1,740 results for Working or discussion paper

  • Imagining 'environment' in sustainable development

    Farrelly, Trisia Angela

    Working or discussion paper
    Massey University

    The paper presents an argument for a broader and more complex definition of environment than that currently offered in sustainable development discourse and practice. Sustainable development is rooted in dominant western rational and instrumental scientific representations of human-environment relationships. As such, it has been criticised as misrepresentative and meaningless for many of those for whom it is intended. Recent contributions by social scientists have emphasized the need to move beyond the narrow construction of the human-environment dichotomy found in western scientific rhetoric. These emerging ‘new ecologies’ advocate a re-imagining of human-environment relationships as holistic, connective, and relational, and as a product of direct perception and active engagement in the world. The Boumā National Heritage Park, Fiji, a community-based ecotourism initiative is presented as a case study to identify discrepancies between indigenous perceptions of the environment and those of formally educated western development practitioners, as well as the potential for ongoing convergence.

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  • Tourist attraction? Or reverence – The Royal New Zealand Air Force Museum. A case study of the tensions between intent and presentation

    Cardow, Andrew; Emerson, Alistair

    Working or discussion paper
    Massey University

    The military museum has in the last quarter of the 20th Century undergone a transformation in Western societies. The military museum has become less concerned with remembrance and more concerned with education and analysis. In New Zealand the armed services operate three museums; the Army, Air Force and Navy Museums. The following article is a case study based upon an interview undertaken with the Director of the Royal New Zealand Air Force Museum. This case study highlights the tensions a military museum Director may encounter in undertaking their duties, and satisfying their diverse stakeholders. For the Director of the RNZAF museum, a conflict has arisen between the needs to offer critical analysis of historical actions (in an educative context); to provide a tourist destination (as a primary means of funding) and to ensure a site of remembrance for those affected by the events portrayed.

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  • Summary financial reports : review of international guidelines and literature : NZ evidence and issues

    Laswad, Fawzi; Weil, Sidney H.; Clark, Murray B.

    Working or discussion paper
    Lincoln University

    Although there are no professional guidelines or statutory regulations that permit or guide the presentation of summarised financial reports in New Zealand, a number of NZ companies provide such reports to their shareholders as alternatives for the comprehensive GAAP-based financial reports. Developments in other countries suggest that it is likely that increasing numbers of NZ companies may choose to follow this trend. It has been suggested that summary financial reports would lead to cost savings and improving communication with shareholders. However, the evidence from the literature is not conclusive that these objectives have been achieved by the publication of such reports. In this article, we review the guidelines and literature relating to summary financial reports in other countries, evaluate the content of summarised financial reports provided by New Zealand companies, and identify issues relating to the preparation of such statements.

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  • Student perceptions of the pedagogical features of a computer-aided learning program in introductory accounting

    Weil, Sidney H.; Clark, Murray B.; Wegner, T.

    Working or discussion paper
    Lincoln University

    Computer usage in accounting education is increasing, with computer-aided learning (CAL) packages becoming readily available. A consequent challenge facing accounting educators is to ensure that the increased use of computers occurs in a way that maximises its contribution to student learning. Some studies have examined whether CAL packages produce performance benefits for students. Few studies, however, have investigated the pedagogical features of these packages.This study identifies such features and measures student perceptions about the features used in a particular package, and their perceived value in meeting stated educational outcomes. Data was gathered by way of a questionnaire, and the responses analysed using the Analytic Hierarchy Process. The results indicate that the package was regarded as a highly beneficial learning resource, with the content and available support mechanisms rated as the two most useful pedagogical features.

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  • Does tenure review in New Zealand’s South Island give rise to rents?

    Brower, Ann L.; Meguire, P.

    Working or discussion paper
    Lincoln University

    Under “tenure review,” a New Zealand pastoral lessee surrenders part of his leasehold toconservation and acquires a freehold interest in the remainder. 28 new freeholders paid the Crown$6.9 million for freehold rights to 101,752ha, then sold 46% of that land for $135.7 million. Wemodel tenure review as a sequential real option – first to acquire freehold, then to subdivide andsell all or part of their new freeholds. We find little evidence that the Crown accounted for theseoption values when negotiating tenure review, and conclude that the capital gains enjoyed byformer lessees are rents.

