1,737 results for Working or discussion paper

  • Homeownership in urban China: An empirical study of the Housing Provident Fund

    Wang, W.; Gan, C.; Li, Z.; Tran, M.

    Working or discussion paper
    Lincoln University

    The relentless effort of the government to control rising house prices in urban China have differential impacts on the various segments of the population due to their differential demand for homeownership. Hence, it is important for the government to have a better understanding of the underlying demand for homeownership, especially with respect to the different demographic variables and accessibility to loans and housing providence funds (HPF), in order to provide a more comprehensive strategy and to address some of the equity issues that may arise from these countermeasures. To this effect, this paper develop and estimate a binary logit model of homeownership and accessibility to HPF loans using a variety of demographic variables. Our findings document that high school graduates are less likely to own a house while people with longer duration of employment and households who are married and with children are more likely to own a house. The results also show that gender, marital status, education level, high annual income and duration of employment are significantly related to HPF loan use for homeownership. JEL Classification: G10, G20, G21

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  • An empirical investigation of credit card users in China

    Gan, C.; Dong, W.; Hu, B.; Tran, M. C.

    Working or discussion paper
    Lincoln University

    Since the first credit card issued by the Bank of China in 1985, the domestic banks has issued 140 million credit cards in 2008, and by the end of 2011, the total number of credit cards issued reached 285 million, an increase of 24.3% from 2010. Further, 79.41% of the consumers have more than 3 credit cards, 35.12% have only one credit card while 1.35% have more than 10 credit cards. The total transaction reached 756 million RMB, which was 47.95% higher than the transaction volume in 2010. The number of the domestic credit card merchants has increased at the end of 2011 and the number of domestic acceptance merchants reached 3.18 million, a 45.68% increase compared to 2010 (Peng, 2012). This paper seeks to investigate the factors that influence consumers’ decision to use credit cards and level of credit card limit. In particular, this research seeks to determine which consumers’ characteristics have the greatest influence on the respondents’ decision to have a credit card. For example, as the age increases, does the probability of consumer to holding a credit card decrease? The results show convenience, interest rate, application process, size of household, reward program, marital status, credit limit and age impact the respondent’s likelihood of owning a credit card. Further, the results show the number of credit card, credit card use duration, monthly spending, and bachelor degree are statistically significant and positively related to different levels of credit limit.

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  • Combining Monetary and Fiscal Policy in an SVAR for a Small Open Economy

    Haug, Alfred; Jedrzejowicz, Tomasz; Sznajderska, Anna (2013-10)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

    This paper combines a monetary structural vector-autoregression (SVAR) with a fiscal SVAR for Poland. Fiscal foresight, in the form of implementation lags, is accounted for with respect to both discretionary government spending and tax changes. We demonstrate the importance of combining monetary and scal transmission mechanisms. However, ignoring fiscal foresight has no statistically significant effects. We calculate an initial government spending multiplier of 0.14, which later peaks at 0.48. The tax multiplier is close to zero. We also find that monetary policy in Poland transmits mainly through the real sector, that is through real GDP and the real exchange rate.

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  • Prohibition of Riba and Gharar: A signaling and screening explanation?

    Berg, Nathan; Kim, Jeong-Yoo (2013-11)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

    The emergence of Islamic Banks (IBs) with Sharia boards that restrict the set of permissible products and enforce prohibition of riba and gharar raises basic questions of how IB clients benefit by choosing financial services from a restricted menu of possibly higher-cost cash flows. Norms that restrict choice sets or impose otherwise harsh requirements would seem to act as a potential barrier to religious identification by raising costs for IB clients. Contrary to this intuition, a theoretical model demonstrates that premium financing costs and substantial restrictions on the set of financing options considered to be Sharia-compliant provide signaling technology that benefit IB clients who are highly pious. By revealing what would otherwise remain private information about one's intensity of religious piety, the signaling technology then provides a screening service, enabling high-piety types to separate and concentrate their social and commercial interaction with others who are similarly pious. Iannaccone (1992) demonstrates a rationale for harsh norms as a mechanism for reducing free-riding in the supply of club goods. In contrast, the model in this paper shows that piety can be signaled by the act of choosing to become an IB client and bearing the costs of restricted choice sets and premium pricing for financial products. This provides a new rationalization for prohibition of riba and gharar as a stable institution. Signaling piety is especially valuable in environments where piety is uncertain and otherwise difficult for others to observe. The model predicts that IBs' Sharia-compliance criteria will tend to be stricter and IB premiums larger in places where the proportion of highly pious Muslims is small.

