88 results for Working or discussion paper, 2011

  • EntryMode Strategies and Performance of Japanese MNCs in Australia and New Zealand: the Role of Japanese Employees

    Kumarasinghe, Sriya (2011-04-07)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

    This study investigates different entry modes and staffing practices, and their influence on performance in Japanese subsidiaries in Australia and New Zealand. Company data were derived from the Toyo Keizai data bank of Japanese overseas investments (Kaigai Shinshutsu Kigyou Souran) for the period from 2004 to 2008. The major assumption of this paper is that Japanese MNCs use their staffing policies as a means of exerting more influence over the entry mode strategy by having more control over the business operations in the host country. The study reveals significant differences in Japanese subsidiaries between the two countries. A relationship between performance and the variables of industry and employing Japanese expatriates was found for Australia.

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  • Organisational Effectiveness: Debates behind measurement issues in the Public Health Sector

    Wynn-Williams, Kate (2011-04-07)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

    This paper presents a discussion and exploration of influences into the development of performance measurements in the public sector. Such measures are subject to individual (rational decision-makers), managerial (goal congruent) and organisational (political philosophy) variations A case study (PHARMAC) is used by way of example to describe one organisation’s response to the complex relationships that exist within the public health sector. However, this paper does not attempt to describe or prescribe how public sector entities should behave. Rather, it is hoped to enable those responsible for developing public sector performance measures through an informed presentation of the influences on such actions.

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  • Organisational Effectiveness: Debates behind measurement issues in the Public Health Sector

    Wynn-Williams, Kate (2011-04-07)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

    This paper presents a discussion and exploration of influences into the development of performance measurements in the public sector. Such measures are subject to individual (rational decision-makers), managerial (goal congruent) and organisational (political philosophy) variations A case study (PHARMAC) is used by way of example to describe one organisation’s response to the complex relationships that exist within the public health sector. However, this paper does not attempt to describe or prescribe how public sector entities should behave. Rather, it is hoped to enable those responsible for developing public sector performance measures through an informed presentation of the influences on such actions.

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  • The Dynamics of Aid and Political Rights

    Fielding, David (2011-04)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

    Several existing papers explore the extent to which the cross-country variation in measures of democracy and political rights can be explained by the cross-country variation in foreign aid inflows. Using panel data, we explore the extent to which the variation over time in such measures can be explained by changes in aid inflows, thus providing direct evidence on the impact of innovations in donor policy, and distinguishing between the short-run and long-run effects of changes in aid. Our results are very different from those based on cross-country variation in aid inflows. We find evidence of large differences between the effect of aggregate aid and the effect of aid for political reform, and between the effects in countries at different stages of political development. There is no evidence that aid intended for political reform has achieved its objective, and in some countries it may be counter-productive. However, aggregate aid can have a beneficial effect on political rights.

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  • Norm learning in multi-agent societies

    Savarimuthu, Bastin Tony Roy (2011-05)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

    In Normative Multi-Agent Systems (NorMAS), researchers have investigated several mechanisms for agents to learn norms. In the context of agents learning norms, the objectives of the paper are three-fold. First, this paper aims at providing an overview of different mechanisms employed by researchers for norm learning. Second, it discusses the contributions of different mechanisms to the three aspects of active learning namely learning by doing, observing and com- municating. Third, it compares two normative architectures which have an emphasis on the learning of norms. It also discusses the features that should be considered in future norm learning architectures.

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  • Extracting data from Second Life

    Ranathunga, Surangika; Cranefield, Stephen; Purvis, Martin (2011-07-29)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

    Second Life is a multi-purpose online virtual world that is increasingly being used for applications and simulations in diversified areas such as education, training, entertainment, and even for applications related to Artificial Intelligence. For the successful implementation and analysis of most of these applications, it is important to have a robust mechanism to extract low-level data from Second Life in high frequency and high accuracy. However, currently Second Life does not have a reliable or scalable inbuilt data extraction mechanism, nor the related research provides a better alternative. This paper presents a robust and reliable data extraction mechanism from Second Life. We also investigate the currently existing data extraction mechanisms in detail, identifying their limitations in extracting data with high accuracy and high frequency.

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  • Contextual information retrieval in research articles: Semantic publishing tools for the research community

    Angrosh, M.A.; Cranefield, Stephen; Stanger, Nigel (2011-07-25)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

    Over the last few years, the voluminous increase in the academic research publications has gained significant research attention. Research has been carried out exploring novel ways of providing information services using the research content. However, the task of extracting meaningful information from research documents remains a challenge. This paper presents our research work carried out for developing intelligent information systems, exploiting the research content. We present in this paper, a linked data application which uses a new semantic publishing model for providing value added information services for the research community. The paper presents a conceptual framework for modelling contexts associated with sentences in research articles and discusses the Sentence Context Ontology, which is used to convert the information extracted from research documents into machine-understandable data. The paper also reports on supervised learning experiments carried out using conditional probabilistic models for achieving automatic context identification.

