1,750 results for Working or discussion paper

  • The Determinants of Career Success in the New Zealand Accountancy Profession

    Whiting, Rosalind H (2008-03)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

    Sixty-nine experienced New Zealand Chartered Accountants (CAs), displaying varying levels of family/work involvement were interviewed about their careers. The primary finding was that those with the least family responsibilities, irrespective of gender, were the most successful career-wise. Overall career success was enhanced by high career aspirations, long working hours and availability to clients, hard work, high technical competence and skills, networking, self-confidence, flexibility to relocate if required and large size and growth of the employing organisation. Most influential were career aspirations and a long hours/available work ethic, demonstrating the pervasiveness of the male linear career model. Career aspirations, desire for responsibility, perceived ability to handle pressure, long hours, availability to clients, networking and possibly technical skills (in cases of extended leave) were all influenced by the CA’s level of family responsibilities and not just gender alone

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  • The tyranny of transparent accounting: Corporate face and Levinasian ethics as a political critique of business practice

    Farnsworth, John; Lewis, Malcolm (2006)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

    We begin with the key idea, following Callon (2004) that data is a form of politics or political action. This we will argue enables us to see technologies as well as actors in organisations as involved in creating political activity. Our interest is in the way Levinas’s ethics allows us to articulate what otherwise remains silent: this opens enquiry into the engagement with the Other’s ineradicable alterity, to questions of justice and the third, and to the way that accounting practice persistently reduces the Other to the Same. To move from the politics of data to the ethics of accounting and business practice we draw together elements of actor network theory with Levinas’s thinking. We do this to show how data can speak its politics: in speaking, it revives the possibility of the uncontainable Saying over the fixed codification of the Said. We develop this argument by looking at how the seemingly transparent activities of accounting and audit practice as forms of codification conceal a form of domination that silences ethical engagement with the Other and the third. We link such practices to the larger economic system of financialisation in which contemporary accounting practice is embedded. Lastly, we take the case of Telecom New Zealand, a medium-sized international IT company, to point to the way it routinely deploys data, in forms such as the annual report, to obscure the politics in which it is engaged.

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  • Playing with magic lanterns: the New Zealand Business Council for Sustainable Development and corporate triple bottom line reporting

    Milne, Markus J (2005-03)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

    Within the last 4 years a coalition of leading New Zealand businesses has formed—The New Zealand Business Council for Sustainable Development (NZBCSD)—with the avowed intent of acting as a catalyst for change towards sustainable development via the three pillars of economic growth, environmental protection and social progress. The Council through its members intends to promote eco-efficiency, innovation and responsible entrepreneurship. As part of the Council’s agenda, Sustainable Development (or Triple Bottom Line) Reporting is being actively encouraged and promoted through its membership organisations. Members commit to producing such a report within 3 years. This study reports on both the attempts of the Council to interpret and portray sustainable development and its reporting, and on the attempts of several of its members to develop triple bottom line reports. The study critically examines the NZBCSD’s position on sustainable development (reporting) through its web-site announcements and several other documents in the context of an older and wider literature on sustainability. The study also critically examines eight members’ reports through a qualitative textual analysis. Overall, we find that while these reports manifestly use the rhetoric of “sustainability” and “sustainable development”, we detect little reporting beyond what has traditionally passed for corporate social responsibility.

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  • Understanding Quality in Qualitative Research in IS: A Practitioners Road Map

    Cua, Francis; Theivananthampillai, Paul (2006)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

    Qualitative Research has gained dominance again in research in information systems and technology. Understanding some of the terminology has often posed a hurdle for the practitioner. This paper draws out some of the key assumptions that qualitative research is based upon and distils some the subtle facets of qualitative research to build that bridge between practice and academia

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  • Governance regulatory changes, IFRS adoption, and New Zealand audit and non-audit fees: Empirical evidence

    Griffin, Paul A; Lont, David H; Sun, Yuan (2008)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

    This study examines the association between overseas and New Zealand governance regulatory reforms in New Zealand public companies’ audit and non-audit fees. We state audit and non-audit fee models, and use temporal and IFRS indicator variables to relate the timing of the fee changes with the incidence of the overseas and local governance reforms. We find that audit fees increased in New Zealand over 2002-2006. Such increases associate reliably with the transition to and adoption of NZ IFRS and not with the overseas governance reforms in the United States and Australia, enacted earlier. Our results also show a decrease in non-audit fees over the same period but we find no IFRS effect for non-audit fees. JEL Classification: C30, K22, L80, M40, M41.