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  • University of Otago Christchurch Medical Library User Survey: Report

    Fisher, Judy; Elliot, Gillian (2013-02)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

    An extensive data store of graphs and themed survey comments (qualitative data) has been created, and this may be made available on request.

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  • Can You Spare Some Change For Charity? Experimental Evidence On Verbal Cues And Loose Change Effects In A Dictator Game

    Fielding, David; Knowles, Stephen (2013-11)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

    There is some evidence from field studies and natural experiments that levels of charitable donation depend on the method in which donations are solicited. There is also some experimental evidence that spending on private consumption depends on how much loose change people have. We use a simple laboratory experiment to measure the effect on donor choices of (i) whether the choices are presented verbally or non-verbally, and (ii) whether the participants have a large amount of loose change. We find strong evidence for both effects. These effects may explain some of the variation in the average level of generosity found in different Dictator Game results, and why laboratory experiments elicit levels of generosity that are often much higher than in non-laboratory settings.

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  • Are Courts Slow? Exposing and Measuring the Invisible Determinants of Case Disposition Time

    Economides, Kim; Haug, Alfred A.; McIntyre, Joe (2013-11)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

    This article analyses civil case disposition time by developing hypotheses to explain behavioral and structural determinants of so-called ‘delay’ and suggesting a novel methodology (‘Echronometrics’) to account for factors, operating at both macro and micro socio-economic levels, that influence the behavior and outputs of civil courts. Our proposed methodology includes more relevant variables, and specifies their interdependence, thus offering a more powerful explanatory tool for future empirical research to account for and measure the complex interactions of time and cost in civil trials.

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  • Transaction Costs, the Opportunity Cost of Time and Inertia in Charitable Giving

    Knowles, Stephen; Servátka, Maroš (2014-01)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

    We conduct a laboratory experiment to analyze the effect transactions costs and inertia have on charitable giving. We conjecture that transaction costs will have a greater effect on donations if the solicitation is received when the opportunity cost of time is high. Inertia could become a factor if people intend to give, but postpone making the payment until they have more time, and having postponed making the donation once, keep doing so. We find evidence of a transaction cost effect, with the size of this effect depending on the opportunity cost of time, but no statistically significant inertia effect.

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  • Efficiency Aspects of Government Secondary School Finances in New South Wales: Results from a Two-Stage Double-Bootstrap DEA at the School Level

    Haug, Alfred A.; Blackburn, Vincent C. (2013-11)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

    This study measures the efficiency of government secondary schools in New South Wales, Australia, using a recently developed methodology of two-stage semi-parametric modeling. In contrast to previous research comparing school performance, we control for prior academic achievement of students by looking at the changes in academic achievements over a two year period, at the school level, from 2008 to 2010, and employ detailed financial data for deriving the envelope for the production frontier of the schools. Using Simar and Wilson’s (2007) double bootstrap procedure for data envelopment analysis (DEA), the study finds that schools with higher student retention rates, higher total student numbers, boys or girls only, and selective admissions do better than other schools. On the other hand, a negative influence comes from a school’s location in provincial and outer metropolitan areas, a higher ratio of disadvantaged students at a school, and a school’s specialization in areas such as languages, performing arts, sports, etc. A surprising result is that the socio-economic characteristics of the families of students attending the school has no significant effect on their academic performance, nor does the average of the years of service of the teachers at a specific school.

