economic value to New Zealand of either avoiding or encouraging GM technologies in commercial production of food, fibre and nutriceuticals. There are clearly few certainties in this discussion. The New York Times reported in 1999 that even Monsanto had hired a group of independent consultants to try and estimate the nature of the biotechnology landscape in several decades time (‘Plotting Corporate Futures: Outlining What Could Go Wrong’ New York Times: 24/6/99). The consultants drew up three scenarios – one reasonably positive, one uncertain and contingent on the outcomes of many unpredictable variables, and one primarily negative for GM food. However, they were unable to recommend which one they considered the most likely to happen. Such caution is scarcely reflected in some of the recent claims-making in public fora about the presumed benefits and disadvantages of either a biotechnologically- driven or GM-free economic future for New Zealand.

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  • Extending agent messaging to enable OO information exchange

    Cranefield, Stephen; Purvis, Martin (2000-04)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

    It is canonical practice in agent-based systems to use a declarative format for the exchange of information. The increasing usage and facility of object-oriented tools and techniques, however, suggests there may be benefits in combining the use of object-oriented modelling approaches with agent-based messaging. In this paper we outline our efforts in connection with the New Zealand Distributed Information Systems project to use object-oriented knowledge representation in an agent-based architecture. Issues and tradeoffs are discussed, as well as the possible extensions to current agent-based message protocols that may be necessary in order to support object-oriented information exchange.

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  • Evolving localised learning for on-line colour image quantisation

    Deng, Da; Kasabov, Nikola (2000-11)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

    Although widely studied for many years, colour image quantisation remains a challenging problem. We propose to use an evolving self-organising map model for the on-line image quantisation tasks. Encouraging results are obtained in experiments and we look forward to implementing the algorithm in real world applications with further improvement.

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  • A shape metric for evolving time series models

    Whigham, Peter A; Aldridge, Colin H (2000-04)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

    Most applications of Genetic Programming to time series modeling use a fitness measure for comparing potential solutions that treat each point in the time series independently. This non-temporal approach can lead to some potential solutions being given a relatively high fitness measure even though they do not correspond to the training data when the overall shape of the series is taken into account. This paper develops two fitness measures which emphasize the concept of shape when measuring the similarity between a training and evolved time series. One approach extends the root mean square error to higher dimensional derivatives of the series. The second approach uses a simplified derivative concept that describes shape in terms of positive, negative and zero slope.

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  • Integrating environmental information: Incorporating metadata in a distributed information systems architecture

    Cranefield, Stephen; Purvis, Martin (2000-02)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

    An approach is presented for incorporating metatata constraints into queries to be processed by a distributed environmental information system. The approach, based on a novel metamodel unifying concepts from the Unified Modelling Language (UML), the Object Query Language (OQL), and the Resource Description Framework (RDF), allows metadata information to be represented and processed in combination with regular data queries.

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  • Analysis of the macroeconomic development of European and Asia-Pacific countries with the use of connectionist models

    Kasabov, Nikola; Akpinar, H; Rizzi, L; Deng, Jeremiah D. (2000-10)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

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  • Development of a Māori database for speech perception and generation

    Laws, Mark R (2000-03)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

    Māori speech data collection and analysis is an ongoing process, as new and existing data sets are continuously accessed for many different experimental speech perception and generation processing tasks. A data management system is an important tool to facilitate the systematic techniques applied to the speech and language data. Identification of the core components for Māori speech and language databases, translation systems, speech recognition and speech synthesis have been undertaken as research themes. The latter component will be the main area of discussion here. So to hasten the development of Māori speech synthesis, joint collaborative research with established international projects has begun. This will allow the Māori language to be presented to the wider scientific community well in advance of other similar languages, many times it's own size and distribution. Propagation of the Māori language via the information communication technology (ICT) medium is advantageous to it's long term survival.

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  • Using consensus ensembles to identify suspect data

    Clark, David (2000-11)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

    In a consensus ensemble all members must agree before they classify a data point. But even when they all agree some data is still misclassified. In this paper we look closely at consistently misclassified data to investigate whether some of it may be outliers or may have been mislabeled.

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  • Evolving self-organizing maps for on-line learning, data analysis and modelling

    Deng, Da; Kasabov, Nikola (2000-03)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

    In real world information systems, data analysis and processing are usually needed to be done in an on-line, self-adaptive way. In this respect, neural algorithms of incremental learning and constructive network models are of increased interest. In this paper we present a new algorithm of evolving self-organizing map (ESOM), which features fast one-pass learning, dynamic network structure, and good visualisation ability. Simulations have been carried out on some benchmark data sets for classification and prediction tasks, as well as on some macroeconomic data for data analysis. Compared with other methods, ESOM achieved better classification with much shorter learning time. Its performance for time series modelling is also comparable, requiring more hidden units but with only one-pass learning. Our results demonstrate that ESOM is an effective computational model for on-line learning, data analysis and modelling.

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  • Translating descriptions of a viewpoint among different representations

    Stanger, Nigel (2000-05)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

    An important part of the systems development process is building models of real-world phenomena. These phenomena are described by many different kinds of information, and this diversity has resulted in a wide variety of modelling representations. Some types of information are better expressed by some representations than others, so it is sensible to use multiple representations to describe a real-world phenomenon. The author has developed an approach to facilitating the use of multiple representations within a single viewpoint by translating descriptions of the viewpoint among different representations. An important issue with such translations is their quality, or how well they map constructs of one representation to constructs of another representation. Two possible methods for improving translation quality, heuristics and enrichment, are proposed in this paper, and a preliminary metric for measuring relative translation quality is described.

