1,738 results for Working or discussion paper

  • Strategic accounting: revisiting the agenda

    Nyamori, Robert Ochoki

    Working or discussion paper
    Massey University

    Rapid changes in the external environment of organisations have been accompanied by calls for accountants to change the nature of information they provide, the skills they possess and the role they play in the organisation. The proposed changes, which are encapsulated under the phrase accounting for strategic positioning or strategic management accounting are two pronged. On one hand accountants are required to reposition themselves in the organisation hierarchy where they will be involved in the formulation, implementation and choice of strategies. Accountants are also being urged to adopt a range of techniques whose emphasis is futuristic and external to the firm especially emphasizing the importance of monitoring customers and competitors. A review of the literature has revealed that while considerable effort has been put into the development of rational techniques for proposed use less has gone into whether, how and with what effect the proposed techniques have been implemented in organisations and society. The literature has adopted an uncritical approach to the proposals for a strategic accounting, providing little insight into how the discourse of strategy has come to occupy such a position of centrality in organisations and society with other functions seeking to be branded “strategic”.

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  • Aspects of the motivation for voluntary disclosures: evidence from the publication of value added statements in an emerging economy

    van Staden, C. J.

    Working or discussion paper
    Massey University

    This paper investigates the motivation for the voluntary disclosure of financial information by companies in their annual financial statements, by examining aspects of the usefulness of the value added statement. The value added statement is published voluntarily with the annual financial statements and is currently experiencing high levels of publication in South Africa, which is evidently brought about by the high political costs and significant legitimacy threats that companies operating in South Africa are facing. It was found from the literature and from a survey among management that the value added statement was primarily aimed at the employees. Employees have also been regarded as users of financial information in the literature. However, a survey among trade unions in South Africa found that almost no use is made of the value added statement even though the unions make use of other financial information. This indicates that voluntary disclosures do not necessarily satisfy the information needs of their intended audience. The research also indicates that the trade unions might not use the value added statement because they suspect that the statement is being used to reduce political costs and legitimacy threats, and is therefore not reliable. This is a major shortcoming of voluntary disclosures.

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  • The impact of events on annual reporting disclosures

    Hooks, J. J.

    Working or discussion paper
    Massey University

    Burchell, Club and Hopwood (1985) considered that “little is known of how...wider social forces can impinge upon and change accounting” (p.382). This study identifies six political forces that may have instigated changes in accounting practice and annual reporting of a New Zealand electricity entity. Based on the literature (Hopwood, 1983, 1990; Napier, 1989; Gray and Haslam, 1990; Thomson, 1993) it is expected that significant changes in the environment in which the entity operates will effect changes in reporting. The study compares the annual report disclosures of an Electricity Supply Authority on a yearly basis from 1970 to 2001 - a 18 year period with little significant environmental impact in the electricity industry with a period of intense activity in the following 14 years. The study found considerable evidence that the change from a local body accountable to electors/consumers to a public company accountable to shareholders, led to a greater emphasis on profits and earnings per share as a means of measuring performance. It identifies specific changes in accounting practice that support this view as well as a period of “big bath” accounting, decreasing disclosure of commercially sensitive information, and the increasing use of dramatic presentation in the annual report.

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  • Web assisted teaching: an undergraduate experience

    van Staden, C. J.; Kirk, N. E.; Hawkes, L. C.

