1,757 results for Working or discussion paper

  • Has IFRS resulted in information overload?

    Morunga, M.; Bradbury, M. E.

    Working or discussion paper
    Massey University

    The move to NZ IFRS has been surrounded by complaints of too much information being provided. This is not simply a matter of the cost of providing the information, but the possibility of data overload. Data overload is an important issue as it impacts information search strategies and decision outcomes. This relevant for the current debate on differential reporting and for assessing whether NZ IFRS has achieved its goals of reducing the cost of financial analysis. The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of the move to international financial reporting by New Zealand listed entities on the quantity of data provided in the annual report. Our analysis shows that the annual report increased for 92% of our sample firms. The average increase in size was 29% of the prior years‟ annual report and arose through notes to the accounts and accounting policies. Even after transitional information (e.g., accounting policies and reconciliations) the increase is 15%.

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  • Claims for wrongful pregnancy and child rearing expenses

    Thomas, C. M.

    Working or discussion paper
    Massey University

    Subsequently published as Cordelia Thomas, ‘Claims for wrongful pregnancy and damages for the upbringing of the child’ (2003) 26 University of New South Wales Law Journal 125. With permission of the UNSWLJ

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  • The impact of The Warehouse on New Zealand small towns: A discussion paper with specific reference to Maori

    Sayers, Janet; Low, Will; Davenport, Eileen

    Working or discussion paper
    Massey University

    This discussion paper is based on empirical material looking at the social impact of The Warehouse (TW) on small town NZ. The results of this research show that Māori have a more positive orientation to The Warehouse than the non-Māori population. This paper provides some explanations of why this could be the case in small town New Zealand. The discussion paper suggests that large-format retail researchers need to be more careful when arguing that large-format retailers negatively affect small towns: the impact of their entry depends on socio-economic factors and the ethnic circumstances of various groups in the community and their outlying areas.

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  • The organization of organizational discourse

    Prichard, Craig

    Working or discussion paper
    Massey University

    Discourse, as Fairclough, Graham, Lemke, and Wodak (2004) noted in the introduction to their new journal, Critical Discourse Studies, is now well established as a category in social sciences. And yet, as they also note, we find significant differences as to what discourse and discourse analysis refer. These differences are, they argue, because of different theoretical, academic, and cultural traditions and how these traditions "push discourse in different directions" (2004:4). In this review essay I sketch out the key direction that discourse has been pushed or pulled in organization studies. To set the scene, I review two books that seek to advance our understanding of discourse and language analysis in organization studies. Each has its strengths, but both are relatively disengaged from the journal literature in the same field. In response to this weakness, I present a brief, citation-based examination of discourse analysis in the management and organization studies field. This analysis brings to light eight different streams of work that are underway.

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  • Commercialisation of the supply of organs for transplantation

    Thomas, Cordelia

    Working or discussion paper
    Massey University

    Internationally, there is a shortage of organs available for organ donation. Human tissue and cells are becoming increasingly valuable as part of commercially valuable biotechnological research. The developments have outstripped the existing legal controls and have led to concerns about the use of human tissue retained after post mortems in England and Australia and the growth of black markets dealing in human organs and tissue. There is a need for ethical discourse about the extent to which such developments should be recognised and controlled by the law. Further, if the supply of organs available for transplantation is to be increased, the systems of consent in many countries are unsuitable. Development of a system in which benefits are available to the donors or their families may increase the supply of organs. If financial benefits are available from biotechnological advances, the people providing the necessary materials in the form of human tissue or organs may believe they have a right to share in the resultant benefits. This paper considers the ethical issues arising from the various systems of consent to organ donation that have been adopted in different jurisdictions. Fundamental to any such debate is the issue of property rights- whether a living person has property rights over their own body and whether there exist property rights to a human body following death. The role of the State is fundamental to such a debate. This paper considers the potential for the commercialisation of the supply of organs and some approaches that might facilitate commercialisation. Aspects of the law contract that might arise are outlined. Overall, the conclusion is that these issues must be addressed by way of legislation. If commercialisation is permitted in some form, this must be carefully controlled to ensure that the vulnerable members of Society are not disadvantaged. It is suggested that any benefit should be provided by the State rather than by way of individual contracts between donor and recipient, to avoid the situation arising where only the financially advantaged could afford treatment.

