66 results for Working or discussion paper, 2002

  • The information content of short interest: a natural experiment

    Arnold, Tom; Butler, Alexander; Crack, Timothy; Zhang, Yan (2002-01)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

    The full text of this document is only available from the Social Science Research Network. Please use the related link to access the full text.

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  • Interaction protocols for a network of environmental problem solvers

    Purvis, Martin; Hwang, Peter; Cranefield, Stephen; Schievink, Martin; Purvis, Maryam A. (2002-04)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

    Environmental management and emergency response often involves the joint cooperation of a network of distributed problem solvers, each of which may be specialised for a specific task or problem domain. Some of these problem solvers could be human, others could be `intelligent' environmental monitoring and control systems. Environmental software systems are needed not only for the provision of basic environmental information but also to support the coordination of these problem solvers. An agent architecture can support the requirement associated with disparate problem solvers. The various stakeholders in the process are represented by software agents which can collaborate with each other toward achieving a particular goal. The communication between agents can be accomplished by using interaction protocols which are represented by coloured Petri nets (CPN). This paper describes an approach for providing this support by employing a software agent framework for the modelling and execution of environmental process tasks in a networked environment.

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  • Does social capital affect foreign aid allocations?

    Knowles, Stephen (2002-06)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

    This paper explores the issue of whether countries with high levels of social capital give more foreign aid than others. It is often argued that in countries with high levels of social capital (as measured, for example, by trust, civic norms and membership of community groups) levels of cooperation and altruistic behaviour will be higher. This paper explores whether such altruistic behaviour extends to giving foreign aid. Cross-country data are used to assess whether countries with high levels of social capital give more foreign aid, as a proportion of GDP, than countries where social capital is lower.

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  • Policy leadership styles and the process of paradigmatic policy change: three propositions

    Wallis, Joe; Dollery, Brian (2002-03)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

    This paper formulates a theory of policy leadership based on propositions that relate to the conditions under which rival leadership coalitions engage in a contest for authority over the system-wide direction of the policy process and differentiate themselves according to distinctive styles in respect of which the demand shifts due to the endogenous accumulation of disappointment over distinct phases of a process of paradigmatic policy change. It both draws from concepts familiar to policy theorists and the work of economic revisionists who have sought to make the expressive dimension of phenomena such as leadership more amenable to deductive analysis.

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  • Multi-agent system interaction protocols in a dynamically changing environment

    Purvis, Martin; Cranefield, Stephen; Nowostawski, Mariusz; Purvis, Maryam A. (2002-07)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

    An area where multi-agent systems can be put to effective use is for the case of an open collection of autonomous problem solvers in a dynamically changing environment. One example of such a situation is that of environmental management and emergency response, which can require the joint cooperation of a distributed set of components, each one of which may be specialised for a specific task or problem domain. The various stakeholders in the process can all be represented and interfaced by software agents which collaborate with each other toward achieving a particular goal. For such situations new agents that arrive on the scene must be apprised of the group interaction protocols so that they can cooperate effectively with the existing agents. In this paper we show how this can be done by using coloured Petri net representations for each role in an interaction protocol and passing these nets dynamically to new agents that wish to participate in a group interaction. We argue that multi-agent systems are particularly suited for such dynamically changing environments, but their effectiveness depends on the their ability to use adaptive interaction protocols.

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  • Leadership and economic theories of non-profit organizations

    Wallis, Joe; Dollery, Brian (2002-03)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

    Economic theories of Nonprofit Organizations (NPOs) have modified standard economic assumptions to explain altruism and nonprofit entrepreneurship but have neglected their dependence on leadership due to the traditional reluctance of economists to consider phenomena associated with preference change. The relevance of Hermalin’s (1998) model of leadership by example and Casson’s (1991) theory of leadership through moral manipulation are considered within an NPO context where leaders seek to influence stakeholder commitments to the organization’s quest. The propositions Elster (1998) advanced with regard to the relationship between the emotions and decision making are then applied in a theory that explains how NPO leaders can develop a culture of hope that maintains the quality control and product differentiation advantages claimed for these organizations. It is argued that policymakers should consider the dependence of NPOs on the quality of leadership when choosing the organisational mechanism for social service delivery.

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  • An Elsterian analysis of hope and hate groups

    Wallis, Joe (2002-03)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

    The core beliefs, type of emotional energy and action tendencies of “hope groups” that engae in the policy process to advance their shared goals and “hate groups” that seek to expose the conspiratorial tendencies of a policy elite are compared and contrasted. The patterns of rhetoric and interaction rituals that charcterize interaction within these groups are then considered. The contribution this type of analysis can make to a Hirschmanian quest for a more relevant economics that can join with other disciplines such as politics and psychology in seeking to comprehend behaviours that can weaken the deliberative capacity of democracies is then assessed.