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  • Physical and mental health issues in the Te Aroha district

    Hart, Philip (2016)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Waikato

    Although Te Aroha was considered to be a healthy district, until the early twentieth century it lacked clean water or adequate sanitation. There were justifiable fears of typhus and other diseases being created by these lacks and by the common ‘nuisances’ caused by unsanitary behaviour. Many people had a poor diet, which was normal for men undertaking prospecting far from their homes. For miners, their working conditions were always unhealthy, and miners’ complaint was common, affecting battery hands also. Medical services remained inadequate until the twentieth century because doctors could not settle for long (for financial reasons) and there was no local hospital. Some doctors, nurses, and dentists visited, but the seriously ill had to be sent out of the district. For injuries, chemists and nurses did their best, as did a dubiously skilled local doctor. Self-medication was common. Examples are given of breakdowns in mental health, which sometimes led to physical attacks on others or to suicide.

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  • John Squirrell: a farmer and storekeeper who mined (briefly) at Te Aroha

    Hart, Philip (2016)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Waikato

    An English merchant’s clerk, some years after his wife’s death John Squirrell brought his sister and daughters to New Zealand to settle in the new Shaftesbury settlement, upriver from Te Aroha. His letters to English relatives provided details of their experiments with growing a variety of produce, which they sold locally or sent to the Auckland. He also took over a store, running it with the assistance of one of his daughters and struggling to obtain payment from customers before refusing to sell on credit. A leading member of the small Shaftesbury community, he did his best to assist its development. In 1888 a blacksmith and sometime miner, James Munro, convinced him to prospect ground in the Tui portion of the goldfield. Again, his letters provided details of their amateur and short-term, unprofitable efforts; lacking capital to open up their ground, it was soon abandoned. His investments in Waiorongomai mines were equally unprofitable. In 1892 Squirrell acquired land at another settlement, at Gordon, further upriver. He struggled to develop this farm, and was involved in conflicts with other members of the settlement, especially after he became secretary of the association. He continued to farm elsewhere, and became involved in early dairy companies, again becoming caught up in controversy. A man holding strong opinions on a variety of topics, and very willing to express them, he regarded himself as a radical but opposed the Liberal Government. In his personal life he had to cope with two daughters suffering from mental problems, one of them being admitted to the asylum. He spent all his life attempting to provide for his family, only attaining a modest standard of living.

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  • Power and multistakeholderism in internet global governance. Towards a synergetic theoretical framework

    Antonova, Slavka

    Working or discussion paper
    Massey University

    With the advancement of multistakeholder collaboration as a governance principle in theglobal Internet Governance, how to investigate the political process in a ‘shared power’environment emerges as a challenging methodological issue. In this paper, a synergetic theoretical approach is proposed to the study of Internet governance political process, which focuses on the concept of power, and crosses the boundaries of three academic fields, namely, Political Philosophy, Political Science and International Relations, and Organization Studies. This approach aggregates, in a descending analytical manner, concepts intrinsically linked to the contemporary shifting governance paradigm (i.e. governmentality, global governance, global public-policy networks, shared power, multistakeholder collaboration). In addition, such an approach brings the collaborative process into focus (rather than the decisions it leads to) by accentuating the productive potential of a collaboration based on the ‘shared power’ formula. Each of those theoretical reflections on shifting power relations provides building elements for a synergetic theoretical framework that can be, and has been, applied to the investigation of the emergent Internet governance regime. As a result, stakeholder alliances can be mapped, instances of power dynamics can be discerned, and some longitudinal tangible and intangible outcomes of the multistakeholder collaboration can be envisioned.

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  • Re-conceiving management education: Artful teaching and learning

    Bathurst, Ralph; Sayers, Janet; Monin, Nanette

    Working or discussion paper
    Massey University

    Artists derive inspiration from daily life. According to John Dewey, common experiences are transformed into works of art through a process of compression and expression. In this paper we adopt this frame, showing how it is used within the pedagogical environment. Students were asked to reflect on their lives and offer an artful response to those experiences. Artfulness is defined here as a process which relies on the discursive practices of satire, and in particular irony and parody. We demonstrate the use of these rhetorical techniques as reflective tools, offering a service management class as an exemplar. In this class students were asked to consider their common experiences as both customers and service providers, and create an ironic artefact. We analyse a cartoon sequence produced by students in response to this assignment, where they parodied the fast-food service experience, illustrating how a business studies classroom can be transformed into an artful space.