    Working or discussion paper
    Massey University

    The emergence of the Internet has created a number of claims as to the future of education and the possibility of dramatically changing the way in which education is delivered. Much of the attention has focussed on the adoption of teaching methods that are solely web-based. We set out to incorporate web-based teaching as support for more traditional teaching methods to improve the learning outcomes for students. This first step into web-based teaching was developed to harness the benefits of web-based teaching tools without supplanting traditional teaching methods. The aim of this paper is to report our experience with web-assisted teaching in two undergraduate courses, Accounting Information Systems and Management Accounting Services, during 2000. The paper evaluates the approach taken and proposes a tentative framework for developing future web-assisted teaching applications. We believe that web-assisted and web-based teaching are inevitable outcomes of the telecommunications and computer revolution and that academics cannot afford to become isolated from the on-line world. A considered approach is needed to ensure the integration of web-based features into the overall structure of a course. The components of the course material and the learning experiences students are exposed to need to be structured and delivered in a way that ensures they support student learning rather than replacing one form of learning with another. Therefore a careful consideration of the structure, content, level of detail and time of delivery needs to be integrated to create a course structure that provides a range of student learning experiences that are complimentary rather than competing. The feedback was positive from both extramural (distance) and internal students, demonstrating to us that web sites can be used as an effective teaching tool in support of more traditional teaching methods as well as a tool for distance education. The ability to harness the positives of the web in conjunction with more traditional teaching modes is one that should not be overlooked in the move to adopt web based instruction methods. Web-based teaching need not be seen as an all or nothing divide but can be used as a useful way of improving the range and type of learning experiences open to students. The Web challenges traditional methods and thinking but it also provides tools to develop innovative solutions to both distance and on campus learning. Further research is needed to determine how we can best meet the needs of our students while maintaining high quality learning outcomes.

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  • Management accounting education: is there a gap between academia and practitioner perceptions?

    Hawkes, L. C.; Fowler, M.; Tan, L. M.

    Working or discussion paper
    Massey University

    A mail survey was conducted of all Institute of Chartered Accountants of New Zealand accredited Tertiary Education Institutions and 300 randomly selected New Zealand companies to ascertain the views of management accounting academics and practitioners on the contents of management accounting courses and the skills and competencies of recent graduates. The results show that practitioners placed an emphasis on traditional management accounting techniques, while academics placed an emphasis on contemporary techniques. Both groups were in agreement on the skills and characteristics required of recent graduates. An interesting finding was the emergence of negative comments on the arrogance of new graduates and an increased need for graduates to be work ready. These two aspects were not a feature of previous studies. The implications of the results are that academics cannot ignore the teaching of traditional management accounting techniques and may need to increase the coverage of the issues involved in implementing contemporary management accounting techniques.

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  • The definition of "Insider" in section 3 of the securities markets Act 1988: A review and comparison with other jurisdictions

    Su, Z.; Berkahn, M. A.

    Working or discussion paper
    Massey University

    Statutory definitions of what constitutes an “insider” for the purposes of insider trading laws may be based on either a “person connection” approach or an “information connection” approach. The “person connection” approach defines “insider” by reference to the relationship of the person to the public issuer of securities, while the “information connection” approach considers anyone who has material price-sensitive information about the issuer to be an insider, regardless of his or her relationship to the issuer. In common with Japan, Hong Kong and China, New Zealand’s insider trading law — the Securities Markets Act 1988 — uses a person connection approach in its definition of “insider”. Other jurisdictions, however, including both the United Kingdom and Australia, have, to varying degrees, recently amended their definitions to reflect the information connection approach. The United States, although the first country to address the issue of insider trading, lacks a statutory definition of “insider” and instead relies on generally applicable laws against securities fraud. It has developed a definition with elements of both approaches. This paper reviews the definitions in use in the United States and in other countries (including New Zealand) which have been influenced by the American experience. It concludes that the narrow, relationship-based approach does not capture some conduct that may be damaging to the integrity of the securities market. A definition based on the information connection approach (perhaps combined with elements of the person connection approach) may therefore be preferable to New Zealand’s current definition.

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  • Kiwi talent flow : a study of chartered accountants and business professionals overseas

    Hooks, J. J.; Carr, S. C.; Edwards, M. F.; Inkson, K.; Jackson, D. J. R.; Thorn, K. J.; Allfree, N.

    Working or discussion paper
    Massey University

    New Zealanders have always had a propensity to travel overseas. The globalisation of the world has seen an increase in the number of people who, having completed their education and gained some work experience, set off on their overseas experience. Concern has been expressed as to the potential “brain drain” that would result should these well-educated and talented citizens remain overseas permanently. This research considers the propensity to return of over 1,500 expatriate Kiwis working in the areas of accounting and finance. It examines their demographics, attitudes, values, motivations, factors of attraction to, and repulsion from, New Zealand and their concerns for change in New Zealand. It therefore provides insights into the nature and purpose of this significant group of professionals resident mainly in the United Kingdom and Australia. We find that less than half are likely to return to New Zealand. This is because of the lack of career and business opportunities despite the “pull” of family and relations in New Zealand.