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  • Population density and spatially constrained selection in evolutionary computation

    Dick, Grant; Whigham, Peter A (2002-11)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

    Unpublished

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  • Economic theories of the voluntary sector: a survey of government failure and market failure approaches

    Dollery, Brian; Wallis, Joe (2002-05)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

    This paper attempts to survey the economic literature on demand-based theories of the voluntary sector, which derive from theory of government failure and the market failure paradigm. We discuss scholarly attempts to define the voluntary sector and establish various criteria which characterise voluntary organisations as well as the ways in which different economists have sought to classify the theories of the voluntary sector. Moreover, we examine theories which invoke government failure to explain the genesis of the voluntary sector and review theories premised on market failure, including asymmetric information models, customer control models, principal-agent problems and private philanthropy, and disadvantaged consumers. The paper ends with some tentative extensions and criticisms of the literature on demand-based theories of the voluntary sector.

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  • The occupational distribution of Maori 1997-2000

    Sutherland, Hilary J; Alexander, W Robert J (2002-04)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

    We focus on one aspect of labour market discrimination in New Zealand, namely occupational segregation. Using unit record data from Statistics New Zealand’s 1997 to 2000 Income Surveys and controlling for productivity characteristics, we find evidence that Maori are consistently segregated into lower occupational classes than their measurable characteristics would predict. In addition, we estimate that discrimination of some form accounts for between 30% to 48% of the Pakeha/Maori wage differential.

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  • Spatio-temporal and object visualization in rugby union

    Moore, Antoni; Whigham, Peter A; Aldridge, Colin H; Holt, Alec; Hodge, Ken (2002-06)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

    The use of computer software as an aid to rugby, and sports coaching in general, is becoming increasingly utilized. Videoed sport is the most widely used form of raw data for sports analysis, though it is currently not being used to its full potential. Patterns of player movement and position, both for individuals and groupings of players, are important for understanding the complexities of professional team sports, and yet are not being adequately addressed. This paper outlines a project that aims to support coaching and/or commentary by visualizing and measuring the similarity of video-derived spatiotemporal information, and enabling timely access to relevant video clips. Specifically, methods by which a user of spatially-enabled sports software can visualize spatio-temporal and rugby object information will be discussed. Two issues are examined: (1) powerful spatio-temporal representation techniques for rugby constructs (such as the pitch, players and amalgamations of players: team, scrum, lineout, backline) and (2) user interface design and how it enables rugby object representation alongside the spatio-temporal visualization facility.

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  • Erkin Bairam: 1958-2001 His contribution to economics

    Knowles, Stephen; McCombie, John S L (2002-08)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

    With Erkin Bairam’s untimely death on 21 May 2001 at the age of 43, New Zealand lost one its most distinguished and prolific applied economists. Born in Nicosia, Cyprus, most of Bairam’s working life was spent in the Department of Economics at the University of Otago in Dunedin, New Zealand. At the age of 33, he became one of the youngest full professors to be appointed in New Zealand, and, by the time of his death, had published over 60 articles and 4 books. Bairam had two main research interests: namely, the theoretical specification and estimation of aggregate production functions and the testing of Thirlwall’s law of economic growth. But his interests went wider than this. He was a gifted applied econometrician and made contributions to econometric theory and also published in the areas of inflation and labour economics. Although he would have been the first to admit that he was not a natural sportsman, he developed an interest in the economics of sport, especially cricket and published some innovative papers in this area. He also undertook some notable work in calculating the research rankings of economics departments (always a contentious issue), with an article being published in the prestigious Journal of Economic Literature (Bairam, 1994a). Bairam’s undergraduate training took place at the University of Essex, where he gained a BA (Hons) in Economics in 1980. He left Essex for Hull, where he was awarded an MA in Econometrics in 1982. He then began work on his PhD thesis entitled Returns to Scale, Technical Progress and Industrial Growth in the USSR and Eastern Europe: An Empirical Study, 1961-75, with John McCombie as his supervisor. He was awarded his doctorate in 1986 and the following year was appointed as a lecturer at the University of Otago. By 1991, after only four years, he had risen to the rank of full professor. This tribute will discuss some of Bairam’s key research contributions, as well as his contribution to the Department at Otago.

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  • Local government capacity and social capital

    Wallis, Joe; Dollery, Brian (2002-05)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

    Local authorities vary considerably in their capacity for governance. The dimensions of this capacity can only be developed by drawing on local stocks of social capital. The seminal theories of social capital tend to conceive it as a community resource that is built up through a long tradition of civic engagement. We take issue with the laissez faire implications of these theories, highlighting ways in which local governments can positively contribute to social capital formation by opening their "political opportunity structure" and engaging voluntary organizations and community groups in trust-based partnership arrangements.

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  • Cultural change within the New Zealand and Australian Treasuries

    Wallis, Joe; Dollery, Brian (2002-06)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

    Cultural change within two Treasuries is explained in terms of their secretaries' use of agenda-setting, strategic recruitment and “expression games”. A different institutional context allowed the New Zealand Treasury (NZT) to exercise a more dominant influence than the Australian Treasury (AT) although the postwar hegemony of a market failure (MF) paradigm meant that a “culture of balanced evaluation” was preserved in both agencies. The erosion of this paradigm's authority in the 1980s prompted cultural re-invention in both agencies as they aligned themselves with reformists committed to policies derived from a government failure paradigm. The stronger reaction to the alignment of the more dominant NZT has placed it under more pressure than the AT to reinvent itself again in the 1990s.