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  • Partnering for progress: Business partnership with non-profits in New Zealand

    Eweje, Gabriel; Palakshappa, Nitha

    Working or discussion paper
    Massey University

    This paper examines partnerships between business organisations and non-profits in New Zealand. Collaboration is becoming increasingly essential as organisations grow in both size and influence, and public pressure intensifies for organisations to address pressing social and environmental concerns. An increasing number of businesses have responded by engaging in corporate citizenship programmes to resolve social problems. Social partnerships between business and non-profits are widely promoted as important new strategies which will bring significant benefits to wider stakeholders. A key concern in business/non-profit collaboration is how organisations might collaborate to achieve mutually beneficial objectives and align with the organisations corporate social responsibility. This research seeks to develop an understanding of what the objectives of such relationships might be and to what extent these objectives are achieved.

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  • Everyman with fangs: The acceptance of the modern vampire

    Cardow, Andrew

    Working or discussion paper
    Massey University

    The vampire, an enduring demon from the European middle ages has through the course of the 20th century undergone a journey of transformation. The journey of the beast describes a circle, starting and ending with the depiction of the vampire as a soulless, evil killing machine. From the Middle Ages, moving into the 18th century the vampire slowly becomes more sophisticated, becoming first Varney, then Dracula, then in the last quarter of the 20th century as the accepted and understood Vampires Louis and Lestat. From there the vampire is found in television, theatre and cinema in such films as Fright Night, Blade, and The Lost Boys. Finally with the appearance of Buffy the Vampire Slayer, the vampire becomes once again everyman with fangs and the circular journey began in the European Middle Ages has been completed.

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  • The metaphorical rise of entrepreneurship

    Cardow, Andrew

    Working or discussion paper
    Massey University

    The words that have come to be associated with innovative and creative business enterprises – entrepreneur, entrepreneurship and entrepreneurial – have their English origins in the realm of armed conflict. However over time the terms were colonised by the commercial world with the result that by the end of the 20th century the terms have become firmly embed within the language of commerce. Yet along the way the meaning attached to the terms have become disassociated with commerce. By the start of the 21st Century the term entrepreneurial has become a metaphor, a stand in for innovation, creativity, proactivity and risk. It is argued that such a metaphor is not owned by the commercial world and instead is a figure of speech that can be used in any situation where the speaker requires a conceptual word to mean innovation, risk, proactivity and creativity.

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  • Reconciling tourism, cultural change and empowerment in a Tibetan host community

    Dombroski, Kelly

    Working or discussion paper
    Massey University

    Tourism to Tibetan regions has become increasingly popular amongst Westerners in the last few decades, as interest in Tibetan culture and religion has grown. This interest in things Tibetan has combined with the literature on development and tourism in indigenous communities to result in a conceptualisation of Tibetan culture as a fragile cultural relic that must be preserved and protected from outside influences. However, the indigenous Tibetan communities of Western China’s Jiuzhaigou National Nature Reserve have told a different story of their experiences with tourism and development. Mass tourism in Jiuzhaigou has in fact been harnessed for community development and cultural revitalisation through local women’s communal businesses. Yet their development and empowerment has been to some extent bittersweet, as the women fear that their decision to use tourism revenue to offer their children choice through the Chinese education system may ultimately erode their traditional culture. The dilemma for the people of Jiuzhaigou is similar to that for many indigenous groups: how can a desire to preserve traditional culture be reconciled with a desire to empower the next generation?