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  • The Economics of Information, Deep Capture, and the obesity Debate

    Smith, Trenton; Tasnadi, Attila (2013-11)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

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  • Scientific Expedition Reports University of Otago Special Collections

    Smith, Romilly (2014)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

    This document provides an overview of the Scientific Expedition Reports held in Special Collections, University of Otago. The earliest reports date from D'Urville's expedition in the Astrolabe 1826-29 (published in 1832); the latest being the University of Canterbury's Snares Islands expeditions beginning in the 1960s.

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  • Census of Alexander Shaw's Catalogue of the Different Specimens of Cloth in the three voyages of Captain Cook to the Southern Hemisphere, 1787 (2015)

    Kerr, Donald (2015)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

    This is an attempt to corral all known copies of Alexander Shaw's Tapa Cloth book (1787) held in institutions around the world. My main objective was to track down institutional copies of Shaw’s work so that scholars in the field could pin-point actual copies at actual libraries and museums and thereby conduct further research on this important Pacific publication. Thus to date (January 2015), 66 copies have been noted, which includes 57 institutional copies, five privately owned copies, one still in a dealer’s hands, and three that remain mysteriously out there: the Keith-Cox copy sold through Christie’s and which does not match provenance description supplied; the Sandwell (Vancouver) copy, supposedly bound in a modern 20th century binding and bought by Richard Sandwell from an American paper industrialist in 2005; and the copy once owned by Dr T. M. Hocken (Dunedin). As I mentioned in the first draft, it is a pleasing increase from the traditional ‘45’ known copies.

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  • New Reform Strategies and Welfare Participation in Canada

    Berg, Nathan; Gabel, Todd (2014-03)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

    This paper measures the extent to which declines in Canadian welfare participation were associated with novel and aggressive welfare reforms. Referred to as new reform strategies, these welfare policy variables are: work requirements, diversion, earning exemptions, and time limits. Controlling for province-specific benefit levels, eligibility requirements, GDP growth, labor market conditions and demographics, the data suggest that welfare participation rates were more than one percentage point lower (equivalent to at least a 13% decline in welfare participation) in provinces where new reforms were present. Work requirements with strong sanctions for non-compliance had the sharpest negative associations with participation rates. Adoption of new reform strategies explains at least 10 percent of observed declines in welfare participation from 1994 to 2009, roughly twice as much as cuts to benefit levels and stricter eligibility requirements can explain.

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  • Artificial Neural Networks and Aggregate Consumption Patterns in New Zealand

    Farhat, Dan (2014-03)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

    This study engineers a household sector where individuals process macroeconomic information to reproduce consumption spending patterns in New Zealand. To do this, heterogeneous artificial neural networks (ANNs) are trained to forecast changes in consumption. In contrast to existing literature, results suggest that there exists a trained ANN that significantly outperforms a linear econometric model at out-of-sample forecasting. To improve the accuracy of ANNs using only in-sample information, methods for combining private knowledge into social knowledge are explored. For one type of ANN, relying on an expert is beneficial. For most ANN structures, weighting an individual’s forecast according to how frequently that individual’s ANN is a top performer during in-sample training produces more accurate social forecasts. By focusing only on recent periods, considering the severity of an individual’s errors in weighting their forecast is also beneficial. Possible avenues for incorporating ANN structures into artificial social simulation models of consumption are discussed.

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  • Information Processing, Pattern Transmission and Aggregate Consumption Patterns in New Zealand

    Farhat, Dan (2014-03)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

    This study explores the value of information transmission in training het-erogeneous Artificial Neural Network (ANN) models to identify patterns in the growth rate of aggregate per-capita consumption spending in New Zealand. A tier structure is used to model how information passes from one ANN to another. A group of ‘tier 1’ ANNs are first trained to identify consumption patterns using economic data. ANNs in subsequent tiers are also trained to identify consumption patterns, but they use the pat-terns constructed by ANNs trained in the preceding tier (secondary information) as in-puts. The model’s results suggest that it is possible for ANNs downstream to outper-form ANNs trained using empirical data directly on average. This result, however, var-ies from time period to time period. Increasing access to secondary information is shown to increase the similarity of heterogeneous predictions by ANNs in lower tiers, but not substantially affect average accuracy.

