61 results for Working or discussion paper, 2008

  • The Determinants of Career Success in the New Zealand Accountancy Profession

    Whiting, Rosalind H (2008-03)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

    Sixty-nine experienced New Zealand Chartered Accountants (CAs), displaying varying levels of family/work involvement were interviewed about their careers. The primary finding was that those with the least family responsibilities, irrespective of gender, were the most successful career-wise. Overall career success was enhanced by high career aspirations, long working hours and availability to clients, hard work, high technical competence and skills, networking, self-confidence, flexibility to relocate if required and large size and growth of the employing organisation. Most influential were career aspirations and a long hours/available work ethic, demonstrating the pervasiveness of the male linear career model. Career aspirations, desire for responsibility, perceived ability to handle pressure, long hours, availability to clients, networking and possibly technical skills (in cases of extended leave) were all influenced by the CA’s level of family responsibilities and not just gender alone

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  • Governance regulatory changes, IFRS adoption, and New Zealand audit and non-audit fees: Empirical evidence

    Griffin, Paul A; Lont, David H; Sun, Yuan (2008)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

    This study examines the association between overseas and New Zealand governance regulatory reforms in New Zealand public companies’ audit and non-audit fees. We state audit and non-audit fee models, and use temporal and IFRS indicator variables to relate the timing of the fee changes with the incidence of the overseas and local governance reforms. We find that audit fees increased in New Zealand over 2002-2006. Such increases associate reliably with the transition to and adoption of NZ IFRS and not with the overseas governance reforms in the United States and Australia, enacted earlier. Our results also show a decrease in non-audit fees over the same period but we find no IFRS effect for non-audit fees. JEL Classification: C30, K22, L80, M40, M41.

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  • Governance regulatory changes, IFRS adoption, and New Zealand audit and non-audit fees: Empirical evidence

    Griffin, Paul A; Lont, David H; Sun, Yuan (2008-12-31)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

    This study examines the association between overseas and New Zealand governance regulatory reforms in New Zealand public companies’ audit and non-audit fees. We state audit and non-audit fee models, and use temporal and IFRS indicator variables to relate the timing of the fee changes with the incidence of the overseas and local governance reforms. We find that audit fees increased in New Zealand over 2002-2006. Such increases associate reliably with the transition to and adoption of NZ IFRS and not with the overseas governance reforms in the United States and Australia, enacted earlier. Our results also show a decrease in non-audit fees over the same period but we find no IFRS effect for non-audit fees. JEL Classification: C30, K22, L80, M40, M41.

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  • Health Aid and Governance in Developing Countries

    Fielding, David (2008-11-01)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

    Despite anecdotal evidence that the quality of governance in recipient countries affects the allocation of international health aid, there is no quantitative evidence on the magnitude of this effect, or on which dimensions of governance influence donor decisions. We measure health aid flows over 2001-2005 for 87 aid recipients, matching aid data with measures of different dimensions of governance and a range of country-specific economic and health characteristics. Both corruption and political rights, but not civil rights, have a significant impact on aid. The sensitivity of aid to corruption might be explained by a perception that poor institutions make health aid inefficient. However, even when we allow for variations in the level of corruption, political rights still have a significant impact on aid allocation. This suggests that health aid is sometimes used as an incentive to reward political reforms, even though (as we find) such aid is not fungibile.

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  • The Determinants of Career Success in the New Zealand Accountancy Profession

    Whiting, Rosalind H (2008-03)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

    Sixty-nine experienced New Zealand Chartered Accountants (CAs), displaying varying levels of family/work involvement were interviewed about their careers. The primary finding was that those with the least family responsibilities, irrespective of gender, were the most successful career-wise. Overall career success was enhanced by high career aspirations, long working hours and availability to clients, hard work, high technical competence and skills, networking, self-confidence, flexibility to relocate if required and large size and growth of the employing organisation. Most influential were career aspirations and a long hours/available work ethic, demonstrating the pervasiveness of the male linear career model. Career aspirations, desire for responsibility, perceived ability to handle pressure, long hours, availability to clients, networking and possibly technical skills (in cases of extended leave) were all influenced by the CA’s level of family responsibilities and not just gender alone

    View record details
  • Governance regulatory changes, IFRS adoption, and New Zealand audit and non-audit fees: Empirical evidence

    Griffin, Paul A; Lont, David H; Sun, Yuan (2008)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

    This study examines the association between overseas and New Zealand governance regulatory reforms in New Zealand public companies’ audit and non-audit fees. We state audit and non-audit fee models, and use temporal and IFRS indicator variables to relate the timing of the fee changes with the incidence of the overseas and local governance reforms. We find that audit fees increased in New Zealand over 2002-2006. Such increases associate reliably with the transition to and adoption of NZ IFRS and not with the overseas governance reforms in the United States and Australia, enacted earlier. Our results also show a decrease in non-audit fees over the same period but we find no IFRS effect for non-audit fees. JEL Classification: C30, K22, L80, M40, M41.