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  • Beach fale tourism in Samoa: The value of indigenous ownership and control over tourism

    Scheyvens, Regina

    Working or discussion paper
    Massey University

    This working paper reports on the findings of a research project which explores the budget tourism sector in Samoa as epitomized by beach fale tourism. Its main aim is to draw attention to the legitimacy and value of this often overlooked sector of the tourism market. As such it documents ways in which beach fale have contributed to development in Samoan villages, as well as identifying constraints to improvement of this sector. It concludes with a number of recommendations as to how sustainable, equity-enhancing development of tourism in Samoa can be supported in the future. Readers seeking a thorough understanding of beach fale tourism, including contextual information on the nature of tourism development in Samoa, and specific information concerning training and financial support for beach fale operators and impressions of tourists, are referred to an earlier paper in this series (CIGAD Working Paper No.3/2005 – see Scheyvens 2005b). The beach fale industry has contributed significantly to the development of a number of Samoan villages. There have been widespread multiplier effects for village communities as the fale are constructed using mainly local materials and expertise, and their owners often purchase items such as fruit, vegetables, seafood, and mats from the village and hire village labour during busy periods. Guests also contribute to the wider village through various means such as purchases made from village shops, use of local transport, and contributions to the collection plate when they attend a church service. Another benefit of beach fale tourism which has not been officially acknowledged is that it has restored the pride of many villagers in their home environment. Most Samoans feel genuinely honoured when people from all over the world come to visit their village and learn about their culture, and consequently community members contribute enthusiastically to village beautification efforts. Furthermore, the economic rejuvenation of some villages through beach fale tourism has reduced rural-urban migration as young people feel they now can stay in their home village and have a viable future. Despite the significant growth of the beach fale sector and the benefits this has brought to rural communities, it has been overlooked, disregarded, and in some cases harshly criticised by various commentators. Beach fale are seemingly invisible to those estimating the number of beds available for tourists in Samoa, for example, as they do not include beach fale accommodation in their estimates. Similarly, an Asian Development Bank report on Samoa (ADB 2000) with an entire chapter on tourism does not mention that beach fale exist. Outside consultants and investors, meanwhile, have voiced frustration with the communal land tenure system and its requirement for consensus in decisions concerning land use, as this has impeded the development of large resorts in prime beach side locations; instead, small clusters of beach fale occupy some of the best coastal sites in Samoa. This also irks some Samoans involved in the tourism industry, as they feel that there are too many run-down beach fale, forming a scar on the landscape. Related to this point, it has been suggested that the development of a strong budget tourism sector is not good for Samoa’s image because a country so well endowed with natural and cultural assets should be home to high class resorts which attract high spending tourists. In addition there is some jealousy of the success of beach fale from the owners of small, lower class hotels, who now see many of their former clientele (such as staff of government agencies) preferring to stay in beach fale; it is likely that this jealousy contributes to negative perceptions of what beach fale have to offer the tourism sector. The Government is now introducing changes which could undermine beach fale tourism in some areas. Firstly, an amendment bill was passed in Parliament in on June 26, 2003, to encourage more foreign investment in higher class resorts. This involves the government playing a stronger role in assisting outsiders to lease land, and tax breaks being given to new hotel/resort developments, with the size of the tax relief being proportional to the size of the hotel/resort. This may see more land moving out of community hands, at least temporarily, in the future, but it is unclear if this is also signaling less government support for the small-scale beach fale initiatives. Secondly, partly in response to concerns from within the tourism industry about supposed substandard accommodation and facilities provided by some beach fale operations, staff of the Samoan Tourism Authority are formalizing planning procedures by developing ‘minimum standards’ which tourist accommodation providers must abide by if they want to be promoted or endorsed by the Government. Depending on the final details of these minimum standards, this may mean that less wealthy families will be unlikely to establish a beach fale venture, as greater resources will be required to meet the minimum standards. Based on these findings and an earlier paper ( 2005b), this working paper makes four key recommendations: • Firstly, village leaders together with Samoan Tourism Authority (STA) personnel need to regularly monitor the development of beach fale (through personal observation, village meetings, and consultation with tourists), and to control this development where necessary, in order to: a) maximise the benefits villagers gain from the fale (for example, in order to maintain their popularity beach fale need to continue to offer tourists a unique cultural experience in a relaxed environment - if some villages are oversubscribed with beach fale enterprises and owners start haggling for custom, this is likely to deter tourists) b) minimise inconvenience/harm to local people from tourism. To date, matai have effectively put in place good social controls on tourist behaviour but they may need to pay more attention to environmental issues (such as sewage disposal and use of fresh water by beach fale), and to equity issues ( ensuring that beach fale development does not impinge heavily on access of local people to the beach or marine resources) otherwise resentment towards tourism could build up over time. • Secondly, the Samoan Tourism Authority and donors such as NZAID should continue to support beach fale enterprises and to ensure that in doing so they offer assistance to a diverse range of enterprises, from the very basic to those that are now well promoted and more up-market. While it would be easy to overlook the basic beach fale enterprises, they effectively provide an important livelihood strategy particularly for those who are not in a strong economic position withintheir village, and it is operators of these enterprises who are in more need of help with matters like publicity, marketing, and service provision. • Thirdly, officials need to recognize the importance of the domestic tourism market, and to encourage development of this market both because a) it is a very good source of revenue and it is less fickle than the international tourism market, and b) this would signal that the government is interested in the recreation and well-being of its own citizens, rather than just offering up the country’s best scenic assets for the enjoyment of foreign tourists. • Fourthly, there is further potential to develop the beach fale sector, but advice needs to be provided to villagers about development of associated products and services, such as beach clothing, souvenirs, food or tours, so that they are aware of viable options which do not just replicate the basic beach fale concept. The Samoan Tourism Authority, Small Business Enterprise Centre, donors and other relevant agencies could assist villagers to identify and develop appropriate products and services to enhance the beach fale experience. In summary, this paper shows how a unique model of tourism development centred on basic beach fale has evolved in Samoa and is reaping considerable benefits for rural people. Samoa has until recently eschewed many advances from international interests because of land tenure issues, preferring to take a path which has supported the development of a strong and dynamic budget beach fale sector (see 2005a, 2005b). This paper suggests that although beach fale tourism does not attract high spending tourists, it should be considered ‘high value’ in terms of community development because most economic benefits are retained locally, it is based upon local skills and resources, it involves cultural education of guests, it supports conservation of resources, and it does this all in the context of high levels of local ownership, participation and control.

