1,758 results for Working or discussion paper

  • Internationalising a spreadsheet for Pacific Basin languages

    Barbour, Robert H.; Yeo, Alvin (1997-07)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Waikato

    As people trade and engage in commerce, an economically dominant culture tends to migrate language into other recently contacted cultures. Information technology (IT) can accelerate enculturation and promote the expansion of western hegemony in IT. Equally, IT can present a culturally appropriate interface to the user that promotes the preservation of culture and language with very little additional effort. In this paper a spreadsheet is internationalised to accept languages from the Latin-1 character set such as English, Maori and Bahasa Melayu (Malaysia’s national language). A technique that allows a non-programmer to add a new language to the spreadsheet is described. The technique could also be used to internationalise other software at the point of design by following the steps we outline.

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  • Effects of re-ordered memory operations on parallelism

    Littin, Richard H.; Cleary, John G. (1997-11)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Waikato

    The performance effect of permitting different memory operations to be re-ordered is examined. The available parallelism is computed using a machine code simulator. A range of possible restrictions on the re-ordering of memory operations is considered: from the purely sequential case where no re-ordering is permitted; to the completely permissive one where memory operations may occur in any order so that the parallelism is restricted only by data dependencies. A general conclusion is drawn that to reliably obtain parallelism beyond 10 instructions per clock will require an ability to re-order all memory instructions. A brief description of a feasible architecture capable of this is given.

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  • Teaching students to critically evaluate the quality of Internet research resources

    Cunningham, Sally Jo (1996-11)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Waikato

    The Internet offers a host of high-quality research material in computer science-and, unfortunately, some very low quality resources as well. As part of learning the research process, students should be taught to critically evaluate the quality of all documents that they use. This paper discusses the application of document evaluation criteria to WWW resources, and describes activities for including quality evaluation in a course on research methods.

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  • Improving our fitnesse: From concrete executions to partial specification

    Streader, David; Utting, Mark; Mugridge, Rick (2011-04-07)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Waikato

    Fitnesse and FIT [5] allow systems tests to be written by non-programmers using a Wiki or HTML style of input. However, there is little support for syntactic and semantic checks as the tests are being designed. This paper describes a support tool for designing table-based test cases that gives deep semantic analysis about a set of test cases. It uses a variety of strategies such as pairwise analysis, boundary value analysis and test case subsumption to suggest missing test cases and to generalise concrete tests into more abstract tests. The goal is to interactively improve the quality of test suites during the test design phase.

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  • The demographic forces shaping New Zealand’s future. What population ageing [really] means

    Jackson, Natalie (2011-05)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Waikato

    This paper outlines the key demographic forces shaping New Zealand’s future. It ranges broadly across birth rates, life expectancy and migration to show how this converging demography will result in a regionally-disparate future. It identifies a migration-driven bite in New Zealand’s age structure across the young adult ages that is pronounced in non-urban areas, and argues that while rural regions have long lost young adults and sun-belt regions gained older, what differs is that this phenomenon is now occurring alongside population ageing, rendering such age structures no longer conducive to growth. The converging trends will not only make responding to baby boomer retirement more difficult but will increase competition for workers and push up labour and consumption costs. With the exception of larger urban areas and some retirement zones, it shows that sub national growth in much of New Zealand has already ended and that this scenario will continue to unfold until zero growth or population decline embraces all but the major urban areas. This is despite a national growth rate which is currently near equal the annual global growth rate. The paper posits that it is time to re-evaluate the question ‘when does population growth ‘end’?’

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  • MIR task and evaluation techniques

    McEnnis, Daniel (2009-08-12)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Waikato

    Existing tasks in MIREX have traditionally focused on low-level MIR tasks working with flat (usually DSP-only) ground-truth. These evaluation techniques, however, can not evaluate the increasing number of algorithms that utilize relational data and are not currently utilizing the state of the art in evaluating ranked or ordered output. This paper summarizes the state of the art in evaluating relational ground-truth. These components are then synthesized into novel evaluation techniques that are then applied to 14 concrete music document retrieval tasks, demonstrating how these evaluation techniques can be applied in a practical context.

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  • Can we trust cluster-corrected standard errors? An application of spatial autocorrelation with exact locations known

    Gibson, John; Kim, Bonggeun; Olivia, Susan (2010-11)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Waikato

    Standard error corrections for clustered samples impose untested restrictions on spatial correlations. Our example shows these are too conservative, compared with a spatial error model that exploits information on exact locations of observations, causing inference errors when cluster corrections are used.