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  • The development of social and environmental accounting research 1995-2000

    Mathews, M. R.

    Working or discussion paper
    Massey University

    This paper reviews five years of social and environmental accounting literature (from 1995-2000) in an attempt to evaluate the current position. The methodology used follows that employed in Mathews (1997a) which covered a period of 25 years in three time periods: 1971-1980; 1981-1990; and 1991- 1995. The literature was classified into several sub-groups including empirical studies, normative statements, philosophical discussion, non-accounting literature, teaching programmes and text books, regulatory frameworks, and other reviews. In this review a number of new sub-categories have been employed as appropriate. The author is able to conclude on an optimistic note. The additions to the literature during the period 1995-2000 are encouraging. Researchers in this area are perhaps less naïve and more experienced than previously, and this, when added to their enthusiasm should lead to penetrating observations and commentaries over the next five years.

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  • The development of a strategic control framework and its relationship with management accounting

    Durden, C. H.

    Working or discussion paper
    Massey University

    Management accounting systems have been criticised for being excessively focused on shortterm performance. As a result long-term strategic direction and goals may have been neglected. To help overcome this problem it has been suggested that organisations should adopt strategic management accounting techniques and management control systems which are orientated towards the achievement of strategic goals. This paper argues that integration with strategic control would significantly enhance the relevance of management accounting systems. In developing such an approach this paper first integrates the salient features of the extant strategic control models in a framework that recognises the needs of the current business environment. And second, it examines how strategic control could be used as the basis for developing management accounting systems that have a stronger strategic focus.

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  • The value added statement: bastion of social reporting or dinosaur of financial reporting?

    van Staden, C. J.

    Working or discussion paper
    Massey University

    South Africa is at present experiencing the highest incidence of publication of the value added statement reported anywhere in the world to date. In addition research investigating the predictive ability of value added information has been conducted in the USA since 1990, even though the value added statement has not been published there. The research reported in this paper sets out to establish whether the value added statement is a disclosure worth considering by companies around the world, by investigating the South African experience with the value added statement. The social accounting theories of organisational legitimacy and political costs were found to be best suited to explain why the value added statement is published. Surveys among the companies publishing the value added statement indicated that management had the employees in mind when they published this information. However, a survey among users has indicated that very little use has been made of the value added statement. The main reason for this seems to be that the unregulated nature of the value added statement allows for inconsistencies in disclosures, which eventually caused users to suspect bias in the reports. The USA evidence that the information has additional predictive power is not confirmed by a South African study, and is complicated by the limited additional information contained in the value added statement. The South African experience with the value added statement does not make a convincing case for publication. Rather, it highlights the need for unbiased and verified social disclosures that will be useful to all the stakeholders of the company. In addition, it has implications for other voluntary social and environmental disclosures.

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  • Externalities revisited: the use of an environmental equity account

    Mathews, M. R.; Lockhart, J. A.

    Working or discussion paper
    Massey University

    This exploratory paper attempts to restart a debate about the incorporation of environmental externalities into the cost structure of the organisation. A number approaches are considered; regulation together with all that would follow such as audit and policing; pollution permits, which probably can only be used with a sinking lid application; and other charging mechanisms such as making the private sector pay for public sector capital funding. The fourth alternative, the use of an environmental equity account, has not been widely considered in the literature. The paper proposes the use of an environmental equity account (after Boone and Rubenstein, 1997) with the express intent of generating a charge for environmental impact based on the cost of control. That is, the cost of implementing state of the art technology compared to that currently in use within the organisation, is used as a balance which may be either paid as a capital sum or carried as a balance sheet entry upon which dividend payments would have to be made. It is envisaged that both capital sums and dividend payments would go to an agency responsible for environmental remediation activity.

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  • One way forward: non-traditional accounting disclosures in the 21st century

    Mathews, M. R.; Reynolds, M. A.