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  • Building resistance to the ‘GERM’: Discourse Theory, Discursive Struggle and the ‘teacher’ subject position

    Salter, Leon

    Working or discussion paper
    Massey University

    In April 2013 the NZEI (New Zealand Educational Institute), the trade union which provides representation and advocacy to around 50,000 primary and ECE teachers and support staff, mobilized around 8,000 of its members and sympathizers in coordinated protest marches across the country. Promotion posters for the rally emphasized not the stalled collective agreement negotiations, but concern “about the impact the Government’s education policies are having on children and their learning” (NZEI, 2013). The NZEI’s ‘Stand Up For Kids: Protect Our Schools’ campaign site (http://www.standupforkids.org.nz/g-e-r-m/) characterizes the government’s reform programme as part of the GERM; the Global Education Reform Movement, a term coined by the Finnish education expert Pasi Sahlberg (Sahlberg, 2013). The NZEI’s web-page contains an illustration image of the ‘GERM’ as an actual germ, a ghoulish monster dripping with slime and significantly carrying a briefcase, together with a dichotomized outline of the two sides of the debate from Sahlberg’s blog; ‘Standardization’ versus ‘Personalized Learning’, ‘Competition’ versus ‘Collaboration’ etc. Utilizing concepts from Ernesto Laclau and Chantal Mouffe’s Discourse Theory (Laclau & Mouffe 1985; Laclau 1990, 2005), this PhD study, as yet in its early stages, will aim to theorize the ‘Stand Up For Kids: Protect Our Schools’ campaign as a hegemonic, or discursive struggle, which discursively constructs an ‘antagonistic frontier’ with a ‘constitutive outside’ in the GERM. ‘Empty signifiers’ such as ‘Teacher’, ‘School’ and ‘Kids’ become the discursive space where the two articulations compete to attain objectivity; relatively stable ‘common-sense’ understandings, while at the same time constituting antagonistic identities on both sides of the argument. [From the Introduction]

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  • Regional governance structures in indigenous Australia: Western Australian examples

    Barcham, Manuhuia

    Working or discussion paper
    Massey University

    The last few years have been witness to a dramatic change in indigenous affairs in Australia. This process has resulted in the disestablishment of ATSIC and a movement towards the promotion of regional governance structures for indigenous Australia. This article investigates three organisations in the Southwest of Western Australia which may form the basis of a regional governance structure. These three cases illuminate a number of generic issues that must be considered if the aim of the current shift in indigenous affairs policy is to lead to robust and successful outcomes for indigenous Australians. Issues of capacity, legitimacy and the ‘fit’ of structures to indigenous populations are of critical import to the success or failure of this process.