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  • Governance regulatory changes, IFRS adoption, and New Zealand audit and non-audit fees: Empirical evidence

    Griffin, Paul A; Lont, David H; Sun, Yuan (2008)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

    This study examines the association between overseas and New Zealand governance regulatory reforms in New Zealand public companies’ audit and non-audit fees. We state audit and non-audit fee models, and use temporal and IFRS indicator variables to relate the timing of the fee changes with the incidence of the overseas and local governance reforms. We find that audit fees increased in New Zealand over 2002-2006. Such increases associate reliably with the transition to and adoption of NZ IFRS and not with the overseas governance reforms in the United States and Australia, enacted earlier. Our results also show a decrease in non-audit fees over the same period but we find no IFRS effect for non-audit fees. JEL Classification: C30, K22, L80, M40, M41.

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  • Vector opinion dynamics: An extended model for consensus in social networks

    Alaali, Alya; Savarimuthu, Bastin Tony Roy; Purvis, Maryam A. (2008-10)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

    Most people hold a variety of opinions on different topics ranging from sports, entertainment, spiritual beliefs to moral principles. These can be based on a personal reflection and evaluation or on their interactions with others. How do we influence others in our social network and how do they influence us and how do we reach consensus? In this paper, we present our investigations based on the use of multiple opinions (a vector of opinions) that should be considered to determine consensus in a society. We have extended Deffuant model and have tested our model on top of two well-known network topologies the Barabasi-Albert network and the Erdos-Renyi network. We have implemented a two phase filtering process determining the consensus.

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  • Modelling the Effects of Socio-Economic Characteristics on Survey Trust: Empirical Evidence from Cameroon

    Etang, Alvin (2008-10)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

    A large number of studies have used both an economic experiment and surveys to measure trust. There is some evidence in the literature on how behaviour in the experiment is related to socio-economic characteristics (for example, age, gender, income levels, educational attainment, marital status and group memberships). However, the relationship between survey trust and such characteristics has not been explored in the current literature. This paper explores this relationship. Generally, the extent of trust declines as the radius of trust widens, suggesting that social distance is important. The results show some evidence that survey trust is correlated with socioeconomic characteristics. However, the correlates of context-specific and non-context specific trust are different. The number of years lived in the village is the key determinant of non-context specific trust. ROSCA membership is important for noncontext specific trust in fellow ROSCA members only. Age and marital status are significantly negatively correlated with non-context specific trust in other village members. Income is what really matters for context-specific trust; however, years lived in the village and whether someone has ever lived in an urban area are also correlated with trust in fellow villagers.

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  • Is there a dirty little secret? Non-tariff barriers and the gains from trade

    Winchester, Niven (2008-01-01)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

    We estimate tariff equivalents (TEs) of non-tariff barriers (NTBs) using a series of gravity equations. Our analysis focuses on New Zealand, a nation that has a comprehensive free trade agreement (with Australia) that can be used to benchmark other trade negotiations. We estimate reductions in TEs following trade negotiations as differences between New Zealand-Australia TEs and those applying to trade between New Zealand and other nations. Simulating reductions in tariffs and NTBs in a computable general equilibrium (CGE) model indicates that gains from trade liberalisation are much larger when tariffs and NTBs are consider than when only tariffs are reduced

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  • Report of Otago contributions to Telecom LifeLink Project

    Lewis, Nathan D; Situ, Hailing; Middlemiss, Melanie (2008-07)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

    Gartner has for some time been reporting the potential for virtual world technology to become the next wave of the Internet, delivering what is known as the Web3.D environment. This is characterised by a high level of user participation through immersion in the virtual world. Gartner has predicted that by 2011, 80% of internet users will be regular users of Web3.D technology. Project LifeLink was initiated to discover what opportunities for Telecom might exist in the growth of business and consumer interest in virtual worlds. This has focused on a number of technologies, in particular Second Life, OpenSimulator (OpenSIM) and JAIN SLEE. The project has been run by Telecom with coordination and support from MediaLab, and with researchers at Canterbury and Otago Universities. This report describes the work undertaken at Otago University to implement a gateway to enable demonstration of communications between an object in Second Life and the JAIN SLEE environment in order to interoperate with external network services.

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  • Inflation Volatility and Economic Development: Evidence from Nigeria

    Fielding, David (2008)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

    We use monthly time-series data on the prices of 96 individual products in the 37 states of Nigeria to analyze the factors that drive inflation volatility. Among the significant determinants of volatility are average inflation rates, transport and communication infrastructure, consumer access to credit markets and urbanization. However, there is substantial heterogeneity across products in the relative importance of these factors.