    Working or discussion paper
    Massey University

    Recent empirical studies (Deegan and Rankin, 1999; Deegan et al., 2000) have indicated that although many corporations have begun to respond to perceived demand for environmental disclosures in published accounts, their perspective of organisational legitimacy is a narrow view, in which information is targeted towards specific stakeholders and not to the general public. This paper considers a range of models (variously called guidelines, standards and charters) which have been put forward by different organisations to aid the development of social and environmental disclosures. In all cases verification and attestation are part of the proposed regimen. The question which the papers attempts to answer is whether any one of the models would be capable of rapid adoption as part of an expanded GAAP, should the professional accounting bodies think that this is desirable. The outcome of our deliberations is cautious support for the use of EMAS and ISO 14000 as the basis for a modified GAAP plus the further development of the GRI 2000 guidelines into a set of standards covering both social and environmental reporting.

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  • Strategic accounting: revisiting the agenda

    Nyamori, Robert Ochoki

    Working or discussion paper
    Massey University

    Rapid changes in the external environment of organisations have been accompanied by calls for accountants to change the nature of information they provide, the skills they possess and the role they play in the organisation. The proposed changes, which are encapsulated under the phrase accounting for strategic positioning or strategic management accounting are two pronged. On one hand accountants are required to reposition themselves in the organisation hierarchy where they will be involved in the formulation, implementation and choice of strategies. Accountants are also being urged to adopt a range of techniques whose emphasis is futuristic and external to the firm especially emphasizing the importance of monitoring customers and competitors. A review of the literature has revealed that while considerable effort has been put into the development of rational techniques for proposed use less has gone into whether, how and with what effect the proposed techniques have been implemented in organisations and society. The literature has adopted an uncritical approach to the proposals for a strategic accounting, providing little insight into how the discourse of strategy has come to occupy such a position of centrality in organisations and society with other functions seeking to be branded “strategic”.

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  • Aspects of the motivation for voluntary disclosures: evidence from the publication of value added statements in an emerging economy

    van Staden, C. J.

    Working or discussion paper
    Massey University

    This paper investigates the motivation for the voluntary disclosure of financial information by companies in their annual financial statements, by examining aspects of the usefulness of the value added statement. The value added statement is published voluntarily with the annual financial statements and is currently experiencing high levels of publication in South Africa, which is evidently brought about by the high political costs and significant legitimacy threats that companies operating in South Africa are facing. It was found from the literature and from a survey among management that the value added statement was primarily aimed at the employees. Employees have also been regarded as users of financial information in the literature. However, a survey among trade unions in South Africa found that almost no use is made of the value added statement even though the unions make use of other financial information. This indicates that voluntary disclosures do not necessarily satisfy the information needs of their intended audience. The research also indicates that the trade unions might not use the value added statement because they suspect that the statement is being used to reduce political costs and legitimacy threats, and is therefore not reliable. This is a major shortcoming of voluntary disclosures.

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  • The impact of events on annual reporting disclosures

    Hooks, J. J.

    Working or discussion paper
    Massey University

    Burchell, Club and Hopwood (1985) considered that “little is known of how...wider social forces can impinge upon and change accounting” (p.382). This study identifies six political forces that may have instigated changes in accounting practice and annual reporting of a New Zealand electricity entity. Based on the literature (Hopwood, 1983, 1990; Napier, 1989; Gray and Haslam, 1990; Thomson, 1993) it is expected that significant changes in the environment in which the entity operates will effect changes in reporting. The study compares the annual report disclosures of an Electricity Supply Authority on a yearly basis from 1970 to 2001 - a 18 year period with little significant environmental impact in the electricity industry with a period of intense activity in the following 14 years. The study found considerable evidence that the change from a local body accountable to electors/consumers to a public company accountable to shareholders, led to a greater emphasis on profits and earnings per share as a means of measuring performance. It identifies specific changes in accounting practice that support this view as well as a period of “big bath” accounting, decreasing disclosure of commercially sensitive information, and the increasing use of dramatic presentation in the annual report.

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  • Web assisted teaching: an undergraduate experience

    van Staden, C. J.; Kirk, N. E.; Hawkes, L. C.

