1,758 results for Working or discussion paper

  • Building resistance to the ‘GERM’: Discourse Theory, Discursive Struggle and the ‘teacher’ subject position

    Salter, Leon

    Working or discussion paper
    Massey University

    In April 2013 the NZEI (New Zealand Educational Institute), the trade union which provides representation and advocacy to around 50,000 primary and ECE teachers and support staff, mobilized around 8,000 of its members and sympathizers in coordinated protest marches across the country. Promotion posters for the rally emphasized not the stalled collective agreement negotiations, but concern “about the impact the Government’s education policies are having on children and their learning” (NZEI, 2013). The NZEI’s ‘Stand Up For Kids: Protect Our Schools’ campaign site (http://www.standupforkids.org.nz/g-e-r-m/) characterizes the government’s reform programme as part of the GERM; the Global Education Reform Movement, a term coined by the Finnish education expert Pasi Sahlberg (Sahlberg, 2013). The NZEI’s web-page contains an illustration image of the ‘GERM’ as an actual germ, a ghoulish monster dripping with slime and significantly carrying a briefcase, together with a dichotomized outline of the two sides of the debate from Sahlberg’s blog; ‘Standardization’ versus ‘Personalized Learning’, ‘Competition’ versus ‘Collaboration’ etc. Utilizing concepts from Ernesto Laclau and Chantal Mouffe’s Discourse Theory (Laclau & Mouffe 1985; Laclau 1990, 2005), this PhD study, as yet in its early stages, will aim to theorize the ‘Stand Up For Kids: Protect Our Schools’ campaign as a hegemonic, or discursive struggle, which discursively constructs an ‘antagonistic frontier’ with a ‘constitutive outside’ in the GERM. ‘Empty signifiers’ such as ‘Teacher’, ‘School’ and ‘Kids’ become the discursive space where the two articulations compete to attain objectivity; relatively stable ‘common-sense’ understandings, while at the same time constituting antagonistic identities on both sides of the argument. [From the Introduction]

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  • Regional governance structures in indigenous Australia: Western Australian examples

    Barcham, Manuhuia

    Working or discussion paper
    Massey University

    The last few years have been witness to a dramatic change in indigenous affairs in Australia. This process has resulted in the disestablishment of ATSIC and a movement towards the promotion of regional governance structures for indigenous Australia. This article investigates three organisations in the Southwest of Western Australia which may form the basis of a regional governance structure. These three cases illuminate a number of generic issues that must be considered if the aim of the current shift in indigenous affairs policy is to lead to robust and successful outcomes for indigenous Australians. Issues of capacity, legitimacy and the ‘fit’ of structures to indigenous populations are of critical import to the success or failure of this process.

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  • Conflict, violence and development in the Southwest Pacific: Taking the indigenous context seriously.

    Barcham, Manuhuia

    Working or discussion paper
    Massey University

    This article addresses two main issues. The first of these issues is the ongoing conflation of conflict with violence, and the lack of recognition of conflict as a potentially positive force. The second of these issues is the continued push by donors in the region towards the reconstruction of the state in a stronger form, despite recognition that the structures of the state have played a critical role in the emergence of the recent and ongoing violence in the region. In addressing these issues the article first explores the differentiation between the concepts of conflict and violence, before then engaging in a discussion of the ways in which conflict can not only be a positive force but may actually be constitutive of society itself. The article then looks at ways in which the state has acted to both catalyse and intensify destructive forms of conflict. Once these two issues have been addressed the article then moves on to explore the ways in which an awareness of these issues can be harnessed, by both donors and local communities working together in a form of constructive engagement, in the creation of more durable and effective forms of governance in the region.

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  • A tale of two nations: The divergent pathways for indigenous labour force outcomes in Australia and New Zealand since 1991

    Hunter, Boyd

    Working or discussion paper
    Massey University

    This paper compares labour market experiences of indigenous Australians and Maori since 1971 with a particular focus on the early 1990s where employment outcomes appeared to diverge dramatically. One way to enhance the interpretability of international comparisons is to examine what happened in urban and other areas because the globalised economy means that the labour market in major cities tend to track one another reasonably closely. It is also important to condition on the level of urbanisation in the respective countries because geography provides a rudimentary control for differing levels of acculturation and the historical experiences of colonisation. The analysis provides two main insights: first that Maori populations are more fully integrated into the New Zealand economy and business cycle than indigenous Australians are into the Australian economy. The second finding is that while Maori are performing very well in terms of employment growth, the prospect for future improvements may be constrained by unresolved cultural conflict embodied in the high ongoing rates of Maori arrest. While there is a similar level of cultural conflict between indigenous and other Australians, it is probable that the historical difference in the treatment of the respective indigenous populations is partially responsible for the different economic outcomes in the two nations.

