88 results for Working or discussion paper, 2011

  • Household credit to the poor and its impact on child schooling in peri-urban areas, Vietnam

    Doan, Tinh Thanh; Gibson, John; Holmes, Mark J. (2011-06)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Waikato

    This paper uses a novelty dataset of poor households in peri-urban areas in Vietnam to estimate impacts of small loans on child schooling. The Probit and Negative Binomial model estimates roughly indicate no strong evidence of the effect, especially of informal credit. Formal credit is likely to have positive impacts on child schooling, but its effect is not strong enough to be conclusive. The paper suggests that to obtain the target of sustainable poverty reduction, easing access to formal credit sources as well as exempting tuition and other school fees are necessary to keep poor children at schools longer.

    View record details
  • Australia's Pacific Seasonal Worker Pilot Scheme (PSWPS): Development impacts in the first two years

    Gibson, John; McKenzie, David (2011-06)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Waikato

    Australia launched the Pacific Seasonal Worker Pilot Scheme in August 2008. This program was designed to alleviate labor shortages for the Australian horticultural industry by providing opportunities for workers from Kiribati, Papua New Guinea, Tonga, and Vanuatu to undertake seasonal work. This paper presents an analysis of the development impacts of this program in the first two years, and compares them to those from New Zealand’s seasonal worker program in the same countries. The overall development impact of the scheme to date is small, since only 215 individuals participated in the program in the first two years. We examine the selection of these workers, finding they tend to come from poorer areas of Tonga, but within these locations, appear to be of average income levels, and indeed are similar in many respects to the workers going to New Zealand. We estimate the gain per participating household to be approximately A$2,600, which is a 39 percent increase in per-capita annual income in participating Tongan households. The aggregate impact to date is small, but the experience of New Zealand’s program shows that seasonal worker programs can potentially have large aggregate effects. Finally, we provide some evidence on worker’s opinions about the program.

    View record details
  • Bibliography of research using the NZIER’s quarterly survey of business opinion

    Buckle, Robert A.; Silverstone, Brian (2011-06)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Waikato

    The New Zealand Institute of Economic Research (NZIER) has conducted and published a quarterly survey of business opinion continuously, and with largely unchanged questions, since June 1961. The Institute’s Quarterly Survey of Business Opinion (QSBO) is a business tendency survey based substantially on the Business Test of the IFO Munich. It covers the manufacturing, building, merchant and service sectors and architects. This bibliography lists and classifies some 80 research papers which used QSBO data and published between 1964 and 2011.

    View record details
  • Impacts of household credit on education and healthcare spending by the poor in peri-urban areas in Vietnam

    Doan, Tinh Thanh; Gibson, John; Holmes, Mark J. (2011-06)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Waikato

    There is debate about whether microfinance has positive impacts on education and health for borrowing households in developing countries. To provide evidence for this debate we use a new survey designed to meet the conditions for propensity score matching (PSM) and examine the impact of household credit on education and healthcare spending by the poor in peri-urban areas of Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. In addition to matching statistically identical non-borrowers with borrowers, our estimates also control for household pre-treatment income and assets, which may be associated with unobservable factors affecting both credit participation and the outcomes of interest. The PSM estimates of binary treatment effect show significant and positive impacts of borrowing on education and healthcare spending. However, multiple ordered treatment effect estimates reveal that only formal credit has significant and positive impacts on education and healthcare spending, while informal credit has insignificant impacts on the spending.

    View record details
  • Recognising and building on freshman students' prior knowledge of economics

    Cameron, Michael Patrick; Lim, Steven (2011-05)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Waikato

    The results of three surveys of freshman economics students (2008-2010) at the Waikato Management School, New Zealand, suggest that incoming students have significant levels of prior economics knowledge. Given this head start in knowledge, we have expanded our freshman lecture material with more advanced content than students would normally encounter in a microeconomics principles class. This paper examines the sources of incoming students’ prior economics knowledge and discusses some of the changes made to the learning material. The changes relate principally to the links we make between students’ basic, prior economics knowledge and the more advanced learning content that demonstrates how formal economics training can add considerable value in thinking more deeply about current affairs, business issues and daily life experiences.