    Working or discussion paper
    Massey University

    The emergence of the Internet has created a number of claims as to the future of education and the possibility of dramatically changing the way in which education is delivered. Much of the attention has focussed on the adoption of teaching methods that are solely web-based. We set out to incorporate web-based teaching as support for more traditional teaching methods to improve the learning outcomes for students. This first step into web-based teaching was developed to harness the benefits of web-based teaching tools without supplanting traditional teaching methods. The aim of this paper is to report our experience with web-assisted teaching in two undergraduate courses, Accounting Information Systems and Management Accounting Services, during 2000. The paper evaluates the approach taken and proposes a tentative framework for developing future web-assisted teaching applications. We believe that web-assisted and web-based teaching are inevitable outcomes of the telecommunications and computer revolution and that academics cannot afford to become isolated from the on-line world. A considered approach is needed to ensure the integration of web-based features into the overall structure of a course. The components of the course material and the learning experiences students are exposed to need to be structured and delivered in a way that ensures they support student learning rather than replacing one form of learning with another. Therefore a careful consideration of the structure, content, level of detail and time of delivery needs to be integrated to create a course structure that provides a range of student learning experiences that are complimentary rather than competing. The feedback was positive from both extramural (distance) and internal students, demonstrating to us that web sites can be used as an effective teaching tool in support of more traditional teaching methods as well as a tool for distance education. The ability to harness the positives of the web in conjunction with more traditional teaching modes is one that should not be overlooked in the move to adopt web based instruction methods. Web-based teaching need not be seen as an all or nothing divide but can be used as a useful way of improving the range and type of learning experiences open to students. The Web challenges traditional methods and thinking but it also provides tools to develop innovative solutions to both distance and on campus learning. Further research is needed to determine how we can best meet the needs of our students while maintaining high quality learning outcomes.

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  • Management accounting education: is there a gap between academia and practitioner perceptions?

    Hawkes, L. C.; Fowler, M.; Tan, L. M.

    Working or discussion paper
    Massey University

    A mail survey was conducted of all Institute of Chartered Accountants of New Zealand accredited Tertiary Education Institutions and 300 randomly selected New Zealand companies to ascertain the views of management accounting academics and practitioners on the contents of management accounting courses and the skills and competencies of recent graduates. The results show that practitioners placed an emphasis on traditional management accounting techniques, while academics placed an emphasis on contemporary techniques. Both groups were in agreement on the skills and characteristics required of recent graduates. An interesting finding was the emergence of negative comments on the arrogance of new graduates and an increased need for graduates to be work ready. These two aspects were not a feature of previous studies. The implications of the results are that academics cannot ignore the teaching of traditional management accounting techniques and may need to increase the coverage of the issues involved in implementing contemporary management accounting techniques.

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  • The definition of "Insider" in section 3 of the securities markets Act 1988: A review and comparison with other jurisdictions

    Su, Z.; Berkahn, M. A.

    Working or discussion paper
    Massey University

    Statutory definitions of what constitutes an “insider” for the purposes of insider trading laws may be based on either a “person connection” approach or an “information connection” approach. The “person connection” approach defines “insider” by reference to the relationship of the person to the public issuer of securities, while the “information connection” approach considers anyone who has material price-sensitive information about the issuer to be an insider, regardless of his or her relationship to the issuer. In common with Japan, Hong Kong and China, New Zealand’s insider trading law — the Securities Markets Act 1988 — uses a person connection approach in its definition of “insider”. Other jurisdictions, however, including both the United Kingdom and Australia, have, to varying degrees, recently amended their definitions to reflect the information connection approach. The United States, although the first country to address the issue of insider trading, lacks a statutory definition of “insider” and instead relies on generally applicable laws against securities fraud. It has developed a definition with elements of both approaches. This paper reviews the definitions in use in the United States and in other countries (including New Zealand) which have been influenced by the American experience. It concludes that the narrow, relationship-based approach does not capture some conduct that may be damaging to the integrity of the securities market. A definition based on the information connection approach (perhaps combined with elements of the person connection approach) may therefore be preferable to New Zealand’s current definition.

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  • Kiwi talent flow : a study of chartered accountants and business professionals overseas

    Hooks, J. J.; Carr, S. C.; Edwards, M. F.; Inkson, K.; Jackson, D. J. R.; Thorn, K. J.; Allfree, N.