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  • The academic job market in finance: a rookie’s guide

    Butler, Alexander; Crack, Timothy (2004-09-07)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

    The full text of this document is only available from the Social Science Research Network. Please use the related link to access the full text.

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  • Governance regulatory changes, IFRS adoption, and New Zealand audit and non-audit fees: Empirical evidence

    Griffin, Paul A; Lont, David H; Sun, Yuan (2008-12-31)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

    This study examines the association between overseas and New Zealand governance regulatory reforms in New Zealand public companies’ audit and non-audit fees. We state audit and non-audit fee models, and use temporal and IFRS indicator variables to relate the timing of the fee changes with the incidence of the overseas and local governance reforms. We find that audit fees increased in New Zealand over 2002-2006. Such increases associate reliably with the transition to and adoption of NZ IFRS and not with the overseas governance reforms in the United States and Australia, enacted earlier. Our results also show a decrease in non-audit fees over the same period but we find no IFRS effect for non-audit fees. JEL Classification: C30, K22, L80, M40, M41.

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  • Health Aid and Governance in Developing Countries

    Fielding, David (2008-11-01)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

    Despite anecdotal evidence that the quality of governance in recipient countries affects the allocation of international health aid, there is no quantitative evidence on the magnitude of this effect, or on which dimensions of governance influence donor decisions. We measure health aid flows over 2001-2005 for 87 aid recipients, matching aid data with measures of different dimensions of governance and a range of country-specific economic and health characteristics. Both corruption and political rights, but not civil rights, have a significant impact on aid. The sensitivity of aid to corruption might be explained by a perception that poor institutions make health aid inefficient. However, even when we allow for variations in the level of corruption, political rights still have a significant impact on aid allocation. This suggests that health aid is sometimes used as an incentive to reward political reforms, even though (as we find) such aid is not fungibile.

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  • The Determinants of Career Success in the New Zealand Accountancy Profession

    Whiting, Rosalind H (2008-03)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

    Sixty-nine experienced New Zealand Chartered Accountants (CAs), displaying varying levels of family/work involvement were interviewed about their careers. The primary finding was that those with the least family responsibilities, irrespective of gender, were the most successful career-wise. Overall career success was enhanced by high career aspirations, long working hours and availability to clients, hard work, high technical competence and skills, networking, self-confidence, flexibility to relocate if required and large size and growth of the employing organisation. Most influential were career aspirations and a long hours/available work ethic, demonstrating the pervasiveness of the male linear career model. Career aspirations, desire for responsibility, perceived ability to handle pressure, long hours, availability to clients, networking and possibly technical skills (in cases of extended leave) were all influenced by the CA’s level of family responsibilities and not just gender alone

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  • New Zealand Operating Expense Disclosure: The Impact of International Financial Reporting Standards on Early Adopters

    Balshaw, Vanessa; Lont, David H (2009-08-18)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

    Purpose – This purpose of this paper is to examine compliance with operating expense disclosure provisions contained in New Zealand approved accounting standards before and after the move to New Zealand Equivalents to International Financial Reporting Standards (NZ IFRS). Prior research [Lont 2002] showed poor disclosure practices and we seek to determine if this has improved under international accounting standards for those who choose to adopt NZ IFRS prior to mandatory adoption. Design/methodology/approach – We use an empirical archival approach. While our sample size of early adopters is small, it does provide us with the unique ability to control for any temporal effects on disclosure practices. Findings – We find full compliance with operating expenses that are mandated such as depreciation, directors and auditor fees under both NZ Financial Reporting Standards (NZ FRS) and NZ IFRS. However, unspecified operating expense disclosures are still poor for those using NZ FRS. We also find a substantial improvement in unspecified disclosure levels for those companies using the New Zealand Equivalent to International Accounting Standard 1 (NZ IAS 1). However, our results also show areas of concern, for example, 14% of listed companies using NZ IAS 1 did not disclose any unspecified expense items and 27% of listed companies disclosed only one item. Practical Implications – Our results should be of relevance to preparers, analysts and regulators. Our preliminary results were provided to the New Zealand Securities Commission which led it to issuing a statement expressing concern with such behaviour. Originality/value – Adequate disclosure is considered a crucial element to help ensure efficient capital markets. The paper provides empirical insights into operating expense disclosure based on the requirements and wording contained within NZ FRS and NZ IFRS.