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  • An illustration of the average exit time measure of poverty

    Gibson, John; Olivia, Susan (2002-09)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Waikato

    The goal of the World Bank is 'a world free of poverty' but the most widely used poverty measures do not show when poverty might be eliminated. The 'head-count index' simply counts the poor, while the 'poverty gap index' shows their average shortfall from the poverty line. Neither measure reflects changes in the distribution of incomes amongst the poor, but squaring the poverty gap brings sensitivity to inequality, albeit at the cost of intuitive interpretation. This paper illustrates a new measure of poverty [Morduch, J., 1998, Poverty, Economic Growth and Average Exit Time, Economics Letters, 59: 385-390]. This new poverty measure is distributionally-sensitive and has a ready interpretation as the average time taken to exit poverty with a constant and uniform growth rate. The illustration uses data from Papua New Guinea, which is the country with the highest degree of inequality in the Asia-Pacific region.

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  • The value of statistical life and cost-benefit evaluations of landmine clearance in Cambodia

    Cameron, Michael Patrick; Gibson, John; Helmers, Kent; Lim, Steven; Tressler, John; Vaddanak, Kien (2008-03)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Waikato

    Development agencies spend approximately US$400 million per year on landmine clearance. Yet many cost-benefit evaluations suggest that landmine clearance is socially wasteful because costs appear to far outweigh social benefits. This paper presents new estimates of the benefits of clearing landmines based on a contingent valuation survey in two provinces in rural Cambodia where we asked respondents questions that elicit their tradeoffs between money and the risk of death from landmine accidents. The estimated Value of a Statistical Life (VSL) is US$0.4 million. In contrast, most previous studies of landmine clearance use foregone income or average GDP per capita, which has a lifetime value of only US$2,000 in Cambodia. Humanitarian landmine clearance emerges as a more attractive rural development policy when appropriate estimates of the VSL are used.

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  • Harnessing the private sector for rural development, poverty alleviation and HIV/AIDS prevention

    Lim, Steven; Cameron, Michael Patrick; Taweekul, Krailert; Askwith, John (2007-01)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Waikato

    In resource-constrained developing countries, mobilizing resources from outside sources may assist in overcoming many development challenges. This paper examines the Thai Business Initiative in Rural Development (TBIRD), an NGO-sponsored program that brings together the comparative advantages and self-interest of rural villages, private sector firms and a facilitating NGO, to improve social and community health outcomes in rural areas. We analyze key issues in the program with data from Northeast Thailand. We find that the TBIRD program appears to improve the income earning and other prospects of the TBIRD factory workers. Further, TBIRD factory employment exhibits a pro-poor bias. A key impact is to provide jobs for people who might otherwise be at increased risk of HIV infection through poverty-induced decisions to migrate to urban centres and participate in the commercial sex industry. This program adds another important tool for development planners in the fight against HIV/AIDS.

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  • Dynamic modelling of a three-sector transitional economy

    Lim, Steven; Harland, Derek (2001-10)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Waikato

    Rural industry provides inputs and markets for agriculture, which in turn provides inputs and markets for rural industry. As the mutually supportive linkages between rural industry and agriculture develop, the size of both sectors increases. Under certain conditions rural industry grows more rapidly than agriculture, resulting in the structural transformation of the rural sector. But the growth of rural industry may hurt the state-owned industrial sector if both sectors compete for similar resources and product markets. To protect their state enterprises, transitional economies have at times suppressed the growth of non-state rural industries. This can hurt the economy overall. We show how the growth rates of agriculture and rural industry may decline, and, surprisingly, how the growth of state industry might fall if rural industry is suppressed. This is especially so if agriculture supports state industry. By suppressing rural industry, agriculture is hurt. The decline in agriculture then hurts state industry, undermining the objective of protecting state industry. Depending on the magnitude of the relevant impacts, intervention to protect state industry may or may not be optimal, leaving governments with difficult policy decisions.

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  • The New Zealand Sustainability Dashboard: Unified monitoring and learning for sustainable agriculture in New Zealand

    Manhire, J.; Moller, H.; Barber, A.; Saunders, Caroline M.; MacLeod, C.; Rosin, C.; Lucock, D.; Post, Elizabeth A.; Ombler, F.; Campbell, H.; Benge, J.; Reid, J.; Hunt, Lesley M.; Hansen, P.; Carey, Peter; Rotarangi, S.; Ford, S.; Barr, T.