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  • Modelling the emergence of speech sound categories in evolving connectionist systems

    Taylor, John; Kasabov, Nikola; Kilgour, Richard (2000-03)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

    We report on the clustering of nodes in internally represented acoustic space. Learners of different languages partition perceptual space distinctly. Here, an Evolving Connectionist-Based System (ECOS) is used to model the perceptual space of New Zealand English. Currently, the system evolves in an unsupervised, self-organising manner. The perceptual space can be visualised, and the important features of the input patterns analysed. Additionally, the path of the internal representations can be seen. The results here will be used to develop a supervised system that can be used for speech recognition based on the evolved, internal sub-word units.

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  • Elementary structures in entity-relationship diagrams as a diagnostic tool in data modelling and a basis for effort estimation

    Kennedy, Geoffrey (2000-12)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

    Elsewhere Kennedy describes three elementary structures to be found in entity-relationship diagrams. Here, each of these structures is considered in the context of a transaction processing system and a specific set of components that can be associated with the structure is described. Next, an example is given illustrating the use of elementary structures as an analytical tool for data modelling and a diagnostic tool for the identification of errors in the resulting data model. It is conjectured that the amount of effort associated with each structure can be measured. A new approach for the estimation of the total effort required to develop a system, based on a count of the elementary structures present in the entity-relationship diagram, is then proposed. The approach is appealing because it can be automated and because it can be applied earlier in the development cycle than other estimation methods currently in use. The question of a suitable counting strategy remains open.

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  • An adaptive distributed workflow system framework

    Purvis, Martin; Lemalu, Selena; Purvis, Maryam A. (2000-08)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

    Workflow management systems are increasingly used to assist the automation of business processes that involve the exchange of documents, information, or task execution results. Recent developments in distributed information system technology now make it possible to extend the workflow management system idea to much wider spheres of activity in the industrial and commercial world. This paper describes a framework under development that employs such technology so that software tools and processes may interoperate in a distributed and dynamic environment. Key technical elements of the framework include the use of coloured Petri nets and distributed object technology (CORBA).

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  • Platforms for agent-oriented software

    Nowostawski, Mariusz; Bush, Geoff; Purvis, Martin; Cranefield, Stephen (2000-08)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

    The use of modelling abstractions to map from items in the real-world to objects in the computational domain is useful both for the effective implementation of abstract problem solutions and for the management of software complexity. This paper discusses the new approach of agent-oriented software engineering (AOSE), which uses the notion of an autonomous agent as its fundamental modelling abstraction. For the AOSE approach to be fully exploited, software engineers must be able to gain leverage from an agent software architecture and framework, and there are several such frameworks now publicly available. At the present time, however, there is little information concerning the options that are available and what needs to be considered when choosing or developing an agent framework. We consider three different agent software architectures that are (or will be) publicly available and evaluate some of the design and architectural differences and trade-offs that are associated with them and their impact on agent-oriented software development. Our discussion examines these frameworks in the context of an example in the area of distributed information systems.

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  • Is it an ontology or an abstract syntax? Modelling objects, knowledge and agent messages

    Cranefield, Stephen; Purvis, Martin; Nowostawski, Mariusz (2000-04)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

    This paper describes a system of interlinked ontologies to describe the concepts underlying FIPA agent communication. A meta-modelling approach is used to relate object-oriented domain ontologies and abstract models of agent communication and content languages and to describe them in a single framework. The modelling language used is the Unified Modeling Language, which is extended by adding the concepts of resource and reference. The resulting framework provides an elegant basis for the development of agent systems that combine object-oriented information representation with agent messaging protocols.

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  • Investigating complexities through computational techniques

    Holt, Alec (2000-02)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

    This article outlines similarity applied to the general environment and geographical information domains. The hypothesis is if physical and social sciences manifest similar amenities, then similarity would be a generative technique to analyse the cached information inherent in the data retrieved. Similarity is examined concerning the spatial grouping of natural kinds in a complex environment.

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  • A viewpoint-based framework for discussing the use of multiple modelling representations

    Stanger, Nigel (2000-04)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

    When modelling a real-world phenomenon, it can often be useful to have multiple descriptions of the phenomenon, each expressed using a different modelling approach or representation. Different representations such as entity-relationship modelling, data flow modelling and use case modelling allow analysts to describe different aspects of real-world phenomena, thus providing a more thorough understanding than if a single representation were used. Researchers working with multiple representations have approached the problem from many different fields, resulting in a diverse and potentially confusing set of terminologies. In this paper is described a viewpoint-based framework for discussing the use of multiple modelling representations to describe real-world phenomena. This framework provides a consistent and integrated terminology for researchers working with multiple representations. An abstract notation is also defined for expressing concepts within the framework.

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  • A framework for distributed workflow systems

    Purvis, Martin; Lemalu, Selena; Purvis, Maryam A. (2000-12)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

    Workflow management systems (WFMS) are being adopted to assist the automation of business processes that involve the exchange of information. As a result of developments in distributed information system technology, it is now possible to extend the WFMS idea to wider spheres of activity in the industrial and commercial world and thereby to encompass the increasingly sprawling nature of modern organisations. This paper describes a framework under development that employs such technology so that software tools and processes may interoperate in a distributed and dynamic environment. The framework employs Petri nets to model the interaction between various sub-processes. CORBA technology is used to enable different participants who are physically disparate to monitor activity in and make resource-level adaptations to their particular subnet.

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  • Comparing Huber’s M-Estimator function with the mean square error in backpropagation networks when the training data is noisy

    Clark, David (2000-12)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

    In any data set there some of the data will be bad or noisy. This study identifies two types of noise and investigates the effect of each in the training data of backpropagation neural networks. It also compares the mean square error function with a more robust alternative advocated by Huber.

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