    View record details
  • How reliable are household expenditures as a proxy for permanent income? Implications for the income-nutrition relationship

    Gibson, John; Kim, Bonggeun (2011-03)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Waikato

    Measurement error in short-run expenditures from household surveys may attenuate estimated effects of permanent income on economic outcomes. Repeated observations on households during the year are used to calculate reliability ratios and estimate errors in variables regressions of the impact of income on calorie intakes. In contrast to influential studies finding no effect of income, the results suggest significant nutritional responses to income in poor countries.

    View record details
  • ‘Economics with training wheels’: Using blogs in teaching and assessing introductory economics

    Cameron, Michael Patrick (2011-03)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Waikato

    Blogs provide a dynamic interactive medium for online discussion, consistent with communal constructivist pedagogy. This paper explores the use of blogs in the teaching and assessment of a small (40-60 students) introductory economics paper. The role of blogs as a teaching, learning and assessment tool are discussed. Using qualitative and quantitative data collected across four semesters, students’ participation in the blog assessment is found to be associated with student ability, gender, and whether they are distance learners. Importantly, students with past economics experience do not appear to crowd out novice economics students. Student performance in tests and examinations does not appear to be associated with blog participation after controlling for student ability. However, students generally report overall positive experiences with the blog assessment.

    View record details
  • Three variations of observation equivalence preserving synthesis abstraction

    Mohajerani, Sahar; Malik, Robi; Ware, Simon; Fabian, Martin (2011-01-26)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Waikato

    In a previous paper we introduced the notion of synthesis abstraction, which allows efficient compositional synthesis of maximally permissive supervisors for large-scale systems of composed finite-state automata. In the current paper, observation equivalence is studied in relation to synthesis abstraction. It is shown that general observation equivalence is not useful for synthesis abstraction. Instead, we introduce additional conditions strengthening observation equivalence, so that it can be used with the compositional synthesis method. The paper concludes with an example showing the suitability of these relations to achieve substantial state reduction while computing a modular supervisor.

    View record details
  • Heterogeneous credit impacts of healthcare spending of the poor in peri-urban areas, Vietnam: Quantile treatment effects estimation

    Doan, Tinh Thanh; Gibson, John; Holmes, Mark J. (2011-02)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Waikato

    Quantile Treatment Effects are estimated to study the impacts of household credit access on health spending by poor households in one District of Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. There are significant positive effects of credit on the health budget shares of households with low healthcare spending. In contrast, when an Average Treatment Effect is estimated there is no discernible impact of credit access on health spending. Hence, typical approaches to studying heterogeneous credit impacts that only consider between group differences and not differences over the distribution of outcomes may miss some heterogeneity of interest to policymakers.

    View record details
  • A century of the evolution of the urban system in Brazil

    Matlaba, Valente José; Holmes, Mark J.; McCann, Philip; Poot, Jacques (2011-06)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Waikato

    In this paper, we study the hitherto unexplored evolution of the size distribution of 185 urban areas in Brazil between 1907 and 2008. We find that the power law parameter of the size distribution of the 100 largest urban areas increases from 0.63 in 1907 to 0.89 in 2008, which confirms an agglomeration process in which the size distribution has become more unequal. A panel fixed effects model pooling the same range of urban size distributions provides a power law parameter equal to 0.53, smaller than those from cross-sectional estimation. Clearly, Zipf’s Law is rejected. The lognormal distribution fits the city size distribution quite well until the 1940s, but since then applies to small and medium size cities only. These results are consistent with our understanding of historical-political and socio-economic processes that have shaped the development of Brazilian cities.

    View record details
  • Monetary Policy Transparency and Pass-Through of retail interest rates

    Liu, MH; Margaritis, D; Tourani-Rad, A (2011-02-21)

    Working or discussion paper
    Auckland University of Technology

    This paper examines the degree of pass-through and adjustment speed of retail interest rates in response to changes in benchmark wholesale rates in New Zealand during the period 1994 to 2004. We consider the effect of policy transparency and financial structure in the transmission mechanism. New Zealand is the first OECD country to adopt a formal inflation targeting regime with specific accountability and transparency provisions. Policy transparency was further enhanced by a shift from quantity (settlement cash) to price (interest rate) operating targets in 1999. We find complete long-term pass-through for some but not all retail rates. Our results also show that the introduction of the Official Cash Rate (OCR) increased the pass-through of floating and deposit rates but not fixed mortgage rates. Overall, our results confirm that monetary policy rate has more influence on short-term interest rates and that increased transparency has lowered instrument volatility and enhanced the efficacy of policy.