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  • From mirror therapy to augmentation

    Regenbrecht, Holger; Franz, Elizabeth; McGregor, Graham; Dixon, Brian; Hoermann, Simon (2011-08-04)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

    First manuscript version of a paper submitted to Presence: Teleoperators and virtual environments, MIT Press, Cambridge MA, USA.

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  • Bookworms versus Party Animals: An Artificial Labor Market with Human and Social Capital Accumulation

    Farhat, Dan (2011)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

    Data show that educated workers earn higher wages and face lower unemployment rates. Economists believe this is due to improvements in human capital while sociologists believe that social capital (or network formation) developed at school is important. While these may serve as reasons why schooling benefits workers, how education generates these outcomes is often overlooked. This paper builds an agent-based computational model that features human and social capital accumulation, formal schooling and on-the-job training, labor market search and durable contracts to explain how the linkages between educational attainment, labor market outcomes and economic performance are generated. Sample simulations of the artificial market show how human capital can improve outcomes for workers (and the economy as a whole), but imply social capital alone is deficient. In other words, if human capital and social capital compete to explain of the benefits of education, human capital wins.

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  • Are we on the same page? Understanding your research needs: 2010 ITHAKA/Otago Library Survey Report

    Elliot, Gillian (2011-09)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

    The University of Otago academic survey, Are we on the same page? Understanding your research needs: 2010 ITHAKA/Otago Library Survey is unique within New Zealand. Based on the ITHAKA S+R Faculty Survey 2009 (Schonfeld & Housewright, 2010), this local study has enabled the University of Otago Library to gain a better understanding of its own research community’s information requirements, both now and in the near future, within the broader international context. Findings from this study have already informed decision-making within the Library and also the wider University. Following the release of this full report, it is anticipated that further use will be made of the survey findings, including re-analysis of select data at the Divisional level. Importantly, this survey highlights the need for further and on-going library research, at the local and national level, into the increasingly complex and rapidly changing academic research environment. Detailed findings and preliminary observations from the ITHAKA/Otago study are included in the current report. Where appropriate, comparisons have been drawn between the Otago survey and the original ITHAKA Faculty Survey. Summarised findings, observations and recommendations are included below.

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  • Innovation Races with the Possibility of Failure

    Chowdhury, Subhasish M.; Martin, Stephen (2011-08-01)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

    The standard innovation race specification assumes a memoryless exponential distribution for the time to success of an R&D project. This specification implies that a project succeeds, eventually, with probability one. We introduce a positive probability that an R&D project fails. With this modified specification, we compare the non-cooperative and cooperative R&D in terms of innovation effort, consumer surplus, and net social welfare.

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  • Determinants of Relative Price Variability during a Recession: Evidence from Canada at the Time of the Great Depression

    Fielding, David; Hajzler, Chris; MacGee, Jim (2011-08-01)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

    Most studies find that relative price variability (RPV) is a U-shaped or V-shaped function of anticipated inflation, and a V-shaped function of unanticipated inflation. One exception is Reinsdorf (1994), who finds that RPV in the United States during the 1980s recession was monotonically decreasing in unanticipated inflation. We suggest a reason for this difference, and test our conjecture using data from inter-war Canada. Our results indicate that in recessionary conditions a positive inflation shock does reduce RPV. However, this reduction is unlikely to correspond to higher consumer utility; this has implications for the conduct of monetary policy during a recession.

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  • Aid and Dutch Disease in Sub-Saharan Africa

    Fielding, David; Gibson, Fred (2011-08-01)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

    International aid has an ambiguous effect on the macro-economy of the recipient country. To the extent that aid raises consumer expenditure, there will be some real exchange rate appreciation and a shift of resources away from traded goods production and into non-traded goods production. However, aid for investment in the traded goods sector can mitigate this effect. Also, a relatively high level of productivity in the non-traded goods sector combined with a high level of investment will tend to depreciate the real exchange rate. We examine aid inflows in 26 Sub-Saharan African countries, and find a variety of macro-economic responses. Some of the variation in the responses can be explained by variation in observable country characteristics; this has implications for donor policy.

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  • New Zealand: The Last Bastion of Textbook Open-economy Macroeconomics

    Fielding, David (2011-06-01)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

    Recent empirical research into the macroeconomic effects of fiscal policy shocks has generated a ‘puzzle’. Both Keynesian and Real Business Cycle models predict that a fiscal expansion will lead to a real exchange rate appreciation. However, in almost all the countries that have been studied, positive shocks to government spending cause the real exchange rate to depreciate. Recent theoretical work suggests that this unexpected result might reflect incomplete international financial market integration. The country where the incomplete markets assumption is least plausible is New Zealand, because of its integration into the Australian financial system. We show that in New Zealand there is no puzzle, and the standard textbook result still holds. Our counterfactual results are consistent with the argument that the puzzle is to be explained by an absence of complete international financial market integration in most parts of the world.