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  • Politics and professionalism in community development: Examining intervention in the highlands of northern Thailand

    Mckinnon, Katharine Islay

    Working or discussion paper
    Massey University

    It has been suggested that the practice of international development assistance is so deeply problematic that the only moral choice is to abandon the work altogether. The practice of community development in the Third World has been the subject of extensive critique for several decades. Scholars and development practitioners speak of the 'tyranny' of development and discuss the ways in which development is a means of control and domination rather than an altruistic enterprise whereby wealthier nations lend assistance to poorer nations. How are these debates relevant to highland development programs in northern Thailand? And how are development practitioners responding to the suggestion that they are making things worse rather than better? This paper explores the history of development in the hills and suggests some ways that development practitioners can - and do - take on board recent critiques of development while continuing to work for the betterment of highland lives and livelihoods.

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  • Organic agriculture and farmer wellbeing: A case study of Cambodian small-scale farmers

    Beban, Alice

    Working or discussion paper
    Massey University

    This paper investigates the impact of organic agriculture development initiatives on the wellbeing of small-scale farmers in Cambodia. Wellbeing was measured subjectively, with fifty seven organic farmers asked what is most important in their lives, and the impact of the organic initiatives assessed in these areas. Farmers in the study considered the ability to grow sufficient rice for their family as most important, followed by family health, and having enough money. The organic initiatives were found to impact positively on all these dimensions of wellbeing. Family food security increased in all cases, health increased in all but one case, and income increased in all cases.

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  • Shallow landsliding and catchment connectivity within the Houpoto Forest, New Zealand.

    McCabe, Michelle; Fuller, Ian C; McColl, Sam T

    Working or discussion paper
    Massey University

    Active landslides and their contribution to catchment connectivity have been investigated within the Houpoto Forest, North Island, New Zealand. The aim was to quantify the proportion of buffered versus coupled landslides and explore how specific physical conditions influenced differences in landslide connectivity. Landsliding and land use changes between 2007 and 2010 were identified and mapped from aerial photography, and the preliminary analyses and interpretations of these data are presented here. The data indicate that forest harvesting made some slopes more susceptible to failure, and consequently many landslides were triggered during subsequent heavy rainfall events. Failures were particularly widespread during two high magnitude (> 200 mm/day) rainfall events, as recorded in 2010 imagery. Connectivity was analysed by quantifying the relative areal extents of coupled and buffered landslides identified in the different images. Approximately 10 % of the landslides were identified as being coupled to the local stream network, and thus directly contributing to the sediment budget. Following liberation of landslides during high-magnitude events, low-magnitude events are thought to be capable of transferring more of this sediment to the channel. Subsequent re-planting of the slopes appears to have helped recovery by increasing the thresholds for failure, thus reducing the number of landslides during subsequent high-magnitude rainfall events. Associated with this is a reduction in slope-channel connectivity. These preliminary results highlight how site specific preconditioning, preparatory and triggering factors contribute to landslide distribution and connectivity, in addition to how efficient re-afforestation improves the rate of slope recovery.

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  • Measuring, defining, and valuing change: A database on development indicators for policy-makers, activists, and researchers

    Prinsen, Gerard; Purcell, Gisela

    Working or discussion paper
    Massey University

    The use of indicators in international development has increased exponentially since the 1990s. Composite and proxy indicators are used to measure a wide range of concepts but their shortcomings have been widely critiqued. Through a review of over 300 documents, this paper gives a brief history of the rise of “indicatorology” and then summarizes the key challenges in three categories: technical/operational, political/strategic and epistemological/conceptual. Technical challenges faced by development practitioners revolve around the over-simplification of complex issues and the conflation of the goals with indicators. Political challenges involve the inherent power of indicators and the implications they have for policy making. Epistemological challenges question how to balance scientific rigor with local knowledge in the creation and use of indicators. A database of all publications used in this research is being made accessible to development practitioners and researchers via Massey University – watch this space!

