98 results for Working or discussion paper, 2005

  • Parental Income and the Choice of Participation in University, Polytechnic or

    Maani, Sholeh (2005)

    Working or discussion paper
    The University of Auckland Library

    This paper examines the link between parental income during adolescent years and higher education choices of the offspring at age 18. This study is the first to use a recent longitudinal data set from New Zealand (Christchurch health and development Surveys, CHDS), in the higher education context. The paper examines the impact of family income and other resources throughout adolescent years on later decisions to participate in higher education and the choice of type of tertiary education at age 18. A binary choice model of participation in education, and a multinomial choice model of the broader set of choices faced at age 18, of employment, university, or polytechnic participation are estimated. Among the features of the study are that it incorporates a number of variables, from birth to age 18, which allow us to control further than most earlier studies for ability heterogeneity, academic performance in secondary school, in addition to parental resources (e.g., childhood IQ, nationally comparable high school academic performance, peer effects, family size and family financial information over time). The results highlight useful features of intergenerational participation in higher education, and the effect of parental income on university education, in particular.

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  • Academic Performance, Parental Income, and the Choice to Leave School at Age Sixteen

    Maani, Sholeh; Kalb, Guyonne (2005)

    Working or discussion paper
    The University of Auckland Library

    A general international observation is that adolescents from disadvantaged families are more likely to leave school at age 16. In this paper we extend the literature on school-leaving decisions by using a new and extensive panel data set from New Zealand; and by examining the effect of family income, and personal and environmental characteristics since childhood on both academic performance and subsequent schooling choices. Results obtained from single equations and joint estimation, allowing for possible endogeneity of academic performance, reveal the importance of the role of academic performance in models of demand for education. Several factors that are at work for a long time, such as household income at different points in time, influence the schoolleaving decision through academic performance. These results point to the role that stimulating academic performance may play in breaking cycles of disadvantage.

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  • An ecological study of Chinese privet (Ligustrum sinense Lour.) in the Waikato Region

    Grove, E.; Clarkson, Bruce D. (2005)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Waikato

    Chinese privet (Ligustrum sinense) has naturalised across the Waikato region invading lowland native forest and wetland habitat. This shrub has the ability to form a dense canopy or subcanopy and appears to exclude other native species from establishing in the understorey. Chinese privet seedlings were found in abundance underneath privet canopy, where they grow slower than when invading a new site yet are able to succeed adult plants and continually occupy a site. Chinese privet seedlings establish readily under intact native canopy but are more prolific in disturbed high light environments. Fruit is produced in abundance and is dispersed by birds particularly beneath perch sites, which limits seed dispersal over open ground. Chinese privet seedlings appear to be palatable to stock, but rapidly out-compete and dominate regenerating native species when grazing pressure is removed. A short-lived seedbank, six months to one year viability, suggests that the removal of adult plants will quickly reduce the number of seedlings establishing. This invasive shrub is a serious weed in south-eastern USA where it is well established and would appear to have similar potential in New Zealand to form vast, dense thickets with very low floristic diversity.

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  • StoneD: A bridge between Greenstone and DSpace

    Witten, Ian H.; Bainbridge, David; Tansley, Robert; Huang, Chi-Yu; Don, Katherine J. (2005-04)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Waikato

    Greenstone and DSpace are widely-used software systems for digital libraries, and prospective users sometimes wonder which one to adopt. In fact, the aims of the two are very different, although their domains of application do overlap. This paper describes the systems and identifies their similarities and differences. We also present StoneD, a stone bridge between the production versions of Greenstone and DSpace that allows users of either system to easily migrate to the other, or continue with a combination of both. This bridge eliminates the risk of finding oneself locked in to an inappropriate choice of system. We also discuss other possible opportunities for combining the advantages of the two, to the benefit of the user communities of both systems.

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  • Migration, household composition and child welfare in rural Northeast Thailand

    Cameron, Michael Patrick; Lim, Steven (2005-11)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Waikato

    In many developing countries, the composition of rural households is influenced by the migration of adult household members to urban locations in search of employment. Children may be left in the care of their mother alone, or in the care of grandparents when both parents have migrated. Using representative data from a household survey conducted in rural Northeast Thailand in 2003, this paper investigates whether household composition has any effect on the welfare of children, as measured by anthropometric measurements including height-for-age, weight-for-age, and weight-for-height. Our findings suggest that household types other than nuclear families result in some significantly worse child nutritional outcomes. The implication is that governments should protect the welfare of the children of migrants, either through targeted programs or through increased opportunities for employment in rural areas.