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  • Who's next? A new process for creating points systems for prioritising patients for elective health services

    Barber, Alison; Hansen, Paul; Naden, Ray; Ombler, Franz; Stewart, Ralph (2011-07-01)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

    We describe a new process for creating points systems for prioritising patients for elective health services. Beginning in 2004, the authors were closely involved in a project to develop the process, initially for coronary artery bypass graft surgery and then successively for other elective services. The project was led by New Zealand’s Ministry of Health in collaboration with the relevant clinical professional organisations. The objective was to overcome the limitations of earlier methodologies and to create points systems that are valid and reproducible and based on a consensus of clinical judgements. As the project progressed and the process was refined, other points systems were successively created (and clinically endorsed) for hip and knee replacements, varicose veins surgery, cataract surgery, gynaecology, plastic surgery, otorhinolaryngology, and heart valve surgery. Other points systems are planned for the future. Since 2008 the process has also been used in the public health systems of Canada’s western provinces. The process is explained in a step-by-step manner so that others are able to follow it to create their own points systems if desired.

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  • Empirical Evidence on Inflation and Unemployment in the Long Run

    Haug, Alfred A; King, Ian P (2011-08-01)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

    We examine the relationship between inflation and unemployment in the long run, using quarterly US data from 1952 to 2010. Using a band-pass filter approach, we find strong evidence that a positive relationship exists, where inflation leads unemployment by some 3 to 3 ½ years, in cycles that last from 8 to 25 or 50 years. Our statistical approach is atheoretical in nature, but provides evidence in accordance with the predictions of Friedman (1977) and the recent New Monetarist model of Berentsen, Menzio, and Wright (2011): the relationship between inflation and unemployment is positive in the long run.

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  • Acquiring Market Flexibility via Niche Portfolios: The Case of Fisher & Paykel WhiteGoods

    Hamlin, Robert Philip; Henry, James; Cuthbert, Ronald (2011)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

    The instability of niche markets, and their predisposition to catastrophic collapse, makes market flexibility a prerequisite for long-term survival among niche marketers. This article describes how a niche marketer can acquire this market flexibility via the development of a portfolio of niches. An in depth discussion of niche instability/ implosion, and how niche market flexibility can be acquired to increase the survivability of such events, provides the context for a single in-depth case study of a company employing a systematic niche market portfolio flexibility approach that allows it to not only survive, but prosper, in the face of such events. Planning for flexibility is essential for long-term survival as a niche marketer. The article has substantial implications for practice, as fragmentation of markets and globalisation of production makes niche marketing desirable/essential for many players.

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  • The impact of US fresh milk production standards on dairy trade

    Owen, P. Dorian; Winchester, Niven (2011-12-01)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

    We analyse the impact of proposed changes in US legislation to allow greater use of dairy concentrate products in the production of fresh milk products. This change could potentially have a large impact on dairy trade as US tariffs on concentrated dairy products are low relative to average dairy tariffs. Our investigation builds a global model that identifies six dairy commodities and includes a detailed specification of the production of fresh milk products. We find that proposed changes in US legislation may lead to large proportional changes in US imports of concentrated milk products from some sources. However, as proposed changes in US regulations will only facilitate a small increase in the use of concentrated milk products in the production of fresh milk products, there are only small changes in global dairy production. We supplement results from our simulation model with a gravity analysis. Our results indicate that trade in concentrated milk products is positively related to aggregate dairy tariffs and negatively related to concentrated milk tariffs. This suggests that large tariffs on some dairy commodities influence the overall pattern of dairy trade.

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  • Learning and Collusion in New Markets with Uncertain Entry Costs

    Bloch, Francis; Fabrizi, Simona; Lippert, Steffen (2011-11-01)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

    This paper analyses an entry timing game with uncertain entry costs. Two firms receive costless signals about the cost of a new project and decide when to invest. We characterize the equilibrium of the investment timing game with private and public signals. We show that competition leads the two firms to invest too early and analyse collusion schemes whereby one firm prevents the other firm from entering the market. We show that, in the efficient collusion scheme, the active firm must transfer a large part of the surplus to the inactive firm in order to limit pre-emption.

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  • Consumer Response to Time Varying Prices for Electricity

    Lawson, Rob; Thorsnes, Paul; Williams, John (2011-11-01)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

    We report new experimental evidence of the household response to weekday differentials in peak and off-peak electricity prices. The data come from Auckland, New Zealand, where peak residential electricity consumption occurs in winter for heating. Peak/off-peak price differentials ranged over four randomly-selected groups from 1.0 to 3.5. On average, there was no response except in winter. In winter, participant households reduced electricity consumption by at least 10%, took advantage of lower off-peak prices but did not respond to the peak price differentials. Response varied with house and household size, time spent away from home, and whether water was heated with electricity.

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