    Working or discussion paper
    Massey University

    New Zealanders have always had a propensity to travel overseas. The globalisation of the world has seen an increase in the number of people who, having completed their education and gained some work experience, set off on their overseas experience. Concern has been expressed as to the potential “brain drain” that would result should these well-educated and talented citizens remain overseas permanently. This research considers the propensity to return of over 1,500 expatriate Kiwis working in the areas of accounting and finance. It examines their demographics, attitudes, values, motivations, factors of attraction to, and repulsion from, New Zealand and their concerns for change in New Zealand. It therefore provides insights into the nature and purpose of this significant group of professionals resident mainly in the United Kingdom and Australia. We find that less than half are likely to return to New Zealand. This is because of the lack of career and business opportunities despite the “pull” of family and relations in New Zealand.

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  • The determinants of the accounting classification of convertible debt when managers have freedom of choice

    Bishop, Helen E.

    Working or discussion paper
    Massey University

    This study examines the accounting classification of convertible debt in an environment where there is the choice of debt, other capital funds or equity. Contracting theory suggests possible determinants of accounting choice. These are leverage, as a proxy for closeness to debt covenants, the relative size of the convertible financial instrument issued and the contractual terms of the instrument. Two measures of leverage are used. One is debt to earnings before interest, tax, depreciation and amortisation (EBITDA). This variable has been included as it is the most commonly used ratio in debt covenants. The second measure is debt to net tangible assets as this ratio, or similar ratios, have been used in previous accounting studies to proxy for closeness to debt covenants. As leverage ratios tend to vary between industries I identify whether each firm is above or below their industry average. I find that the best predictor of the accounting classification choice is the contractual terms of the instrument. The two debt covenants derived hypotheses are not supported. The leverage of the issuer and the relative size of the issue have no significant influence on the choice of classification.

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  • Justice in New Zealand's Treaty of Waitangi settlement process.

    Gibbs, Meredith

    Working or discussion paper
    Massey University

    In this paper I examine how the New Zealand government, through the Treaty of Waitangi settlement process, is providing contemporary reparation for historical injustices against Maori tribes. Because historical injustices involve the interactions of cultures over time, justice in New Zealand’s Treaty settlement process is shaped, and constrained, by two key factors: ‘culture’ and ‘time’. First, I make the case that justice in the Treaty settlement process is only that part of justice that is shared by Maori and the New Zealand Crown and that this shared conception of justice is found in the Treaty of Waitangi (the influence of ‘culture’). Following on from this, I show how the Treaty as the shared standard of justice limits the justice in the Treaty settlement process in important ways. Second, I argue that because reparation for historical injustice is made in the present, and works into the future, justice in the Treaty settlement process is not full reparative justice (the influence of ‘time’). Rather, although the justice of the Treaty settlement process is by nature reparative, its scope is limited by contemporary, and prospective, justice concerns. I argue, finally, that the Treaty settlement process reflects a reconciliatory approach to reparative justice where the cultural survival of Maori through restoration of the promises of the Treaty is given greater weight than the provision of full reparation for past wrongs.

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  • The growth of beach fale accommodation in Samoa: Doing tourism the Samoan way