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  • Estimating quarterly GDP Data for the South Pacific Island Nations

    Lahari, Willie; Haug, Alfred A.; Garces-Ozanne, Arlene (2008-05-01)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

    Time series analyses generally rely on having a relatively high frequency of consistent and reliable data to work with. However for many of the South Pacific Island Nations (SPINS), data on major macroeconomic series, like GDP, are typically available only annually from the early 1980s. This paper empirically estimates quarterly GDP data from annual series using the approach of Abeysinghe and Rajaguru (2004), following the basic framework of Chow and Lin (1971), Fernandez (1981) and Litterman (1983). We link the available annual GDP series for a select group of SPINS with GDP-related series (predictor variables) that are available quarterly. We deem that our quarterly estimates of GDP are more consistent and reliable compared to estimates obtained through less sophisticated methods of univariate interpolation.

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  • Partner selection mechanisms for agent cooperation

    Ebadi, Toktam; Purvis, Martin; Purvis, Maryam A. (2008-10)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

    In a multi-agent system, a single agent may not be capable of completing complex tasks. Therefore agents are required to form a team to fulfill the task requirements. In this paper an agent model is introduced that facilitates cooperation among agents. A multi-threaded multi-agent simulation framework is designed to test the model. The experimental results demonstrate that the model is significantly useful in achieving cooperation under various environmental constraints. It also allows agents to adjust their teammate selection strategies according to environmental constraints.

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  • A Contest Model of Liberalizing Government Procurements

    Long, Ngo Van; Stähler, Frank (2008-01-01)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

    This paper models government procurements as a contest among domestic firms, and – in case of liberalization – domestic and foreign firms. Liberalizing procurements reduces wasteful domestic lobbying but also increases the likelihood that a foreign firm will capture the rent. We show that the domestic welfare change is not monotonic in the foreign firms' abilities. Domestic welfare increases only if the gross surplus generated by foreign firms is sufficiently large. Furthermore, we show that, from the global welfare point of view, domestically optimal liberalization policies can be either excessive or too restrictive.

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  • Dairy disaggregation and joint production in an economy-wide model

    Charteris, Angus; Winchester, Niven (2008-11-01)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

    We examine the impact of dairy disaggregation and joint production on trade liberalisation outcomes in an economy-wide model. Depending on parameterisation, our model includes either (a) a single dairy commodity, (b) several dairy commodities without joint production, or (c) several dairy commodities with joint production. In a numerical application, we consider the removal of US tariffs on dairy exports from New Zealand (the world’s largest dairy exporter). We show that failing to account for joint production when dairy commodities are disaggregated leads to misleading results. Our preferred dairy production function differs from those used in other applied trade models.

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  • On the testability of BDI agent systems

    Winikoff, Michael; Cranefield, Stephen (2008-11)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

    Before deploying a software system we need to assure ourselves (and stake-holders) that the system will behave correctly. This assurance is usually done by testing the system. However, it is intuitively obvious that adaptive systems, including agent-based systems, can exhibit complex behaviour, and are thus harder to test. In this paper we examine this “obvious intuition” in the case of Belief-Desire-Intention (BDI) agents. We analyse the size of the behaviour space of BDI agents and show that although the intuition is correct, the factors that influence the size are not what we expected them to be; specifically, we found that the introduction of failure handling had a much larger effect on the size of the behaviour space than we expected. We also discuss the implications of these findings on the testability of BDI agents.

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  • Food miles: Starving the poor?

    Ballingall, John; Winchester, Niven (2008-12-01)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

    Food miles measure the distance food travels to reach consumers’ plates. Although substituting local food for imported produce will not necessarily reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, the food miles movement is widely supported by consumers and import-competing producers. We investigate the economic implications of food miles-induced preference changes in Europe using an economy-wide model. We observe large welfare losses for several Sub-Saharan African nations. We conclude that food miles campaigns will increase global inequality without necessarily improving environmental outcomes.

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  • The Union Threat Effect in Construction: An Illustration with Data from Plumber and Pipefitter Union Locals

    Duncan, Kevin; Philips, Peter; Prus, Mark (2008-05-01)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

    Data from plumbing and pipefitting union locals are used to measure the effect of union organizing strength on the wages of high-skilled and semi-skilled nonunion workers. We find that increases in union strength are associated with higher wages for nonunion journeymen. However, the wages of lower skilled, nonunion journeymen helpers are not related to our measures of union recruitment power. These results are consistent with the organizing tactic of labor stripping where skilled nonunion workers are convinced to leave their nonunion employers and join the union. Greater union strength is not associated with higher wages for union journeymen. Rather, these workers derive increased employment opportunities where the union is strong. Our results suggest that the union threat effect is different in the construction industry where unions develop unique strategies due to the nature of the industry.

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  • The determinants of international students' return intention

    Soon, Jan-Jan (2008-07-01)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

    Students’ non-return is a specific type of brain drain. This paper is an empirical study of the determinants of students’ return intention in New Zealand. Applying a binary logit model on a comprehensive set of survey data, this study finds that initial intention prior to leaving for abroad is the most important factor determining whether or not a student intends to return home after completing his tertiary education. Students’ perceptions on comparative aspects of the home and host country, such as wage competitiveness, working environment, opportunities for knowledge application and lifestyle, also contribute significantly to return intention.

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