    Working or discussion paper
    Lincoln University

    The New Zealand Sustainability Dashboard project will develop a sustainability assessment and reporting tool in partnership with five primary industry sectors in New Zealand. Internationally recognised frameworks and their key generic sustainability performance indicators (KPIs) will be co-opted to ensure that overseas consumers can benchmark and verify the sustainability credentials of New Zealand exported products. We will also design New Zealand and sector-specific KPIs to guide farmers and local consumers to best practices of special relevance to New Zealand society, ecology and land care. Monitoring protocols will be described, where possible for the farmers themselves to rapidly score their own performance across economic, social and environmental dimensions of food and fibre production. A multifunctional web application will be created that facilitates uploading of regular monitoring results and instantly summarises and reports back trends to the growers, to industry representatives, and to agriculture regulators and policy makers at regional and national government levels. Tests of the accuracy and statistical reliability of the KPIs will be coupled with ongoing research on how much the farmers use the tool, whether it changes their actions and beliefs for more sustainable agriculture, and whether stakeholders at all levels of global food systems trust and regularly use the tool.The Dashboard will be more than just a compliance and eco-verification tool – it will also provides a hub for learning to become more sustainable. It will create an information ‘clearinghouse’ for linking past data sources and at least five existing decision-support software applications so that growers can discover optimal choices for improved farming practice,should the Dashboard alert them that their KPIs are approaching amber of red alert thresholds. We will also design and test two new decision-support packages; one enabling farmers to calculate their energy and carbon footprint and how it can best be reduced; and a whole-farm ‘What if’ decision-support package that explores how investment in improving one sustainability KPI (eg. application of nitrogen fertilizer) affects another (eg. farm profit). The Sustainability Dashboard will also include customisation capabilities for use in product traceability; for undertaking surveys of users; for estimating the value placed on different aspects of sustainability by growers, industry representatives, regulators and consumers; for comparing Māori and other communities’ values in sustainability assessments; and for identifying market opportunities and constraints. The Dashboard web application will be designed so it can be quickly integrated into an industry’s/sector’s existing IT platform and infrastructure and this will facilitate rapid uptake. Some host industries may force growers to use the Sustainability Dashboard as part of their existing Market Assurance scheme.

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  • Stacked generalization: when does it work?

    Ting, Kai Ming; Witten, Ian H. (1997-01)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Waikato

    Stacked generalization is a general method of using a high-level model to combine lower-level models to achieve greater predictive accuracy. In this paper we resolve two crucial issues which have been considered to be a ‘black art’ in classification tasks ever since the introduction of stacked generalization in 1992 by Wolpert: the type of generalizer that is suitable to derive the higher-level model, and the kind of attributes that should be used as its input. We demonstrate the effectiveness of stacked generalization for combining three different types of learning algorithms, and also for combining models of the same type derived from a single learning algorithm in a multiple-data-batches scenario. We also compare the performance of stacked generalization with published results of arcing and bagging.

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  • The physical environment of the Te Aroha district

    Hart, Philip (2016)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Waikato

    Pakeha settlers and visitors delighted in the mountain and its vegetation, and to attract tourists some efforts were made to protect the portion behind Te Aroha township from disturbance by mining. Prospectors and those constructing mining tracks and the tramway struggled to cope with the rugged terrain, but the steep mountainside proved to be advantageous for mining. The topography worsened the impact of severe weather, in particular the gales and heavy rainfall which damaged buildings and caused regular problems for those maintaining tracks and tramways. Over summer months batteries often had to cease work through having insufficient water power. On the flat land, because swamps made transport difficult, the river provided the main access route until the railway line was constructed. Drainage created productive farmland and, coincidentally, partly relieved the mosquito and sandfly scourge.

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  • The geology of the Te Aroha mining district

    Hart, Philip (2016)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Waikato

    When gold was discovered on the slopes of Te Aroha mountain, its geology was unknown to geologists and miners alike. After initial hasty examinations, later investigations produced more reliable details, and by late in the twentieth century much more detailed and technical information was available. Originally, prospectors hoped to find alluvial gold, but instead discovered that, through volcanic action, the minerals permeated the quartz. Despite intensive prospecting, payable ore was rarely found. At Waiorongomai, the large main lode was mostly a buck reef, the best patches of ore being found where it abutted side reefs. Hopes for a prosperous field soon faded because the various battery processes were unable to treat the ore profitably, a failure largely explained by its poverty and complexity. The output from the Te Aroha district proved to be one of the lowest of the Hauraki fields.

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  • Fish: A background paper contributing to the Te Waihora/Lake Ellesmere: State of the Lake 2013 Technical Report No. 1.

    Rennie, Hamish; Lomax, Adrienne J.

    Working or discussion paper
    Lincoln University

    A total of 47 species of fish have been recorded in Te Waihora/Lake Ellesmere. Some of these are long-term resident species tolerant of varying levels of salinity. Sixteen species are diadromous, meaning that they spend part of their life in the ocean. The lake supports important customary and commercial fisheries - key species are tuna/eels, patiki/ flounder (black, sand, and yellowbelly), and aua/yellow eyed mullet. The lake provides an important conduit for recruitment of diadromous fish to the Selwyn River and other tributaries. The lower reaches of the many waterways which flow into the lake provide important fish habitat (Hughey and Taylor et al., 2008).