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  • Okun’s law, asymmetries and jobless recoveries in the United States: A Markov-switching approach

    Holmes, Mark J.; Silverstone, Brian (2005-12)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Waikato

    This paper offers a new perspective on Markov regime-switching approaches to asymmetries in Okun’s law by modeling the existing approaches as special cases. Prevailing models assume either asymmetry between unemployment and output across regimes or asymmetry within a single regime. Our specification combines both approaches. Our empirical results give an insight into the apparent ‘jobless recovery’ experiences that began in the United States in 1991 and 2001.

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  • Stepwise refinement of processes

    Reeves, Steve; Streader, David (2005-01-01)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Waikato

    Industry is looking to create a market in reliable "plug-and-play" components. To model components in a modular style it would be useful to combine event-based and state-based reasoning. One of the first steps in building an event-based model is to decide upon a set of atomic actions. This choice will depend on the formalism used, and may restrict in quite unexpected ways what we are able to formalise. In this paper we illustrate some limits to developing real world processes using existing formalisms, and we define a new notion of refinement, vertical refinement, which addresses some of these limitations. We show that using vertical refinement we can rewrite specification into a different formalism, allowing us to move between handshake processes, broadcast processes and abstract data types.

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  • Description and spatial analysis of employment change in New Zealand regions 1986-2001

    Baxendine, Sandra; Cochrane, William; Poot, Jacques (2005-11)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Waikato

    Over the last two decades New Zealand has undergone fundamental economic restructuring, and phases of slow and rapid growth, which have resulted in some dramatic changes in the regional economies. This paper provides a detailed multiperiod shift-share analysis over three intercensal periods between 1986 and 2001 on changes in regional employment outcomes at two levels of spatial disaggregation: 29 Administrative Regions (ARs), based on Regional Council areas, and 58 Labour Market Areas (LMAs) that have economically meaningful (commuting determined) boundaries. The contributions to employment outcomes of national trends, sectoral composition within regions, structural change, and local conditions are identified. A four-category disaggregation of regional employment into sex, age, occupation and industry is also undertaken. The results show a dichotomy between metropolitan and non-metropolitan areas, but also several distinct clusters among the latter. Regional competitive advantage is clearly linked with net inward migration. There is also evidence of significantly positive spatial autocorrelation in the competitive effect. Local indicators of spatial association help to identify regions that stand out in terms of being surrounded by similar regions, or by regions that are just the opposite, in terms of the competitive effect. Interestingly, regional population growth precedes the competitive component of employment growth rather than just being a symptom of it.

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  • Demographic change and transport needs in the Waikato region

    Baxendine, Sandra; Cochrane, William; Poot, Jacques (2005-09)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Waikato

    This report has been commissioned by Environment Waikato (EW) as part of its review of the Land Transport Strategy for the Waikato region. The report identifies key population characteristics that impact on transport needs of the EW region and the constituent Territorial Authority (TA) areas. In this context, vulnerable locations and populations are identified. Future trends for the EW region and sub-regions are assessed by means of low, medium and high population growth scenarios, and the implications of the projected changes in population size and composition for transport needs are identified. A general theme throughout this report is that in many respects demographic change in the Waikato region is not that different from that in New Zealand as a whole, but there are sharp differences between the constituent TA areas. The report covers changes in population size and structure, ethnic structure, the labour force, income, housing tenure and motor vehicle ownership, deprivation and projections of locally generated trips, the number of motor vehicles and travel to work flows. It is noted that a comprehensive assessment of transport need should embed demographic change into an integrated model of economic change in the region, combined with scenarios relating to external factors and policy changes.

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  • The New Zealand population: A synopsis of trends and projections 1991 - 2016

    Baxendine, Sandra; Cochrane, William; Dharmalingam, Arunachalam; Hillcoat-Nallétamby, Sarah; Poot, Jacques (2005-05)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Waikato

    Although there are many excellent documents and online resources available on New Zealand population trends, it is useful to highlight some key trends in one short document. This paper provides a synopsis of trends with respect to population size and age structure, sub-national population size and change, international migration, ethnicity, families and generations, fertility and mortality, and education and work.

