98 results for Working or discussion paper, 2005

  • Pioneering advantage and product-country image: evidence from China

    Gao, Hongzhi; Knight, John G (2005)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

    A later version of this paper has been published in the Journal of Marketing Management.

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  • Inferring physical probability distributions from option prices

    Arnold, Tom; Crack, Timothy; Schwartz, Adam (2005-06-22)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

    The full text of this document is only available from the Social Science Research Network. Please use the related link to access the full text.

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  • From soothing palliatives and towards ecological literacy: a critique of the triple bottom line

    Milne, Markus J (2005-03)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

    The ‘triple bottom line’ (3BL), an idea attributed to and increasingly evangelized by John Elkington of the London-based consultancy, SustainAbility (Elkington, 1997; Wheeler & Elkington 2001), involves incorporating economic, environmental and social performance indicators into businesses’ management, measurement and reporting processes. The emergence and increasing take-up by business of the 3BL, however, seems to have created dangerous uncertainty as to what is required of organizations. At its narrowest, pursuing the 3BL involves measuring and reporting economic, environmental and social performance objectives that are pursued simultaneously. A broader view, however, suggests that the 3BL involves assessing an entity’s values, strategies and practices and how these can be utilized to achieve economic, environmental and social objectives (SustainAbility, 2003). The term also seems to be used increasingly as a synonym for “sustainability”. Many organizations seem to confuse narrow and often incomplete reporting practices with claims to be reporting on being sustainable, actually being sustainable, or more commonly, with claims to be moving towards sustainability. In view of such dangerous confusion, this paper critically examines the content of international business 3BL reporting and argues that while pursuing the 3BL may be a necessary condition for sustainability, it is unlikely to be a sufficient condition, and indeed may amount to little more than soothing palliatives, leading to greater levels of un-sustainability. We offer, therefore, some ways in which businesses may begin to get beyond their 3BL change-but-no-change rhetoric of sustainability and towards ecological literacy.

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  • Accounting students’ information disclosure decisions: is there a need for changing the status quo on disclosure through accounting education?

    Theivananthampillai, Paul S; Liyanarachchi, Gregory A. (2005-03)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

    The disclosure of minimum information required by law and accounting standards appears to be the status quo on corporate disclosure. This brings into question the fairness of corporate financial statements. The paper reports experimental results that indicate when students have reasons to be concerned about what others may think of their decisions, they are willing to support corporate disclosure policies that include only the legally required minimum information and unwilling to support certain additional disclosures. Arguably, a major re-think of what constitutes an adequate level of disclosure is essential for changing the disclosure status quo. Accounting education has much potential for initiating such a re-think. To this end, the paper identifies the relevance of two measures. That is, students need to be encouraged (a) to recognise the importance of relative accuracy of accounting standards and (b) to recognise the relevance and importance of current debates on corporate disclosure and notions such as fairness when evaluating the adequacy of corporate disclosures.

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  • Playing with magic lanterns: the New Zealand Business Council for Sustainable Development and corporate triple bottom line reporting

    Milne, Markus J (2005-03)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

    Within the last 4 years a coalition of leading New Zealand businesses has formed—The New Zealand Business Council for Sustainable Development (NZBCSD)—with the avowed intent of acting as a catalyst for change towards sustainable development via the three pillars of economic growth, environmental protection and social progress. The Council through its members intends to promote eco-efficiency, innovation and responsible entrepreneurship. As part of the Council’s agenda, Sustainable Development (or Triple Bottom Line) Reporting is being actively encouraged and promoted through its membership organisations. Members commit to producing such a report within 3 years. This study reports on both the attempts of the Council to interpret and portray sustainable development and its reporting, and on the attempts of several of its members to develop triple bottom line reports. The study critically examines the NZBCSD’s position on sustainable development (reporting) through its web-site announcements and several other documents in the context of an older and wider literature on sustainability. The study also critically examines eight members’ reports through a qualitative textual analysis. Overall, we find that while these reports manifestly use the rhetoric of “sustainability” and “sustainable development”, we detect little reporting beyond what has traditionally passed for corporate social responsibility.