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  • Contract, Consideration and Consistency

    Sim, David (2009-07)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

    This article seeks to continue the debate on the proper role of consideration in the formation of executory contracts at common law. It first attempts to identity the place of consideration within the theoretical framework of contract by outlining the arguments that have been made regarding the possible functions of consideration and how they correspond with the broad theories of contract. Two possible functions of consideration are identified. The first is that consideration is an indicator of an exchange. The second is that consideration is evidence that a promise or promises were made with due deliberation and with an intention that the promise or promises would be legally binding. The article then compares these two possible functions with the application of the doctrine of consideration and concludes that the evidential function is the only possible function that is consistent with the application. It then concludes by arguing that if consideration has an evidential function, alternative forms of evidence should be accepted in substitution for consideration and that therefore consideration should not be an essential element of the formation of contract. It also argues that if consideration was seen in this way, most of the problems commonly associated with the doctrine would be resolved.

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  • Intellectual Capital Disclosures by Australian Companies

    Woodcock, James; Whiting, Rosalind H (2009-07)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

    This research expands on previous studies of voluntary intellectual capital disclosure (ICD) in Australian company annual reports. Using content analysis it examined the level of ICD in the annual reports of 70 Australian publicly listed firms and also investigated the influence of the company’s characteristics (industry type, ownership concentration, listing age, leverage and auditor type) on the level of ICD. Levels of ICD were low, with external capital being the most frequently disclosed category. Correlation and regression analysis demonstrated that companies that operate in high intellectual capital intensive industries, and companies with large (Big Four) auditing firms show higher levels of ICD. A company’s ownership concentration, leverage level, and listing age did not influence its level of ICD.

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  • A practical guide to GMM (with applications to option pricing)

    Arnold, Tom; Crack, Timothy (1999-10)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

    The full text of this document is only available from the Social Science Research Network. Please use the related link to access the full text.

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  • Using the WACC to value real options

    Arnold, Tom; Crack, Timothy (2004-05-07)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

    The full text of this document is only available from the Social Science Research Network. Please use the related link to access the full text.

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  • Tinkering with ticks: choosing minimum price variation for US equity markets (1996 version)

    Crack, Timothy (1997-02)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

    The full text of this document is only available from the Social Science Research Network. Please use the related link to access the full text.

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  • Earnings versus cash flows as predictors of future cash flows: New Zealand evidence

    Seng, Dyna (2006)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

    This study examines the predictive ability of earnings and reported cash flow measures (i.e., Cash Flow From Operations [CFFO], Cash Flow From Investing Activities [CFFIA], and Cash Flow From Financing Activities [CFFFA]) to forecast one- and two-period ahead cash flows during the period 1989-92, using predictive models based on research methodology applied by Bowen, Burgstahler and Daley [1986]. The degree of relationship between earnings and cash flow measures is also examined as a secondary goal of the study. The results provide evidence that CFFO (CFFIA) is a better predictor of one- and two-period ahead CFFO (CFFIA) than is earnings and CFFFA is a better predictor of two-period ahead CFFFA than is earnings. The results of the correlations show that the traditional cash flow measures (i.e., net income plus depreciation and amortisation [NIDPR], and working capital from operations [WCFO]) are highly correlated with earnings suggesting that they both are similar, while the correlations between reported cash flow measures and traditional cash flow measures are low suggesting that the traditional cash flow measures used in prior research are poor proxies for reported cash flow measures which are now provided by the companies' statement of cash flows as required by the New Zealand's Financial Reporting Standard No.10.