    Scheyvens, Regina

    Working or discussion paper
    Massey University

    Samoa is an independent Pacific Island nation with beautiful beaches, rainforests and volcanic features, and is home to vibrant Polynesian communities living mainly in picturesque villages dotted around two main islands. It is seemingly another perfect island paradise, yet Samoans have a long history of resistance to outside interference thus in the past they have been reluctant to trade on their country’s natural beauty and cultural features by encouraging tourism development. Threats to the country’s agriculture sector from two cyclones and a taro blight led to a change of heart in the early 1990s, and tourism has since rapidly grown to become Samoa’s main industry, contributing four times more to the economy than agriculture (Twining-Ward and Twining-Ward, 1998). Arrivals grew from less than 48,000 in 1990 to over 92,000 by 2003. However, unlike the three most popular Pacific Island destinations, Fiji, French Polynesia and New Caledonia, Samoa is not home to numerous large resorts. Instead the tourism industry here is dominated by small to medium sized enterprises which are mostly under local ownership and control. The largest growth in recent years has been experienced in the budget beach fale accommodation sector. Beach fale, or traditional beach huts, are now a strong feature of the coastal landscape of Samoa. A family or community need relatively little capital to establish a beach fale operation, but the family or community group does need permission from the relevant matai (chiefs). These fale range from basic, open sided huts with thatched roofs and traditional woven blinds in the place of walls, to walled bungalows with small verandas. Bathroom and dining facilities are shared with other guests, and the relations between guests and those catering to their needs are more friendly than servile. Guests are expected to conform with cultural protocol during their stay, which includes dressing appropriately when entering a village and respecting Sa(evening prayer time). Staff of the Samoan Tourism Authority generally recognise the value of beach fale as a unique tourism product, and they have been supported by NZAID in providing training and financial support to beach fale owners over the past few years. Training in areas such as financial management, health and safety, and service skills is helping to address areas of weakness which exist in the beach fale sector, where many of the owners have limited business experience. Beach fale attract a wide range of clientele, with both Samoan and foreign tourists being very important markets. Samoan guests include couples, families, and youth groups who typically take weekend day trips from Apia to nearby beaches where they pay a small fee to cover use of the beach and a beach fale (which provides shade and a comfortable resting place). Longer stay visitors to beach fale include government and non-governmental agency staff who are sent on retreats to work on their mission statement or review goals and objectives, and family or school groups celebrating a reunion. Foreign visitors are also a diverse group which, rather than being limited to international backpackers, includes a lot of young and middle-aged couples from Australia and New Zealand, surfers, adventurers and ecotourists of all ages, and clientele from up-market hotels like Aggie Grey’s who desire a unique cultural experience for a day or two. The majority of tourists interviewed in this research were extremely positive about beach fale tourism. Typical comments from a beach fale visitor’s book were as follows: ‘Great place’; ‘fantastic food’; ‘wonderful beach’; ‘friendly family’. Many guests commented that they would like to stay longer and/or to return one day. The location of beach fale on what would be prime coastal property with premium values in most parts of the world certainly adds to the value of the fale.One respondent referred to beach fale as ‘5 star hotels the Samoan way’, and many tourists remarked that staying in an open fale gave them a sense of the affinity between culture and nature in Samoan society. Both Samoan and foreign tourists agreed that there were several services that were central to an enjoyable beach fale experience: • clean and well maintained facilities • good meals incorporating local produce • a secure environment • friendly staff. There were few negative perceptions of beach fale, but they are worth mentioning so those operating beach fales or providing training to operators are aware of tourists’ concerns. While they appreciated the relaxed pace of life in Samoa, some tourists felt that the hospitality was ‘too casual’ at times. For example, tourists expressed annoyance that fale which had been booked in advance were given to other guests, and at the time taken to respond to their requests for service or assistance. Newly arrived tourists were sometimes anxious about security or privacy concerns when staying in open fale, but their fears usually abated after a few days. Some tourists felt there was a lack of clarity or inconsistency with pricing practices, thus every operator in a village might charge ST$60 for one night even when the quality of their accommodation and service varied enormously. While a few foreign tourists were concerned that beach fale were now crowding the beach in popular locations, Samoan tourists had no concern about this and felt that there was still space for growth in the overall number of fale. Finally a minority of tourists felt resentful that there were cultural restrictions placed on their activities at certain times (e.g. Sundays); the majority were however very positive about the value of Samoan culture and respectful in their attitude to beach fale rules. Samoa demonstrates that a country with strong indigenous control of the tourism sector can be economically successful. Large-scale development of up-market hotels and resorts based on foreign investment need not be the key objective of Third World governments that wish to maximize their gains from tourism. Indeed, it is probably in Samoa’s interests to stay with small-medium scale tourism development and to cater for a diverse range of tourists, including domestic tourists and those traveling on a budget. Many tourists who come to Samoa are attracted at least partly because of what a locally-controlled tourism industry can offer, namely, low to moderate prices, friendly service, basic accommodation in stunning locations, and a cultural experience.

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