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  • The determinants of the accounting classification of convertible debt when managers have freedom of choice

    Bishop, Helen E.

    Working or discussion paper
    Massey University

    This study examines the accounting classification of convertible debt in an environment where there is the choice of debt, other capital funds or equity. Contracting theory suggests possible determinants of accounting choice. These are leverage, as a proxy for closeness to debt covenants, the relative size of the convertible financial instrument issued and the contractual terms of the instrument. Two measures of leverage are used. One is debt to earnings before interest, tax, depreciation and amortisation (EBITDA). This variable has been included as it is the most commonly used ratio in debt covenants. The second measure is debt to net tangible assets as this ratio, or similar ratios, have been used in previous accounting studies to proxy for closeness to debt covenants. As leverage ratios tend to vary between industries I identify whether each firm is above or below their industry average. I find that the best predictor of the accounting classification choice is the contractual terms of the instrument. The two debt covenants derived hypotheses are not supported. The leverage of the issuer and the relative size of the issue have no significant influence on the choice of classification.

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  • Justice in New Zealand's Treaty of Waitangi settlement process.

    Gibbs, Meredith

    Working or discussion paper
    Massey University

    In this paper I examine how the New Zealand government, through the Treaty of Waitangi settlement process, is providing contemporary reparation for historical injustices against Maori tribes. Because historical injustices involve the interactions of cultures over time, justice in New Zealand’s Treaty settlement process is shaped, and constrained, by two key factors: ‘culture’ and ‘time’. First, I make the case that justice in the Treaty settlement process is only that part of justice that is shared by Maori and the New Zealand Crown and that this shared conception of justice is found in the Treaty of Waitangi (the influence of ‘culture’). Following on from this, I show how the Treaty as the shared standard of justice limits the justice in the Treaty settlement process in important ways. Second, I argue that because reparation for historical injustice is made in the present, and works into the future, justice in the Treaty settlement process is not full reparative justice (the influence of ‘time’). Rather, although the justice of the Treaty settlement process is by nature reparative, its scope is limited by contemporary, and prospective, justice concerns. I argue, finally, that the Treaty settlement process reflects a reconciliatory approach to reparative justice where the cultural survival of Maori through restoration of the promises of the Treaty is given greater weight than the provision of full reparation for past wrongs.

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  • The growth of beach fale accommodation in Samoa: Doing tourism the Samoan way