    View record details
  • Testing for the Invariance of a Causal Model of Friendships at work: an investigation of job type and needs

    Morrison, R. (2011-02-21)

    Working or discussion paper
    Auckland University of Technology

    The relationship between workplace friendships and organisational outcomes were investigated. Employees from diverse industries responded to an Internet-based survey (n=445). A previously supported model of workplace relationships (Morrison, 2004) was cross-validated, confirming linkages between friendships at work and organisational outcomes. The model was invariant across groups reporting differing needs for affiliation, autonomy or achievement, but non-invariant across groups reporting occupying relatively less or more interdependent jobs. Results suggest that the interdependence of individuals’ jobs affects the salience of work friendships more than subjective needs.

    View record details
  • New perspectives on the Supply-Chain and Consumer-Driven innovation

    Mowatt, S. (2011-02-21)

    Working or discussion paper
    Auckland University of Technology

    This paper considers the interrelationship between innovation and the control of the supply-chain in consumer-driven industries. In particular the paper employs the concepts of Control and Innovation Networks as an analytical framework to examine the coordination of the supply-chain and inter-organisational collaboration. In-depth empirical evidence is provided by two cases industries: the UK supermarket and the UK consumer magazine publishing sector. By separating the process of supply-chain integration and coordination from the control of supply-chain, motives for collaboration and conflict were explored. A detailed analysis is given of the innovation process in both sectors, and new patterns of inter-organisational cooperation are identified. Network Hubs were shown to be able to use their control of the critical information of consumer demand to drive innovation and extract value-adding activities. In both cases examined the Innovation Hub was able to greatly extend the industry supplier base through the incorporation of external actors into the value system. This has widened the industry participation, but acted to change patterns of innovation within sectors. Consumer-driven Innovation Networks dependent on access to consumers through retail channels were found to be potentially vulnerable to retailer Control Networks.

    View record details
  • Technology, organisation and innovation: the historical development of the UK magazine industry

    Cox, H.; Mowatt, S. (2011-02-21)

    Working or discussion paper
    Auckland University of Technology

    For most of the twentieth century, the publishing of magazines was technologically and organisationally embedded within the printing industry. By charting the origins and evolution of Britain’s principal magazine publisher, IPC, this paper demonstrates how these organisational inflexibilities served to constrain new product development and promoted a competitive regime based upon mass production coupled with a low pricing strategy founded on cheap weekly magazines. During the 1980s, however, radical changes in working practices within the printing industry, stemming from the political reforms to trade union power, paved the way for a revolution in publishing technology. The introduction of desktop publishing (DTP) packages after 1985 thus heralded a new competitive phase in the magazine industry, promoting a much greater emphasis on innovation as a competitive weapon and supporting enhanced forms of product differentiation and organisational flexibility.

    View record details
  • Accounting: perceptions of influential high school teachers in the USA and NZ

    Wells, Paul K; Fieger, P. (2011-02-21)

    Working or discussion paper
    Auckland University of Technology

    A decline in enrolments in Accounting programs in the United States of America has been well documented over the last decade. Some researchers have explained that this decline is in part due to the misinformation or lack of information about the nature of accounting and the duties performed by accountants. Other studies have found that a significant number of students make their career choice decisions while at high school and that teachers are influential in this decision making process. This study replicates a US study by surveying NZ high school teachers to compare their perceptions of the accounting profession to, engineering, law and medicine based on 24 attributes of a profession. The results from this study are contrasted to those from the US study. Our findings indicate that similar to the US, NZ high school teachers have a low opinion of accounting as a career option for university-bound high school students. This implies there are significant issues for educators and the profession including a possible mismatch between the requisite skills perceived by teachers and those sought by the profession.

