70 results for Working or discussion paper, 2007

  • Deinstitutionalization of Gender-Biased Employment Practices in New Zealand's Accountancy Workplaces

    Whiting, Rosalind H (2007-05)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

    Oliver (1992)'s model of deinstitutionalization was used to explore the changes in gender-biased employment practices that have occurred in New Zealand accountancy workplaces over the last twenty years. Evidence was gathered from interviews in 2002 with 69 experienced Chartered Accountants and 3 Human Resource Managers, and in 2006 from 9 young female accountants. Evidence of political. functional and social pressures contributing to deinstitutionalization was present, with social and legislative changes being the most influential. It is suggested that some more subtle gender-biased practices still remain in New Zealand's accountancy workplaces. These relate particularly to senior-level positions.

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  • Deinstitutionalization of Gender-Biased Employment Practices in New Zealand's Accountancy Workplaces

    Whiting, Rosalind H (2007-05)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

    Oliver (1992)'s model of deinstitutionalization was used to explore the changes in gender-biased employment practices that have occurred in New Zealand accountancy workplaces over the last twenty years. Evidence was gathered from interviews in 2002 with 69 experienced Chartered Accountants and 3 Human Resource Managers, and in 2006 from 9 young female accountants. Evidence of political. functional and social pressures contributing to deinstitutionalization was present, with social and legislative changes being the most influential. It is suggested that some more subtle gender-biased practices still remain in New Zealand's accountancy workplaces. These relate particularly to senior-level positions.

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  • Survey Trust, Experimental Trust and ROSCA Membership in Rural Cameroon

    Etang, Alvin; Fielding, David; Knowles, Stephen (2007-11-01)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

    Broadly speaking, economic experiments and surveys have found trust to be much lower in Africa than in industrialized countries. We analyze new experimental and survey results from rural Cameroon, where the average level of trust appears to be much higher than is typical of Africa. A substantial part of this difference can be explained by the prevalence of Rotating Saving and Credit Associations (ROSCAs) in the area: membership of a common ROSCA is one of the most important factors determining experimental behavior. Correspondingly, responses to the survey questions indicate that villagers have a high degree of trust in people with whom they interact regularly, though not in people in general. There is a significant correlation between the degree of trust exhibited in the game and the degree of trust declared in response to survey questions. However, survey responses do not capture all of the systematic variation in experimental behavior, and understate the importance of ROSCA membership in predicting someone’s propensity to trust others.

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  • Linear or Nonlinear Cointegration in the Purchasing Power Parity Relationship?

    Haug, Alfred A.; Basher, Syed Abul (2007-08-01)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

    We test long-run PPP within a general model of cointegration of linear and nonlinear form. Nonlinear cointegration is tested with rank tests of Breitung (2001). We determine first the order of integration of each variable, using monthly data from the post-Bretton Woods era for G-10 countries. In many cases prices are I(2), whereas all exchange rates are I(1). However, there are several countries that have a price level that linearly cointegrates with the US price level so that this combination is I(1). Overall, we find some, though limited, evidence for nonlinear and also linear cointegration in the PPP model.

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  • Local linear impulse responses for a small open economy

    Smith, Christie; Haug, Alfred A. (2007-04)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

    JEL Classification: C51, E52, F41

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  • Verifying social expectations by model checking truncated paths

    Cranefield, Stephen; Winikoff, Michael (2007-12)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

    One approach to moderating the behaviour of agents in open societies is the use of explicit languages for defining norms, conditional commitments and/or social expectations, together with infrastructure supporting conformance checking and the identification and possible punishment of anti-social agents. This paper presents a logical account of the creation, fulfilment and violation of social expectations modelled as conditional rules over a hybrid propositional temporal logic. The semantics are designed to allow model checking over finite histories to be used to check for fulfilment and violation of expectations in both online and offline modes. For online checking, expectations are always considered at the last state in the history, but in the offline mode expectations in previous states are also checked. At each past state, the then active expectations must be checked for fulfilment without recourse to information from later states: the truth of a future-oriented temporal proposition φ at state s over the full history does not imply the fulfilment at s of an expectation with content φ. This issue is addressed by defining fulfilment and violation in terms of an extension of Eisner et al.’s weak/strong semantics for LTL over truncated paths. The update of expectations from one state to the next is based on formula progression and the approach has been implemented by extending the MCLITE and MCFULL algorithms of the Hybrid Logic Model Checker.