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  • Stakeholder engagement as a facilitator of organizational learning

    Wu, Minyu; Eweje, Gabriel

    Working or discussion paper
    Massey University

    This paper examines the relationship between stakeholder engagement and competence building. Following the dual perspective of the firm, which indicated that managers deal with both transactions and competences concurrently, we argue that stakeholder interactions also concern both transaction cost reduction and value creation. Based on a review of the extant literature, we incorporated a micro-macro connection between organizational learning and competence building. Further to this, we developed a conceptual framework by linking stakeholder engagement and organizational learning. This framework demonstrates that stakeholder relations may have significant effects on organizational learning and thus stakeholder engagement can play the role of facilitator in building firm competences.

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  • Quantification of channel planform change on the lower Rangitikei River, New Zealand, 1949-2007: response to management?

    Richardson, Jane M.; Fuller, Ian C

    Working or discussion paper
    Massey University

    The Rangitikei River, a large gravel‐bed wandering river located in the North Island of New Zealand, has outstanding scenic characteristics, recreational, fisheries and wildlife habitat features. Recently concerns have been raised over the potential negative impact that perceived channel changes in the latter part of the 20th century may be having on the Rangitikei River recreational fishery. This study describes and quantifies the large‐scale morphological changes that have occurred in selected reaches of the lower Rangitikei River between 1949 and 2007. This research utilised historical aerial photography and analysis in ArcGIS® to quantify channel planform change in three reaches, encompassing ~18 km of the lower Rangitikei River. This showed that the lower Rangitikei was transformed from a multi‐channelled planform to a predominantly single‐thread wandering planform, with an associated reduction in morphological complexity and active channel width of up to 74%, between 1949 and 2007. Bank protection measures instigated under the Rangitikei River Scheme have primarily driven these changes. Gravel extraction has also contributed by enhancing channel‐floodplain disconnection and exacerbating sediment deficits. The findings of this study have implications for future management of the Rangitikei. Previous lower Rangitikei River management schemes have taken a reach‐based engineering approach with a focus on bank erosion protection and flood mitigation. This study has confirmed the lower river has responded geomorphologically to these goals of river control. However questions as to the economic and ecological sustainability of this management style may encourage river managers to consider the benefits of promoting a self‐adjusting fluvial system within a catchment‐framed management approach.

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  • Creativity and class: Review essay

    Prichard, Craig; Boon, Bronwyn; Bill, Amanda; Jones, Deborah

    Working or discussion paper
    Massey University

    This essay offer a critical review of form of class analysis presented in the works of the economic geographer Richard Florida. In it we use the example of the sale of the New Zealand internet auction site Trade Me to the Australian media group Fairfax to illuminate some of the problematic features of Florida's work.

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  • Organizational downsizing and the instrumental worker: Is there a connection?

    Macky, Keith

    Working or discussion paper
    Massey University

    A national population sample of 424 employees was used to explore the proposition that the widespread use of organizational downsizing by management has led employees to adopt a more instrumental orientation to the employment relationship. Contrary to predictions, employees who had never worked in a downsized firm (Controls), or who had been made redundant as a result of downsizing (Victims), reported stronger instrumentalist beliefs than those who had experienced at least one downsizing but had never been made redundant (Survivors). Employees who had experienced more downsizings were also more likely to report lower instrumentalism, by disagreeing with statements suggesting that work is a necessary evil, just something that has to be done in order to earn a living, and that money is the most important reason for having a job. The findings are discussed in the context of reactance theory and instrumentalism as a malleable socialized work attitude.

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  • The effect that rounding to prototypical values has on expected duration estimation accuracy

    Forsyth, Darryl; Burt, Christopher

    Working or discussion paper
    Massey University

    The scheduling component of the time management process was used as a ‘paradigm’ to investigate the estimation of duration of future tasks. Two experiments looked at the effect that the tendency to provide estimates in the form of rounded close approximations had on estimation accuracy. Additionally, the two experiments investigated whether grouping tasks together prior to scheduling would decrease duration estimation error. The majority of estimates provided in both experiments were categorised as rounded close approximations, and were overestimates of the actual time required to complete the experimental tasks. The grouping together of the relatively short tasks used in Experiment 1 resulted in a significant increase in estimation accuracy. A similar result was found in Experiment 2 for relatively long tasks. The results are discussed in relation to the basic processes used to estimate the duration of future tasks, and means by which these scheduling activities can be improved.