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  • Governance regulatory changes, IFRS adoption, and New Zealand audit and non-audit fees: Empirical evidence

    Griffin, Paul A; Lont, David H; Sun, Yuan (2008)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

    This study examines the association between overseas and New Zealand governance regulatory reforms in New Zealand public companies’ audit and non-audit fees. We state audit and non-audit fee models, and use temporal and IFRS indicator variables to relate the timing of the fee changes with the incidence of the overseas and local governance reforms. We find that audit fees increased in New Zealand over 2002-2006. Such increases associate reliably with the transition to and adoption of NZ IFRS and not with the overseas governance reforms in the United States and Australia, enacted earlier. Our results also show a decrease in non-audit fees over the same period but we find no IFRS effect for non-audit fees. JEL Classification: C30, K22, L80, M40, M41.

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  • Reengineering revealed preference models: international replications

    Mather, Damien W; Knight, John G; Ermen, David; Holdsworth, David K (2005)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

    Purpose: to ascertain the validity or otherwise of Stated Preference (SP) choice models in the context of introduction of genetically modified (GM) foods with defined consumer benefits, and to report on a new experimentally designed Revealed Preference (RP) model with superior validity. Methodology: Combining experimental conjoint choice design and a temporary and harmless ruse commonly associated with laboratory psychology experiments avoids the usual limitations of Revealed Preference (RP) choice models, and tests the validity of the SP model. The method developed in New Zealand has been closely replicated in Sweden. Findings: In both Sweden and New Zealand, the results from the SP choice model were highly divergent from the results of the RP choice model. Research implications: In the light of these findings, SP choice models need to be treated with extreme caution when employed for predicting consumer choice of fresh fruit. These findings may extend to other food products. Limitations: Generalised Extreme Value (GEV) modelling to compensate for heteroskedasticity has not been applied to further identify sources of model bias. Originality and value: This new experimentally designed RP approach will improve the predictive power of market research on food choice, and will provide a benchmark for critical evaluation of SP methods. This should prove valuable in improving future market response model forecast accuracy.

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  • Business makes a ‘journey’ out of ‘sustainability’: creating adventures in Wonderland?

    Milne, Markus J; Kearins, Kate; Walton, Sara (2005-08)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

    This paper provides a critical exploration of the ‘journey metaphor’ promoted in much business discourse on sustainability - in corporate reports and advertisements, and in commentators’ reports in the political and professional business literature. The portrayal of sustainability as a journey evokes images of corporate adaptation, learning, and a movement away from business-as-usual practices. The journey metaphor, however, masks the issue of towards what it is that businesses are actually, or even supposedly, moving. It is argued that business is constructing ‘sustainability’ as a journey to avoid specifying some future desirable state of affairs. We suggest that by portraying ‘sustainability’ in this way, businesses, and the related political and professional literature, have invoked a subtle and powerful, use of language that appears to seriously engage with elements of the discourse around sustainable development and sustainability. Yet at the same time, by constructing and promoting its own version of the discourse, it de-emphasises discussion of desirable future states of living, and neatly sidesteps any debate about, or need to radically change course. The paper illustrates how journeying is invoked throughout corporate reports and other forms of business communication in a process of corporate myth-making. Businesses are shown to be constructing a ‘wonderland’ discourse.

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  • EntryMode Strategies and Performance of Japanese MNCs in Australia and New Zealand: the Role of Japanese Employees

    Kumarasinghe, Sriya (2011-04-07)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

    This study investigates different entry modes and staffing practices, and their influence on performance in Japanese subsidiaries in Australia and New Zealand. Company data were derived from the Toyo Keizai data bank of Japanese overseas investments (Kaigai Shinshutsu Kigyou Souran) for the period from 2004 to 2008. The major assumption of this paper is that Japanese MNCs use their staffing policies as a means of exerting more influence over the entry mode strategy by having more control over the business operations in the host country. The study reveals significant differences in Japanese subsidiaries between the two countries. A relationship between performance and the variables of industry and employing Japanese expatriates was found for Australia.

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