    Scheyvens, Regina

    Working or discussion paper
    Massey University

    Samoa is an independent Pacific Island nation with beautiful beaches, rainforests and volcanic features, and is home to vibrant Polynesian communities living mainly in picturesque villages dotted around two main islands. It is seemingly another perfect island paradise, yet Samoans have a long history of resistance to outside interference thus in the past they have been reluctant to trade on their country’s natural beauty and cultural features by encouraging tourism development. Threats to the country’s agriculture sector from two cyclones and a taro blight led to a change of heart in the early 1990s, and tourism has since rapidly grown to become Samoa’s main industry, contributing four times more to the economy than agriculture (Twining-Ward and Twining-Ward, 1998). Arrivals grew from less than 48,000 in 1990 to over 92,000 by 2003. However, unlike the three most popular Pacific Island destinations, Fiji, French Polynesia and New Caledonia, Samoa is not home to numerous large resorts. Instead the tourism industry here is dominated by small to medium sized enterprises which are mostly under local ownership and control. The largest growth in recent years has been experienced in the budget beach fale accommodation sector. Beach fale, or traditional beach huts, are now a strong feature of the coastal landscape of Samoa. A family or community need relatively little capital to establish a beach fale operation, but the family or community group does need permission from the relevant matai (chiefs). These fale range from basic, open sided huts with thatched roofs and traditional woven blinds in the place of walls, to walled bungalows with small verandas. Bathroom and dining facilities are shared with other guests, and the relations between guests and those catering to their needs are more friendly than servile. Guests are expected to conform with cultural protocol during their stay, which includes dressing appropriately when entering a village and respecting Sa(evening prayer time). Staff of the Samoan Tourism Authority generally recognise the value of beach fale as a unique tourism product, and they have been supported by NZAID in providing training and financial support to beach fale owners over the past few years. Training in areas such as financial management, health and safety, and service skills is helping to address areas of weakness which exist in the beach fale sector, where many of the owners have limited business experience. Beach fale attract a wide range of clientele, with both Samoan and foreign tourists being very important markets. Samoan guests include couples, families, and youth groups who typically take weekend day trips from Apia to nearby beaches where they pay a small fee to cover use of the beach and a beach fale (which provides shade and a comfortable resting place). Longer stay visitors to beach fale include government and non-governmental agency staff who are sent on retreats to work on their mission statement or review goals and objectives, and family or school groups celebrating a reunion. Foreign visitors are also a diverse group which, rather than being limited to international backpackers, includes a lot of young and middle-aged couples from Australia and New Zealand, surfers, adventurers and ecotourists of all ages, and clientele from up-market hotels like Aggie Grey’s who desire a unique cultural experience for a day or two. The majority of tourists interviewed in this research were extremely positive about beach fale tourism. Typical comments from a beach fale visitor’s book were as follows: ‘Great place’; ‘fantastic food’; ‘wonderful beach’; ‘friendly family’. Many guests commented that they would like to stay longer and/or to return one day. The location of beach fale on what would be prime coastal property with premium values in most parts of the world certainly adds to the value of the fale.One respondent referred to beach fale as ‘5 star hotels the Samoan way’, and many tourists remarked that staying in an open fale gave them a sense of the affinity between culture and nature in Samoan society. Both Samoan and foreign tourists agreed that there were several services that were central to an enjoyable beach fale experience: • clean and well maintained facilities • good meals incorporating local produce • a secure environment • friendly staff. There were few negative perceptions of beach fale, but they are worth mentioning so those operating beach fales or providing training to operators are aware of tourists’ concerns. While they appreciated the relaxed pace of life in Samoa, some tourists felt that the hospitality was ‘too casual’ at times. For example, tourists expressed annoyance that fale which had been booked in advance were given to other guests, and at the time taken to respond to their requests for service or assistance. Newly arrived tourists were sometimes anxious about security or privacy concerns when staying in open fale, but their fears usually abated after a few days. Some tourists felt there was a lack of clarity or inconsistency with pricing practices, thus every operator in a village might charge ST$60 for one night even when the quality of their accommodation and service varied enormously. While a few foreign tourists were concerned that beach fale were now crowding the beach in popular locations, Samoan tourists had no concern about this and felt that there was still space for growth in the overall number of fale. Finally a minority of tourists felt resentful that there were cultural restrictions placed on their activities at certain times (e.g. Sundays); the majority were however very positive about the value of Samoan culture and respectful in their attitude to beach fale rules. Samoa demonstrates that a country with strong indigenous control of the tourism sector can be economically successful. Large-scale development of up-market hotels and resorts based on foreign investment need not be the key objective of Third World governments that wish to maximize their gains from tourism. Indeed, it is probably in Samoa’s interests to stay with small-medium scale tourism development and to cater for a diverse range of tourists, including domestic tourists and those traveling on a budget. Many tourists who come to Samoa are attracted at least partly because of what a locally-controlled tourism industry can offer, namely, low to moderate prices, friendly service, basic accommodation in stunning locations, and a cultural experience.

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  • Sport as a vehicle for development: The influence of rugby league in/on the Pacific.

    Stewart-Withers, Rochelle; Brook, Martin

    Working or discussion paper
    Massey University

    In the field of development the relationship between development and sport has for the most part been ignored (Beacom 2007, Levermore 2008). When it has been discussed it occurs in a way whereby ‘sport is seen as a by-product of development not as an engine’ (United Nations 2006 cited in Levermore 2008:184). While conceptualisations of the sport and development relationship have begun to emerge, as noted in recent United Nations documents (also see AusAid 2008), an argument persists that the use of sport for development remains unproven (World Bank 2006). In keeping with post-development thinking which seeks to explore differing visions and expressions of development and by taking a strengths-based approach to the sport and development nexus, this paper considers critically the notion of sport as an engine of development. We will focus specifically on the role of rugby league, the NRL, and the Pacific region in relation to community development, youth development and crime prevention, health promotion and prevention, in particular HIV/AIDS and family violence, and economic opportunities and poverty alleviation.