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  • Determiners of accuracy when making an expected duration estimation: The role of ‘past’ event/task saliency

    Forsyth, Darryl

    Working or discussion paper
    Massey University

    One of the important ‘skills’ which is associated with effective time management is the ability to accurately estimate the probable duration of a to-be-scheduled event or task. The present study explored the effect that presenting a highly salient, similar to-be-estimated task had on a subsequent task estimate. Participants in this experiment tended to allocate significantly less time to the completion of a task if they had previously estimated the expected duration of a similar, shorter task. Conversely, they tended to allocate significantly more time to the completion of a task if they had previously estimated the expected duration of a similar but longer task. The results are discussed in relation to future developments in scheduling/time management software.

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  • The music of organising: Exploring aesthetic ethnography

    Bathurst, Ralph

    Working or discussion paper
    Massey University

    Through a discussion of Ingarden’s phenomenology, this paper proposes an aesthetic ethnographic methodology. Aesthetic ethnography enables the researcher to view organisations as if they are works of art. This involves observing the continual oscillation between order and chaos, a quality Schiller terms as the play impulse. The shifts in focus from naïve outsider (Emotional Attachment) to critical insider (Cognitive Detachment) and then to informed outsider (Integrated Synthesis) are explored, followed by a case study of a symphony orchestra undergoing governance change.

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  • The relationship between different email management strategies and the perceived control of time

    Forsyth, Darryl; Chen, EeMun

    Working or discussion paper
    Massey University

    Time management research, and the psychological construct of perceived control of time, are drawn on to investigate populist claims of the virtues of regularly filing and organising ones electronic mail. Using a process model of time management, it would seem that filing of email may increase ones time control perceptions and thus their job satisfaction and wellbeing. One hundred and sixty five participants were involved in a questionnaire-based field study. Analyses of variance revealed that for some e-mail users, not having a filing system may result in a high perceived control of time. Furthermore, challenging assumptions regarding optimal e-mail organisation, those that tried to frequently file their incoming messages, but did so somewhat unsuccessfully, had significantly less perceived control of time. These results highlight individual differences in control of time perceptions, and recommendations are made regarding organisational e-mail behaviour and training.

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  • A tiger by the tail: The artistry of crisis management

    Bathurst, Ralph

    Working or discussion paper
    Massey University

    This paper explores the reasons for the failure of local and national leaders to adequately deal with the crisis that resulted from Hurricane Katrina September 2005. It is argued that the failure of instrumentality demonstrates alternative management strategies are required. The aesthetic lens offers options that could have helped avoid many of the disastrous consequences of the flooding.

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  • Participation in practice: Participation, consensus and cooperation in the achievement of economic reform in the Cook Islands

    Barcham, Manuhuia

    Working or discussion paper
    Massey University

    Like many other South Pacific countries the Cook Islands underwent a period of enforced restructuring in the mid-1990s. Yet, unlike many other South Pacific countries, the Cook Islands achieved a considerable degree of success. Field research shows that the success of the reform program in the Cook Islands depended not so much on the actual reform program itself as it did on the way in which reform process unfolded. Given the recent movement by the World Bank towards more participatory approaches to country-level development planning and reform, it seems an opportune time to explore how participatory approaches can actually lead to successful reform outcomes at the country-level. The key to the success of the economic reform program in the Cook Islands can be traced back to three inter-related factors: participation, consensus and cooperation. Combined, all three factors help create a virtuous circle which acted to positively reinforce the ongoing planning and implementation of a reform program. The paper ends by arguing that the key to the success of the Cook Islands reform program was its ongoing participatory nature in both the planning and implementation stage. The World Bank and other multi-lateral institutions would do well to take this lesson onboard.

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  • Remittances: an informal but indispensable form of income for seafarer families in Kiribati

    Borovnik, Maria

    Working or discussion paper
    Massey University

    This paper discusses the distribution of remittances to Kiribati by looking at the socio-cultural elements of people and how these are linked to strategic-economic decision-making when remittances are received by families. Being employed on foreign merchant or tuna vessels has great economic advantages for Kiribati. One of the main advantages is that overseas employment is one of few employment alternatives for the working age population in Kiribati. Remittances sent back serve not only as safety nets for seafarer families, but people benefit through informal channels of distribution. It will be shown in this paper that and how remittances have led to better living conditions for families in Kiribati, increased cash flow and some investment. On the outer islands, however, remittances are often the only cash contribution for some families and are mainly used for basic needs and community contributions.

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  • Te Tai Tini Transformations 2025

    Durie, Mason

    Working or discussion paper
    Massey University

    No abstract available

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