    View record details
  • Strategy-making process and firm performance in small firms

    Verreynne, M. L. (2011-02-21)

    Working or discussion paper
    Auckland University of Technology

    This paper argues that individual small firms, just like large firms, place differing emphasis on strategy-making and may employ different modes of strategy-making. It offers a typology of the different modes of strategy-making that seem most likely to exist in small firms, and hypothesises how this typology relates to performance. It then describes the results of an empirical study of the strategy-making processes of small firms. The structural equation analysis of the data from 477 small firms with less than 100 employees indicates among other results that the simplistic, adaptive, intrapreneurial and participative modes of strategy-making exist in these SMEs. Of these modes, the simplistic mode exhibits the strongest relationship with firm performance.

    View record details
  • Insider trading, regulation and the components of the Bid-Ask Spread

    Frijns, B; Gilbert, A; Tourani-Rad, A (2011-02-21)

    Working or discussion paper
    Auckland University of Technology

    Insiders pose a risk to providers of liquidity, who require compensation for this and consequentially widen spreads. In this paper we investigate the relationship between insider trading regulation and the cost of trading by decomposing the components of the spread before and after the enactment of strict new laws. We find a significant decrease in information asymmetry, which is mainly observed in illiquid and high prechange information asymmetry companies. Results are robust to model specification. We also see a decrease in the contribution of information asymmetry to price volatility. Overall, our results may have implications for markets with similar characteristics.

    View record details
  • Enemies at work

    Morrison, R. (2011-02-21)

    Working or discussion paper
    Auckland University of Technology

    This study investigates the link between perceptions of negative workplace relationships and organisational outcomes. Respondents (n=412) spanned a wide range of occupations, industries and nationalities. Data were collected using an Internet based questionnaire. Results indicated that those with at least one negative relationship at work were significantly less satisfied, reported less organisational commitment, were part of less cohesive workgroups and were significantly more likely to be planning to leave their job.

    View record details
  • The supply of Accounting graduates in New Zealand

    Wells, Paul K (2011-02-21)

    Working or discussion paper
    Auckland University of Technology

    Declining enrolments in accounting programmes in the United States of America and United Kingdom have been well documented for over a decade and it is suggested that accounting as a career choice is becoming less attractive to domestic students. An Australian study supported this conclusion but further noted that the trend is being masked by an increasing level of enrolments in these programmes by international students. Collectively these studies highlight the vulnerability of accounting programmes to fluctuation in the recruitment and enrolment of international students and further, a potential decline in the number of domestic graduates seeking employment in the accounting profession. This study reports the collection and analysis of data from 8 of the 14 approved tertiary education institutions that provide a recognised academic programme to meet the CA requirements of the Institute of Chartered Accountants of New Zealand (ICANZ). Its objectives are to identify graduation trends for the period 1997-2002 and to consider the impact of international student enrolment on these trends. The findings suggest that there have been significant fluctuations in the number of accounting graduates since 1997, with domestic graduate numbers rising between 1999 and 2001 and then declining in 2002. During this time the total number of business graduates has remained constant. The decline in graduate numbers coincides with the introduction of the four-year programme of study. As a consequence the findings reported here have implications for the tertiary education institutions, ICANZ and employers.

    View record details
  • In search of Professional Identity: a descriptive study of New Zealand “Professional” bodies’ codes of ethics

    Oliver, G.; McGhee, P. (2011-02-21)

    Working or discussion paper
    Auckland University of Technology

    “Professional” representative bodies are increasingly turning to codes of ethics in order to define acceptable standards of behaviour. This study addresses a gap in academic literature by focusing on the codes of New Zealand professional bodies. The term profession has a number of different conceptualisations, which are explored along with the role of codes within the professions. Definitions of codes of ethics are reviewed. Codes from four New Zealand bodies are content analysed according to Cressey and Moore’s (1983) three-point typology: Policy area, Authority and Compliance. A number of differences are noted between the four codes, including area of focus, length, detail, sanctions and the overall utility of the codes in guiding behaviour. Implications for the bodies are discussed, most notably that some of the codes appear not to meet adequate professional standards for guiding ethical behaviour.

    View record details