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  • Substitutability and protectionism: Latin America’s trade policy and imports from China and India

    Facchini, Giovanni; Olarreaga, Marcelo; Silva, Peri; Willmann, Gerald (2007-04)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

    This paper examines the trade policy response of Latin American governments to the rapid growth of China and India in world markets. To explain higher protection in sectors where a large share is imported from these countries, we extend the ‘protection for sale’ model to allow for different degrees of substitutability between domestically produced and imported varieties. The extension suggests that higher levels of protection towards Chinese goods can be explained by high substitutability between domestically produced goods and Chinese goods, whereas lower levels of protection towards goods imported from India can be explained by low substitutability with domestically produced goods. The data supports the extension to the ‘protection for sale’ model, which performs better than the original specification in terms of explaining Latin America’s structure of protection.

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  • Measuring aid effectively in tests of aid effectiveness

    Fielding, David; Knowles, Stephen (2007-03)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

    In the extensive empirical literature on aid effectiveness, aid is always measured as a share of GDP. However, measuring aid in real dollars per capita is also consistent with standard growth theory. We show that the choice of denominator makes an enormous difference to the sign and significance of coefficients on aid variables in crosscountry panel growth regressions. Our aim is to redirect attention towards the theoretical foundations of the growth literature.

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  • How do norms emerge in multi-agent societies? Mechanisms design

    Savarimuthu, Bastin Tony Roy; Cranefield, Stephen; Purvis, Martin; Purvis, Maryam A. (2007-02)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

    Norms are shared expectations of behaviours that exist in human societies. Norms help societies by increasing the predictability of individual behaviours and by improving co-operation and collaboration among members. Norms have been of interest to multi-agent system researchers as software agents intend to follow certain norms. But, owing to their autonomy, agents sometimes violate norms which needs monitoring. There are two main branches of research in normative agent systems. One of the branches focuses on normative agent architectures, norm representations, norm adherence and the associated punitive or incentive measures. The other branch focuses on two main issues. The first issue is on the study of spreading and internalization of norms. The second issue that has not received much attention is the emergence of norms in agent societies. Our objective in this paper is to propose mechanisms for norm emergence in artificial agent societies and provide initial experimental results.

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  • Role model based mechanism for norm emergence in artificial agent societies

    Savarimuthu, Bastin Tony Roy; Cranefield, Stephen; Purvis, Martin; Purvis, Maryam A. (2007-07)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

    A revised version of this paper appears in the Proceedings of the AAMAS'07 Workshop on Coordination, Organization, Institutions and Norms in Agent Systems (COIN), Honolulu, Hawaii, USA, 14th May, pp. 1-12. See http://www.ia.urjc.es/COIN2007/ for further details.

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  • Economic integration and the choice of commodity tax base with endogenous market structures

    McCracken, Scott; Stähler, Frank (2007-02)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

    This paper analyzes the choice of commodity tax base when countries set their taxes non-cooperatively in a two-country symmetric reciprocal dumping model of intra-industry trade with free entry and trade costs. We show that the consumption base (destination principle) dominates the production base (origin principle) when trade costs are high or demand is linear. For lower levels of trade costs and nonlinear demand, the welfare ranking of the two tax bases is ambiguous. Hence, there is no clear preference for a tax principle with an ongoing movement towards closer economic Integration. JEL-Classification: F12, H20.

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  • Social collaboration, stochastic strategies and information referrals

    Nowostawski, Mariusz; Foukia, Noria (2007-08)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

    Referrals are used in multi-agent systems, network agents and peer-to-peer systems for the purpose of global or local information spreading to facilitate trust relationships and reciprocal interactions. Based on referral local interactions can be altered with a purpose to maximise the utility function of each of the participants, which in many cases requires mutual co-operation of participants. The referral system is often based on the global detailed or statistical behaviour of the overall society. Traditionally, referrals are collected by referring agents and the information is provided upon request to individuals. In this article, we provide a simple taxonomy of referral systems and on that basis we discuss three distinct ways information can be collected and aggregated. We analyse the effects of global vs. local information spreading, in terms of individual and global performance of a population based on the maximisation of a utility function of each of the agents. Our studies show that under certain conditions such as large number of non uniformly acting autonomous agents the spread of global information is undesirable. Collecting and providing local information only yields better overall results. In some experimental setups however, it might be necessary for global information to be available otherwise global stable optimal behaviour cannot be achieved. We analyse both of these extreme cases based on simple game-theoretic setup. We analyse and relate our results in the context of e-mail relying and spam filtering.

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  • A study on feature analysis for musical instrument classification

    Deng, Da; Simmermacher, Christian; Cranefield, Stephen (2007-08)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

    In tackling data mining and pattern recognition tasks, finding a compact but effective set of features has often been found to be a crucial step in the overall problem-solving process. In this paper we present an empirical study on feature analysis for classical instrument recognition, using machine learning techniques to select and evaluate features extracted from a number of different feature schemes. It is revealed that there is significant redundancy between and within feature schemes commonly used in practice. Our results suggest that further feature analysis research is necessary in order to optimize feature selection and achieve better results for the instrument recognition problem.