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  • Morphological budgeting in the Motueka River: an analysis of technique

    Fuller, Ian C.; Vale, Simon S.

    Working or discussion paper
    Massey University

    Morphological budgeting is a key method for monitoring and studying sediment transfers within gravelly rivers. We assess the utility of traditional cross‐section approaches to budgeting using Digital Elevation Model (DEM) analysis. DEMs give a more accurate volume calculation within the constraint of sampling frequency compared with cross sections, since a greater area of river bed is sampled. DEM volume calculation within the 1.7 km ‘Three Beaches’ reach in the upper Motueka revealed a net loss of 3219 m3 in this reach between 2008‐2009. Comparisons of this value with cross section‐based volume calculations at a range of section spacing using (i) Mean Bed Level (MBL) analysis and (ii) DEMs generated from cross section data, suggest accuracy of the budget is maximised at a critical cross section spacing not exceeding 90 m. Careful positioning of cross sections could lengthen this distance further and is essential to accurately represent river channel morphology. MBL analysis using cross‐sections in the reach monumented by Tasman District Council (TDC) for river monitoring underestimates the magnitude of net sediment transfers by c. 30%.

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  • Quantifying slope-channel coupling in an active gully and fan complex at Tarndale, Waipaoa catchment, New Zealand

    Fuller, Ian C; Dean, Josh F; Phillips, Emma; Massey, Chris; Marden, Mike

    Working or discussion paper
    Massey University

    Two RIEGL LMS‐Z420i scanner surveys (November 2007 and November 2008) of the Tarndale Gully complex and its associated fan were used to generate a digital elevation model (DEM) of difference in order to quantify gully‐fan‐channel connectivity. The Te Weraroa Stream, into which the first order Tarndale system feeds, is buffered from sediment generated by the gully complex by a fan. Sediment yields and the role of the fan in buffering Te Weraroa Stream are inferred from the TLS of the entire complex. DEM analysis suggests that c.25% of material derived from the gully is buffered from the stream by being stored in the fan. This figure was applied to fan behaviour since December 2004, mapped on nine successive occasions using detailed GPS surveys to get a longer‐term picture of sediment supply within the system and appraise a qualitative assessment of connectivity constructed on the basis of fan behaviour alone.

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  • What lessons can we learn from Babe, a sheep-pig, about inter-cultural adaptation?

    Sayers, Janet; Ruffolo, Lara

    Working or discussion paper
    Massey University

    This paper examines the movie Babe to discuss inter-cultural adaptation strategies and the role that affection and trust plays in inter-cultural relations. Specifically this paper discusses these inter-cultural themes in the context of who Babe becomes (a sheep-pig) and what his transformation into this hybrid may teach us about the inter-cultural adaptation journey. The paper provides a description of the major themes and characters in the movie, and shows how Babe and other animal characters approach the process of intercultural adaptation with varied degrees of success. We suggest that Babe is a useful resource for educators, and suggest ways that the movie can be used to promote dialogue in the classroom about inter-cultural adaptation strategies.

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  • Irony's architecture: Reflections on a photographic research project

    Sayers, Janet; Bathurst, Ralph; Symonds, Henry

    Working or discussion paper
    Massey University

    This paper presents a research approach based on irony, rather than certainty. Using Richard Rorty's conception of irony, we contend that much traditional research in management presents a final language which is implicit in both the construction of a research method and its final presentation as findings. This paper suggests we should take irony more seriously, and deliberately construct research to allow and encourage re-description by our research's final arbiters - its readers, and even its subjects. Further, we advocate that by inviting irony into our work, we encourage greater identification between ourselves, our audience of readers, and the subjects of our work. We illustrate our argument by reflecting on a recent photographic research project which was a collaborative effort between management researchers and an artist. We show how the simple architecture of this project was built from doubt and how irony is communicated through the pictures. We then show how photography can be a useful technique that encourages readers to engage in re-description of petit récits (small stories), told through images. We discuss our reflections by focusing on the implications of our research for management education.