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  • Reengineering revealed preference models: international replications

    Mather, Damien W; Knight, John G; Ermen, David; Holdsworth, David K (2005)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

    Purpose: to ascertain the validity or otherwise of Stated Preference (SP) choice models in the context of introduction of genetically modified (GM) foods with defined consumer benefits, and to report on a new experimentally designed Revealed Preference (RP) model with superior validity. Methodology: Combining experimental conjoint choice design and a temporary and harmless ruse commonly associated with laboratory psychology experiments avoids the usual limitations of Revealed Preference (RP) choice models, and tests the validity of the SP model. The method developed in New Zealand has been closely replicated in Sweden. Findings: In both Sweden and New Zealand, the results from the SP choice model were highly divergent from the results of the RP choice model. Research implications: In the light of these findings, SP choice models need to be treated with extreme caution when employed for predicting consumer choice of fresh fruit. These findings may extend to other food products. Limitations: Generalised Extreme Value (GEV) modelling to compensate for heteroskedasticity has not been applied to further identify sources of model bias. Originality and value: This new experimentally designed RP approach will improve the predictive power of market research on food choice, and will provide a benchmark for critical evaluation of SP methods. This should prove valuable in improving future market response model forecast accuracy.

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  • Business makes a ‘journey’ out of ‘sustainability’: creating adventures in Wonderland?

    Milne, Markus J; Kearins, Kate; Walton, Sara (2005-08)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

    This paper provides a critical exploration of the ‘journey metaphor’ promoted in much business discourse on sustainability - in corporate reports and advertisements, and in commentators’ reports in the political and professional business literature. The portrayal of sustainability as a journey evokes images of corporate adaptation, learning, and a movement away from business-as-usual practices. The journey metaphor, however, masks the issue of towards what it is that businesses are actually, or even supposedly, moving. It is argued that business is constructing ‘sustainability’ as a journey to avoid specifying some future desirable state of affairs. We suggest that by portraying ‘sustainability’ in this way, businesses, and the related political and professional literature, have invoked a subtle and powerful, use of language that appears to seriously engage with elements of the discourse around sustainable development and sustainability. Yet at the same time, by constructing and promoting its own version of the discourse, it de-emphasises discussion of desirable future states of living, and neatly sidesteps any debate about, or need to radically change course. The paper illustrates how journeying is invoked throughout corporate reports and other forms of business communication in a process of corporate myth-making. Businesses are shown to be constructing a ‘wonderland’ discourse.

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  • Foreign exchange exposure of U.S. firms in the Pacific rim

    Zhang, Lifan; Crack, Timothy (2005-06-23)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

    The full text of this document is only available from the Social Science Research Network. Please use the related link to access the full text.

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  • Country of origin and confidence in quality of imported foods in China

    Knight, John G; Gao, Hongzhi (2005)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

    Food distribution channel members in the Peoples’ Republic of China have been interviewed regarding the key factors that determine where they source imported food products. Concerns about food safety and mistrust of food production systems within China result in imported food products generally enjoying a higher reputation than locally produced food products, unless the locally produced products carry famous international brands. Little discrimination was evident between different source countries. A high level of importance is placed on brands, the reputation of intermediaries within the channel, and the reputation of retail outlets, but country of origin effects appear confined to specific food categories.

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  • Selection criteria for country of origin of food imports by European food distributors

    Knight, John G; Holdsworth, David K; Mather, Damien W (2005)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

    Country-of-origin preferences of distribution channel gatekeepers when sourcing food imports were investigated using in-depth interviews in five European markets. Channel member perceptions of product-country image related more to specific issues of confidence and trust in integrity of production, certification and regulatory systems than to country image stereotypes.

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  • Growth beats value on the Bombay Stock Exchange

    Sabharwal, Satneet; Crack, Timothy (2005-08-09)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

    The full text of this document is only available from the Social Science Research Network. Please use the related link to access the full text.

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  • Valuing real options using implied binomial trees and commodity futures options

    Arnold, Tom; Crack, Timothy; Schwartz, Adam (2005-01-05)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

    The full text of this document is only available from the Social Science Research Network. Please use the related link to access the full text.

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  • Nurse burnout in a high stress health care environment: prognosis better than expected?

    Hall, Elizabeth (2005)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

    This article presents literature-based evidence from North America, Canada, Israel, England and Wales, New Zealand, Australia demonstrating that despite data showing that occupational stress levels are rising in nursing, and given that nursing is an endemically stressful profession, there does not seem to be a widespread concomitant increase in reported severity of burnout. Instead, many instances of low, decreasing and in some cases, virtually nonexistent degrees of burnout exist. Two theoretical explanations for the existence of low burnout and the implications for the nursing profession are discussed.