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  • Building privacy infrastructure for culturally sensitive information of New Zealand Maori

    Deng, Xianglin; Foukia, Noria; Savarimuthu, Bastin Tony Roy (2007-07)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

    This paper proposes to design a mechanism that will allow Maori users to specify their privacy preferences related to their culture when a software system asks for culturally sensitive information. We first identify various concepts associated with sensitive aspects of Maori culture, such as tapu. We propose to build an ontology that describes these concepts and the relations between them in a formal way. This ontology will help service providers integrate Maori cultural protocols in order to make Maori users more confident about the use of the sensitive information related to their culture.

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  • The effects of trade liberalization on productivity and welfare: The role of firm heterogeneity, R&D and market structure

    Raff, Horst; Stähler, Frank; Long, Ngo Van (2007-06)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

    This paper develops an oligopolistic model of international trade with heterogeneous firms and endogenous R&D to examine how trade liberalization affects firm and industry productivity, as well as social welfare. We identify four effects of trade liberalization on productivity: (i) a direct effect through changes in R&D investment; (ii) a scale effect due to changes in firm size; (iii) a selection effect due to inefficient firms leaving the market; and (iv) a market-share reallocation effect as efficient firms expand and inefficient firms reduce their output. We show how these effects operate in the short run when market structure is fixed, and in the long run when market structure is endogenous. Among the robust results that hold for any market structure are that trade liberalization (i) increases (decreases) aggregate R&D for low (high) trade costs; (ii) increases expected firm size if trade costs are high; and (iii) raises expected social welfare if trade costs are low. JEL classification: F12, F15

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  • Using trust for key distribution and route selection in wireless sensor networks

    Lewis, Nathan D; Foukia, Noria; Govan, Donovan G (2007-09)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

    Submitted to IEEE/IFIP Network Operations and Management Symposium (NOMS 2008).

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  • A two-stage double-bootstrap data envelopment analysis of efficiency differences of New Zealand secondary schools

    Alexander, W Robert J; Jaforullah, Mohammad; Haug, Alfred A. (2007-11-01)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

    We conduct a two-stage (DEA and regression) analysis of the efficiency of New Zealand secondary schools. Unlike previous applications of two-stage semi-parametric modelling of the school “production process”, we use Simar and Wilson’s double bootstrap procedure, which permits valid inference in the presence of unknown serial correlation in the efficiency scores. We are therefore able to draw robust conclusions about a system that has undergone extensive reforms with respect to ideas high on the educational agenda such as decentralised school management and parental choice. Most importantly, we find that school type affects school efficiency and so too does teacher quality.

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  • Regional asymmetries in the impact of monetary policy shocks on prices: Evidence from US cities

    Fielding, David; Shields, Kalvinder (2007-02)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

    JEL Classification: E31, E52, R19

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  • The concept of autonomy in distributed computation and multi-agent systems

    Nowostawski, Mariusz; Purvis, Martin (2007-08)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

    The concept of autonomy is a central concept in distributed computational systems and in multi-agent systems in particular. With diverse implications in philosophy and despite frequent use in social sciences and the theory of computation, autonomy remains somewhat a vague notion. Most researchers do not discuss the details of this concept, but rather assume a general, common-sense understanding of autonomy in the context of computational multi-agent systems. We will review the existing definitions and formalisms related to the notion of autonomy. We re-introduce two concepts: relative autonomy and absolute autonomy. We argue that even though the concept of absolute autonomy does not make sense in computational settings, it is useful if treated as an assumed property of computational units. For example, the concept of autonomous agents may facilitate more flexible and robust abstract architectures. We adopt and discuss a new formalism based on results from the study of massively parallel multi-agent systems in the context of evolvable virtual machines. We also present the architecture for building such architectures based on our multi-agent system KEA, where we use the extended notion of dynamic linking. We augment our work with theoretical results from cham algebra for concurrent and asynchronous information processing systems. We argue that for open distributed systems, entities must be connected by multiple computational dependencies and a system as a whole must be subjected to influence from external sources. However, the exact linkages are not directly known to the computational entities themselves. This provides a useful notion and the necessary means to establish an relative autonomy in such systems.

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  • Shifting the ‘goal posts’: What is the optimal allocation of Super Rugby competition points?

    Winchester, Niven (2007-11-01)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

    Competition points are awarded in sports events to determine which participants qualify for the playoffs or to identify the champion. We use competition points to measure strength in a prediction model and choose competition points to maximise prediction accuracy. This allows us to determine the allocation of competition points that most appropriately rewards strong teams. Our analysis focuses on Super Rugby as the characteristics of this competition closely match our modelling assumptions. We find that the current allocation of competition points is not optimal and suggest an alternative. Our findings have implications for other competitions.

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