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  • Measuring the economic impact of immigration: A scoping paper

    Poot, Jacques; Cochrane, William (2005-02)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Waikato

    This discussion paper has three objectives. Firstly, it provides a brief review of recent international empirical research on the labour market impact of immigration. The synthesis of this literature is facilitated by reference to the results from a recent meta-analysis of the impact of immigration on wages. Secondly, the paper briefly reviews international research on other dimensions of the economic impact of immigration, namely productivity and technical change, trade and international relations, the fiscal impact, socio-economic impacts and externalities, and economy-wide (general equilibrium) effects. The approach adopted in considering each of these impacts is to identify the main issues associated with the particular impact, followed by key international references and, where available, New Zealand references on the particular type of impact. The gaps in NZ research are then identified along with any difficulties with the data available for replicating the international studies in New Zealand. Thirdly, the paper seeks to identify feasible (in terms of data availability) suggestions for further research that would add to our knowledge of the economic impact of immigration in New Zealand.

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  • A new framework for yield curve, output and inflation relationships

    Krippner, Leo (2005-12)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Waikato

    This article develops a theoretically-consistent and easy-to-apply framework for interpreting, investigating, and monitoring the relationships between the yield curve, output, and inflation. The framework predicts that steady-state inflation plus steady-state output growth should be cointegrated with the long-maturity level of the yield curve as estimated by a arbitrage-free version of the Nelson and Siegel (1987) model, while the shape of the yield curve model from that model should correspond to the profile (that is, the timing and magnitude) of expected future inflation and output growth. These predicted relationships are confirmed empirically using 51 years of United States data. The framework may be used for monitoring expectations of inflation and output growth implied by the yield curve. It should also provide a basis for using the yield curve to value and hedge derivatives on macroeconomic data.

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  • Attributing returns and optimising United States swaps portfolios using an intertemporally-consistent and arbitrage-free model of the yield curve

    Krippner, Leo (2005-03)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Waikato

    This paper uses the volatility-adjusted orthonormalised Laguerre polynomial model of the yield curve (the VAO model) from Krippner (2005), an intertemporally-consistent and arbitrage-free version of the popular Nelson and Siegel (1987) model, to develop a multi-dimensional yield-curve-based risk framework for fixed interest portfolios. The VAO model is also used to identify relative value (i.e. potential excess returns) from the universe of securities that define the yield curve. In combination, these risk and return elements provide an intuitive framework for attributing portfolio returns ex-post, and for optimising portfolios ex-ante. The empirical applications are to six years of daily United States interest rate swap data. The first application shows that the main sources of fixed interest portfolio risk (i.e. unanticipated variability in ex-post returns) are first-order (‘duration’) effects from stochastic shifts in the level and shape of the yield curve; second-order (‘convexity’) effects and other contributions are immaterial. The second application shows that fixed interest portfolios optimised ex-ante using the VAO model risk/relative framework significantly outperform a naive evenly-weighted benchmark over time.

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  • Investigating the relationships between the yield curve, output and inflation using an arbitrage-free version of the Nelson and Siegel class of yield curve models

    Krippner, Leo (2005-02)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Waikato

    This article provides a theoretical economic foundation for the popular Nelson and Siegel (1987) class of yield curve models (which has been absent up to now). This foundation also offers a new framework for investigating and interpreting the relationships between the yield curve, output and inflation that have already been well-established empirically in the literature. Specifically, the level of the yield curve as measured by the VAO model is predicted to have a cointegrating relationship with inflation, and the shape of the yield curve as measured by the VAO model is predicted to correspond to the profile (that is, timing and magnitude) of future changes in the output gap (that is, output growth less the growth in potential output). These relationships are confirmed in the empirical analysis on 50 years of United States data.

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  • An intertemporally-consistent and arbitrage-free version of the Nelson and Siegel class of yield curve models

    Krippner, Leo (2005-02)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Waikato

    This article derives a generic, intertemporally-consistent, and arbitrage-free version of the popular class of yield curve models originally introduced by Nelson and Siegel (1987). The derived model has a theoretical foundation (conferred via the Heath, Jarrow and Morton (1992) framework) that allows it to be used in applications that involve an implicit or explicit time-series context. As an example of the potentialapplication of the model, the intertemporal consistency is exploited to derive a theoretical time-series process that may be used to forecast the yield curve. The empirical application of the forecasting framework to United States data results in out-of-sample forecasts that outperform the random walk over a sample period of almost 50 years, for forecast horizons ranging from six months to three years.