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  • Student-led and teacher-led case presentations: further empirical evidence

    Wynn-Williams, Kate; Whiting, Rosalind H; Adler, Ralph W (2005-09)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

    The use of business case studies has been frequently promoted as a method for developing accounting graduates who are active, interdependent, and independent learners. The debate continues over the best method for using the case study method; should case studies be student- or teacher-led? A recent study (Adler, Whiting and Wynn-Williams, 2004) used Kolb’s Learning-Style Inventory (adapted from Honey and Mumford (1986) and Kolb (1984)) to investigate the use of business case studies and student learning styles in an intermediate-level cost and management accounting course. The findings from that study suggest that it is how the case studies are used and the level of student involvement that is of vital importance. This paper extends the findings of Adler et al (2004) by repeating the survey but with the following potentially important changes: prior to the survey, students had completed an entire semester of intermediate-level courses, including two accounting courses, plus the surveys were administered at a later point in the particular management accounting paper. The results of the second survey confirm and extend those of the first (Adler et al, 2004), namely, that a lack of active involvement in cases results in less balanced learning styles. Further, even when students have experienced the benefits of active participation, a prolonged suspension of such involvement also leads to an exaggerated lack of balance. That is, not only is the how of case involvement important, so is the when. That the students in the current survey had exposure to both more intermediate courses and to more business cases, regardless of level of involvement, had no discernible effect.

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  • From sustainable management to sustainable development: a longitudinal analysis of external communication by a leading environmental reporter

    Tregidga, Helen; Milne, Markus J (2005-03)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

    This paper reports the results of an interpretive textual analysis of New Zealand’s most consistent and arguably leading reporter on environmental and social impacts. It works with all of the organisation’s reports since 1993 through 2003 identifying themes and analysing the emergence and development of a sustainable development discourse. Focusing on the language and images used to construct meanings, and the context in which the reports emerged, the paper traces the organisation’s reporting developments. The paper illustrates how, in evolving from environmental reports to sustainable development reports, the organisation has (re)constructed itself from one who sustainably manages resources to one who practises sustainable development. The implications of these developments are explored in terms of the literature on ‘capture’ and organisational change.

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  • Consumer benefits and acceptance of genetically modified food

    Knight, John G; Mather, Damien W; Holdsworth, David K (2005)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

    A later version of this paper has been published in the Journal of Public Affairs.

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  • Videography: ‘new kid on the research block’ or significant contribution to consumer research?

    Ferguson, Shelagh; Todd, Sarah (2005)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

    To appear in the European version of Advances in Consumer Research in April 2006.

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  • Oral and written communication apprehension in accounting students: curriculum impacts and impacts on academic performance

    Gardner, Clare T; Milne, Markus J; Stringer, Carolyn P; Whiting, Rosalind H (2005-03)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

    In the context of an accounting curriculum that has been significantly modified over the past decade in response to calls for skills development, this study investigates the impacts of curriculum on students’ levels of communication apprehension. An emerging concern in accounting is that attempts made to improve students’ communication skills may fail or be less effective for some students because such attempts do not improve, or may even exacerbate students’ anxiety about communicating, which in turn leads to poorer performance. The results from this study show that students in their final year of study in which they are exposed to greater communication demands, do not on average have higher levels of communication apprehension than their peers in earlier studies. The levels of communication apprehension for final year students decline most markedly for those students starting with higher average levels of apprehension. The results fail to find any strong associations between levels of communication apprehension and students’ abilities to advance in their studies or average levels of academic performance. One finding that opens up the possibility for further research, however, is that students’ anxiety about communicating in interviews is not reduced.

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  • Monetary exchange with multilateral matching

    Julien, Benoît; King, Ian; Kennes, John (2005-12)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

    This paper analyzes monetary exchange in a search model allowing for multilateral matches to be formed, according to a standard urn-ball process. We consider three physical environments: indivisible goods and money, divisible goods and indivisible money, and divisible goods and money. We compare the results with Kiyotaki and Wright (1993), Trejos and Wright (1995), and Lagos and Wright (2005) respectively. We find that the multilateral matching setting generates very simple and intuitive equilibrium allocations that are similar to those in the other papers, but which have important differences. In particular, surplus maximization can be achieved in this setting, in equilibrium, with a positive money supply. Moreover, with ‡flexible prices and directed search, the first best allocation can be attained through price posting or through auctions with lotteries, but not through auctions without lotteries. Finally, analysis of the case of divisible goods and money can be performed without the assumption of large families (as in Shi(1997)) or the day and night structure of Lagos and Wright (2005).

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  • Framework for intrusion detection inspired by the immune system

    Middlemiss, Melanie (2005-07)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

    The immune system is a complex and distributed system. It provides a multilevel form of defence, capable of identifying and reacting to harmful pathogens that it does not recognise as being part of its “self”. The framework proposed in this paper incorporates a number of immunological principles, including the multilevel defence and the cooperation between cells in the adaptive immune system. It is proposed that this approach could be used to provide a high level of intrusion detection, while minimising the level of false negative detections.

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