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  • Perceptions of political marketing in Sweden: a comparative perspective

    Harris, Phil; Lock, Andrew; Nievelt, Terese (2002)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

    The political marketing academic literature is largely an Anglo-Saxon one, with the main European contributions coming from Ireland and the UK. Comparatively little has been written explicitly about political marketing in Sweden. We offer a brief overview of the key characteristics of the Swedish political system, together with a commentary on the apparent use of political marketing in Sweden drawing upon concepts developed in the American and British literature. We present the results of a study of perceptions of political marketing in local elections in Norrkoping, a middle-sized Swedish town of 90,000. Firstly a series of structured interviews were carried out with the party leaders of the 5 largest parties and with the journalists who report local politics in the town. These included questions aimed at establishing their level of understanding of political marketing. Secondly, two focus groups were carried out with voters in the town, which included an exploration of their experience and perceptions of electoral campaigns.

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  • Opal: A multi-level infrastructure for agent-oriented software development

    Purvis, Martin; Cranefield, Stephen; Nowostawski, Mariusz; Carter, Daniel (2002-03)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

    The Opal architecture for software development is described that supports the use of agent-oriented concepts at multiple levels of abstraction. At the lowest level are micro-agents, streamlined agents that can be used for conventional, system-level programming tasks. More sophisticated agents may be constructed by assembling combinations of micro-agents. The architecture consequently supports the systematic use of agent-based notions throughout the software development process. The paper describes (a) the implementation of micro-agents in Java, (b) how they have been used to fashion the Opal framework for the construction of more complex agents based on the Foundation for Intelligent Physical Agents (FIPA) specifications, and (c) the Opal Conversation Manager that facilitates the capability of agents to conduct complex conversations with other agents.

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  • St John's Ambulance Service, Southern Region: Control centre dispatch profile (1997–2001)

    Hayes, Jared (2002-11)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

    The St John's Ambulance Service, Southern Region Control Centre (the control centre) is located in Dunedin City and controls 56 ambulances based in 26 regional stations. The Southern Region covers an area of approximately 54,000 square kilometres, which has a usually resident population of 272,541 (Census, 2001). This report focuses on the dispatch and workload profile of the control centre between the 1st January 1997 and the 31st December 2001. During this period the control centre dispatched ambulances on approximately 135,822 occasions to a total of 118,759 incidents (this includes both emergency incidents and patient transfers). Based on an analysis of these incidents several key findings are discussed in this report. These include: • A 21.8% increase in the total number of incidents handled in the control centre between 1997 and 2001 • A 44 second increase in average activation times between 1997 and 2001 • A strong correlation between increased workload and increased activation times • A large increase in activation times during low and medium workload periods

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  • General-to-specific modelling using PcGets

    Owen, P. Dorian (2002-11)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

    This review examines the facilities provided by PcGets version 1.0, an OxMetrics module designed to implement automated general-to-specific model selection in the context of cross-section or dynamic time-series models that are linear in the parameters. A cross-section empirical example is used to illustrate the steps involved, the output produced and the options available for modellers.

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  • Hand-held computers in health care: What software programs are available?

    Gillingham, Wayne; Holt, Alec; Gillies, John (2002-07)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

    The technology sector of healthcare is entering a new evolutionary phase. The medical community has an obligation to the public to provide the safest, most effective healthcare possible. This is more achievable with the use of computer technology at the point of care, and small, portable devices could fulfil this role. A Modern Physician/PricewaterhouseCoopers 2001 survey on information technology in Physician practices found that 60% of respondents say that physicians in their organisation use PDAs, compare this with 26% in the 2000 technology survey. This trend is expected to continue to the point where these devices will have their position on a physician's desk next to their stethoscope. Once this electronic evolution occurs, the practice of medicine will change. Doctors will be able to practice medicine with greater ease and safety. In our opinion, the new generation of PDA mobile devices will be the tools to enable a transformation of healthcare to a paperless, wireless world. This article focuses on uses for PDAs in health care. Healthcare software is categorised into the following groups; reference/text book, calculators, patient management/logbook and personal clinical/study notebook. With a focus on the healthcare audience (the user), which can be registrar, consultant, nurse, student, teacher, patient, medical director and surgical.

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  • Styles of policy leadership and local government reform

    Wallis, Joe; Dollery, Brian (2002-05)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

    The impact a shift from strong to an empathetic style of policy leadership in central government can have on the direction of local government reform is considered in the UK context where the Thatcherite attempt to supply the strong leadership required to overcome resistance to its fiscal policy gave rise to a "minimalist" policy of reducing council discretion over services and revenue-raising. The local government policy subsystem seems to have been particularly susceptible to the accumulation of disappointment with the inflexibility of this government's leadership style. The shift toward a more "activist" approach to local government policy by the Blair government may therefore be linked to its attempt to pursue the more empathetic leadership style associated with "Third Way" governments.

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