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  • Quantity restrictions with imperfect enforcement in an over-used commons: Permissive regulation to reduce over-use?

    Kim, Jeong-Yoo; Berg, Nathan (2014-05)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

    This paper presents a model of quantity regulation aimed at mitigating externalities from over-use of a commons: for example, restrictions on use of automobiles, fisheries, computer networks and electronic stock quotation systems with high-frequency traders. The model provides a counter-intuitive answer to the question of what happens when quantity restrictions are legislated but enforcement is imperfect. If the probability of enforcement depends on both violation rates and enforcement expenditures, then equilibrium congestion can become worse as the quantity restriction becomes more severe. Stricter regulation causes more agents to violate the regulation, which consequently reduces the probability of detection. Aggregate payoffs respond non-monotonically to stricter regulatory rules. We find an interior near-optimal solution that is neither too permissive nor too strict. This near-optimal regulation falls well short of achieving socially optimal levels of use of the commons, however. Moreover, socially optimal levels of use of the commons can never be achieved in this model, because there are always some agents who rationally choose to violate the regulation whenever the regulator sets the restricted activity level at the socially optimal level.

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  • Income Inequality and FDI: Evidence with Turkish Data

    Ucal, Meltem; Bilgin, Mehmet Hüseyin; Haug, Alfred A. (2014-06)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

    This paper explores how foreign direct investment (FDI) and other determinants impact income inequality in Turkey in the short- and long-run. We apply the ARDL (Auto-Regressive Distributed Lag) modelling approach, which is suitable for small samples. The data for the study cover the years from 1970 to 2008. The empirical results indicate the existence of a cointegration relationship among the variables. The positive impact of the FDI growth rate on income inequality, worsening inequality, is shown to be significant in the short-run, though at the 10% significance level only and with a quantitatively small impact, and insignificant in the long-run. In other words, FDI increases income inequality initially somewhat but this effect disappears in the long run. The literacy rate clearly reduces inequality in the long run, but also in the short run. On the other hand, population growth worsens inequality in the long run, and the effect is quite large, though it has no statistically significant effect on inequality in the short run. Also, an increase in GDP growth reduces inequality especially in the short run (at a 5% level of significance) but also in the long run (though only at the 10% level).

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  • Option pricing in the real world: a generalized binomial model with applications to real options

    Arnold, Tom; Crack, Timothy (2000-08)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

    The full text of this document is only available from the Social Science Research Network. Please use the related link to access the full text.

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  • What can management accounting practitioners and academics do to improve risk measurement and forewarn of impending financial crises?

    Kumarasinghe, Sriya; Willett, Roger (2009)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

    We discuss some perceived shortcomings of management accounting in the light of the financial crisis of 2008. We describe current trends in management accounting thinking and Japanese perspectives on the discipline. Our main focus is on the lack of reliable measurement of financial risk and its consequences. The importance of collaborative multi-disciplinary research through partnerships between academics and practitioners is emphasised.

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  • Do accountants want full disclosures in corporate financial statements?

    Liyanarachchi, Gregory A. (2006)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

    In August 2002, in the aftermath of the corporate failures in the US (e.g., Enron and WorldCom) the New Zealand Institute of Chartered Accountants (NZICA formerly ICANZ) released a discussion document on ‘corporate transparency’, thereby signaling the importance of full disclosure to the accounting community (ICANZ, 2002). Full disclosure means the disclosure of all potentially material information even when there are no legal or accounting requirements to do so. This is necessary to achieve greater transparency of corporate financial statements. Simply meeting the minimum disclosure requirements of standards may be legally sufficient but may not achieve NZICA’s preferred goal of greater corporate transparency. Though it is the corporate management that has control over the level of transparency in corporate financial statements, accounting practitioners are called to express their opinion on these statements, and hence, they too have a major influence on the matter. A move towards achieving greater corporate transparency therefore raises an important question. Do accountants want to see greater disclosures in corporate financial statements?

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