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  • The Thames high school endowment at Waiorongomai

    Hart, Philip (2016)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Waikato

    Before it was known that gold existed nearby, the government selected a block of land at Waiorongomai as an endowment to fund a proposed high school at Thames. Sections of varying sizes and quality were surveyed and leased, at what were commonly viewed as excessive rates, and for decades lessees requested reductions and on many occasions asked the government to take over the endowment. As the goldfield faded, some small farmers abandoned their sections but others succeeded despite being under-capitalized. In the twentieth century, noxious weeds created on-going problems for those remaining on the land. The high school board, which supervised the farmers, was accused of not assisting them, notably by not providing access roads. The endowment was never as profitable for the high school as had been anticipated, and in 1949 it, like all similar endowments, was abolished.

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  • Introductory notes to working paper series ‘a social history of mining in the Te Aroha mining district’

    Hart, Philip (2016)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Waikato

    These working papers are provided as a resource for historians and genealogists. When covering the lives of individuals, they are deliberately as detailed as possible – possibly too detailed on such aspects as land ownership, but the intention is to provide as much information as is traceable. The nature of my research was inspired by the farewell address given by Sir Keith Hancock when he retired from being head of the History Department in the Research School of Social Sciences, Australian National University, when I was a student there. He included the comment that, in his retirement, he would tend his own garden; not meaning an intention to turn from historical research to gardening but to focus his research on his own locality, meaning the district of Monaro to the south of Canberra. The outcome was his publication, through Cambridge University Press, in 1972, of his excellent Discovering Monaro: A study of man’s inpact on his environment. The structure of this book combined a general analysis of geology, weather patterns, farming practices, and many other issues with case studies of farmers and others who lived in and developed the district. As this is a social history of the Te Aroha district, concentrating on mining, his example has been followed, with general papers being combined with personal accounts that illustrate the points made in the former papers. For instance, there is a paper on the skills required for successful prospecting, and the paper on Billy Nicholl relates the story of one of the most successful prospectors (successful at Waihi, that is, much less so elsewhere). As an unexpectedly large amounts of information was uncovered about some of those included in the case studies, the latter have ballooned far beyond the modest mini-biographies originally anticipated.

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  • The Te Aroha hot springs (mainly in the nineteenth century)

    Hart, Philip (2016)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Waikato

    Unique amongst New Zealand mining districts, the hot springs sited at the base of the mountain were popular with miners, residents, and an increasing number of visitors. Highly valued by Maori for their medicinal qualities, Pakeha visited them well before gold was discovered. Acquired by the Crown as part of the purchase of the Aroha Block, contention arose over whether the springs had been gifted to the Crown and whether Maori should be charged for using them. The provision of a small but free bath to Ngati Rahiri did not satisfy them. After Pakeha settled, the springs were developed and the surrounding domain was landscaped. Analysis of the water by experts produced claims about its curative qualities and many miracle cures were claimed, and the water was bottled until more recent analyses traced the existence of arsenic. Men reputedly skilled in hydropathy and similar ‘sciences’ were appointed to assist those suffering from rheumatism and the like. A local board beautified the area until the domain was taken over by the Tourist Department. Many tourists from throughout New Zealand and abroad were attracted by the facilities, which included a library, but some noticed a lack of cleanliness and were annoyed by larrikins. Despite such problems, as mining faded Te Aroha profited from becoming a tourist destination and sanatorium.

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  • The vegetation of the Te Aroha district

    Hart, Philip (2016)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Waikato

    Pakeha settlers universally admired the mountain’s vegetation, and several enthusiasts made botanical surveys. Both because of its intrinsic beauty and also to attract tourists, portions of the mountain were removed from the goldfield and attempts were made to preserve the original vegetation. In contrast, few admired the vegetation in the swamps, which were quickly drained for farming. As thick bush handicapped prospectors, it was burnt to expose outcrops. Miners were permitted to cut the trees on their claims for mining purposes, and settlers required timber for a multitude of purposes. Despite some attempts to control timber cutting, which in the case of kauri required a (small) payment, much valuable timber was wasted because of its abundance. Vegetation was either deliberately or carelessly set on fire, was vandalized by illegal cutting, and was damaged by cattle, deer, goats, and possums. As the bush line retreated up the mountainside, damaged or destroyed areas were replanted in exotic vegetation; in the case of the tramway, gorse (!) was planted to prevent landslips. By the late twentieth century, efforts were being made to protect and restore the original vegetation.

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