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  • The genesis of organisational aesthetics

    Bathurst, Ralph

    Working or discussion paper
    Massey University

    Organisational aesthetics is a burgeoning field with a growing community of scholars engaged in arts-based approaches to research. Recent developments in this field have their origins in the works of early Enlightenment writers such as Vico, Baumgarten and Kant. This paper examines the contributions of these three philosophers and in particular focuses on Vico’s awareness of history and myth; Baumgarten’s notion of sensation and its relationship to rationality; and Kant’s investigations into form and content. By drawing on these ideas, the contemporary aesthetic researcher is informed by qualities such as an alert imagination, comfort with the chaotic, backward thinking, and attention to inner sensations and perceptions, which all work together to provide a coherent view of the organisation as a gestalt.

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  • Constructing 'traditional' concepts: The case of Maori governance

    Warren, Te Rina

    Working or discussion paper
    Massey University

    As colonisation infiltrated Māori societies, ‘traditional’ practices and concepts became dismantled, restricted to isolated domains, concealed, abandoned or adapted to contemporary settings. A colonial government has produced a contemporary form of Māori governance in which most people commonly associate with some type of ‘traditional’ governance system. Although the naming of such institutions has its own tradition, their assimilation into western governance systems merely provides the illusion of traditional control. Understanding that such processes have taken place provides a platform that can increase consciousness of how they can maintain some of their classically traditional structures and practices. This paper considers the case of Māori governance as an example highlighting how traditional knowledges must move from the peripheries of ‘knowing’ and re-establish themselves back at the centre.

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  • State-guided entrepreneurship: A case study

    Shome, Tony

    Working or discussion paper
    Massey University

    The premise that active engagement by the state in business is crucial for small, developing economies for global competitiveness is based on the assumption that the state has the wherewithal to support such competitiveness. This paper advocates the view that governments of developing economies should be involved in business. While this view goes against the trend of popular and current thinking of the free market economy and a non-interventionist government, it needs to be recognized that such ideals are beyond many struggling, developing economies whose space in the global economy is heavily constricted by the presence of the developed economies. Using Singapore, more specifically, its government-owned company Temasek Holdings, as a case study, this paper argues that the concept of state-guided entrepreneurship has beenapplied successfully based on the hypothesis offered in this paper.

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  • CSR and staff retention in New Zealand companies: A literature review

    Eweje, Gabriel; Bentley, Tim

    Working or discussion paper
    Massey University

    This working paper examines the notion that there is a relationship between CSR and staff retention in organisations. Studies have shown that people are becoming more aware of business activities in many countries. As such, companies with good CSR policies are being rewarded by consumers and this is manifested in companies’ financial position in the long term. On the other hand, consumers will punish companies with poor CSR reputation. This review is illustrated through an analysis of literature on corporate social responsibility intended to advance that there is a relationship between CSR and staff retention in organisations. By translating the general principles of CSR into business practices, by developing better measures of CSR, and by empowering and engaging employees, businesses are more likely to embrace CSR so that it penetrates all business activities.

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  • Research based yet action oriented: Developing individual level enterprising competencies

    Van Gelderen, Marco

    Working or discussion paper
    Massey University

    This paper outlines an approach to teaching enterprising competencies in the university setting of Massey University, Auckland, New Zealand. It is characterised by two features. First, it has an experiential component in the form of developmental exercises; forms of practice which are devised by the students themselves. Second, the exercises are research-based: students study academic articles and book chapters that give clues about how to practice the various competencies. The method is inspired by Gibb’s (1993, 1998, 2002a, 2002b) ideas about simulating the essences of enterprise in the learning environment. The approach used at Massey is outlined at the end of the paper. The paper begins with offering the rationales for the course. First, it provides arguments as to why enterprising competencies are becoming increasingly important for our students. Second, it is argued why, out of three approaches to competency, the behavioural approach is deemed to be the most suitable for the approach employed at Massey. Third, in the debate about generic versus situation specific competencies, it argues for the relevance of generic competencies. The paper then describes entrepreneurship / small business (E/SB) research on competencies, and discusses why entrepreneurship research is often of little help for ‘how to’ approaches. Finally, the Massey approach is described in detail.

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