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  • Conflict, violence and development in the Southwest Pacific: Taking the indigenous context seriously.

    Barcham, Manuhuia

    Working or discussion paper
    Massey University

    This article addresses two main issues. The first of these issues is the ongoing conflation of conflict with violence, and the lack of recognition of conflict as a potentially positive force. The second of these issues is the continued push by donors in the region towards the reconstruction of the state in a stronger form, despite recognition that the structures of the state have played a critical role in the emergence of the recent and ongoing violence in the region. In addressing these issues the article first explores the differentiation between the concepts of conflict and violence, before then engaging in a discussion of the ways in which conflict can not only be a positive force but may actually be constitutive of society itself. The article then looks at ways in which the state has acted to both catalyse and intensify destructive forms of conflict. Once these two issues have been addressed the article then moves on to explore the ways in which an awareness of these issues can be harnessed, by both donors and local communities working together in a form of constructive engagement, in the creation of more durable and effective forms of governance in the region.

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  • A tale of two nations: The divergent pathways for indigenous labour force outcomes in Australia and New Zealand since 1991

    Hunter, Boyd

    Working or discussion paper
    Massey University

    This paper compares labour market experiences of indigenous Australians and Maori since 1971 with a particular focus on the early 1990s where employment outcomes appeared to diverge dramatically. One way to enhance the interpretability of international comparisons is to examine what happened in urban and other areas because the globalised economy means that the labour market in major cities tend to track one another reasonably closely. It is also important to condition on the level of urbanisation in the respective countries because geography provides a rudimentary control for differing levels of acculturation and the historical experiences of colonisation. The analysis provides two main insights: first that Maori populations are more fully integrated into the New Zealand economy and business cycle than indigenous Australians are into the Australian economy. The second finding is that while Maori are performing very well in terms of employment growth, the prospect for future improvements may be constrained by unresolved cultural conflict embodied in the high ongoing rates of Maori arrest. While there is a similar level of cultural conflict between indigenous and other Australians, it is probable that the historical difference in the treatment of the respective indigenous populations is partially responsible for the different economic outcomes in the two nations.

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  • Politics and professionalism in community development: Examining intervention in the highlands of northern Thailand

    Mckinnon, Katharine Islay

    Working or discussion paper
    Massey University

    It has been suggested that the practice of international development assistance is so deeply problematic that the only moral choice is to abandon the work altogether. The practice of community development in the Third World has been the subject of extensive critique for several decades. Scholars and development practitioners speak of the 'tyranny' of development and discuss the ways in which development is a means of control and domination rather than an altruistic enterprise whereby wealthier nations lend assistance to poorer nations. How are these debates relevant to highland development programs in northern Thailand? And how are development practitioners responding to the suggestion that they are making things worse rather than better? This paper explores the history of development in the hills and suggests some ways that development practitioners can - and do - take on board recent critiques of development while continuing to work for the betterment of highland lives and livelihoods.

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  • Organic agriculture and farmer wellbeing: A case study of Cambodian small-scale farmers

    Beban, Alice

    Working or discussion paper
    Massey University

    This paper investigates the impact of organic agriculture development initiatives on the wellbeing of small-scale farmers in Cambodia. Wellbeing was measured subjectively, with fifty seven organic farmers asked what is most important in their lives, and the impact of the organic initiatives assessed in these areas. Farmers in the study considered the ability to grow sufficient rice for their family as most important, followed by family health, and having enough money. The organic initiatives were found to impact positively on all these dimensions of wellbeing. Family food security increased in all cases, health increased in all but one case, and income increased in all cases.

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