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  • Whistleblowing: The advantages of self-regulation

    Bather, Andrea; Kelly, Martin (2005-09)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Waikato

    Although whistleblowers are often portrayed as courageous individuals worthy of respect, the act of whistleblowing can be viewed as a disloyal act which may bring much harm to the whistleblower’s colleagues. We argue that although some whistleblowers have provided a great service to society, the world would be best served if the need for external whistleblowing were to be obviated by appropriate management practices.

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  • A new approach to course revision: Applying critical questions and a philosophical framework to a revision of 71254 Electronic Commerce.

    Natanasabapathy, P. (2005)

    Working or discussion paper
    Open Polytechnic

    This study investigates how 71254 Electronic Commerce fits in with Susan Toohey's (1999) framework of philosophical approaches and the fundamental aspects of course design. It analyses the influence of various factors on the design and delivery of the course and discusses the groundwork carried out as part of the revision for this course at The Open Polytechnic Of New Zealand. The study has enabled the author to take a holistic and systematic approach to course revision through gaining a deeper understanding of the course from a course design perspective. The knowledge gained has enabled the author to make rational strategic decisions about course enhancements, as opposed to doing ad-hoc updates that may not have enhanced student learning. Furthermore, this approach was useful for an understanding of the course's position within the institution's programmes and industry requirements, and it helped to justify the reasons for the course revision changes. While this study focuses on electronic commerce, this approach can be applied to the revision of any course and aspects of this approach could improve the course revision process.

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  • Turing's test, Searle's Chinese room argument, and thinking machines.

    Jackson, P. (2005)

    Working or discussion paper
    Open Polytechnic

    This paper deals with the debate on artificial intelligence (AI) thinking machines. In particular, it asks the question, 'Do AI machines think as we humans do?' The main thrust of this paper is philosophical and does not directly deal with technological platforms for AI. After a brief history of AI, there follows a discussion on the work of Alan Turing, in particular that on his logical computing machine (LCM), his thesis (also Church's), his paper in Mind, covering the 'Imitation Game', and the Turing test, which arose out of it. Turing is seen as the founder of the strong AI hypothesis (machines can think). The work of John Searle is then covered as it relates to this debate. Under particular discussion are Searle's Chinese Room experiment (CRE) and the Chinese Room argument (CRA) that arose from it, in which he attempts to refute the strong AI viewpoint and provide support for his alternative weak AI hypothesis (machines cannot think). The consideration of Searle's work leads to a discussion of issues critical to Searle's view, that of syntax versus semantics, and of intentionality. After a comment on artificial neural networks (ANNs) as a potential technological platform for thinking machines, there follows a discussion on the relationship between AI, thinking and consciousness, in an attempt to clarify what is meant by these terms in relation to the debate addressed here. Finally, a summary is made and tentative conclusions are reached, in which the following views are offered: - The strong AI position is invalid, at least for von Neumann-type machines. However, the weak AI position is valid in so far as such machines can, and currently do, emulate human thinking. - While ANNs provide a potential technological platform for thinking machines, the technology is too nascent as yet. - If truly thinking machines ever do become a reality, their existence will raise a number of challenges, such as our ethical responsibility toward them (as sentient entities) and the threat to us as a species that they might represent.

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  • Public sector performance auditing: Emergence, purpose and meaning

    Nath, Nirmala Devi; Van Peursem, Karen A.; Lowe, Alan (2005-02)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Waikato

    The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the extant Anglo-American literature on 'performance auditing for the public sector', in order to identify the socio-economic and political themes that influenced the emergence of public sector performance auditing. The paper also seeks to develop an understanding of the role and practice of performance auditing in the public sector. Common catalysts for change appear to rest in the influence of the local governmental senior auditor (e.g. Auditor General), the existence of public sector reform and changes in standardisation generally. The traditional role of the public sector auditor has undergone significant change over time. In particular, the scope of the public sector audit now exceeds the expectation that the auditor only check for regulatory and procedural compliance. It is now expected that the auditor enhance accountability in the management of public sector resources. The perceived objectives of performance auditing (economy, efficiency and effectiveness) emerge as a strong theme, one which seems to comply with these more modern expectations of performance.

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  • The interface between financial accounting and tax accounting: A summary of current research

    Alley, Clinton; James, Simon (2005-12)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Waikato

    Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP) and the more recent International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) form the basis of the accounting transactions and reports used in taxation accounting. However this has always been an uneasy relationship. One apparent factor contributing to this is that these two accounting processes serve different purposes. The aim of this study is to research international literature and experience to gain an insight into the basis and form of this divergence.

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