3 results for 1940, Masters, 1944

  • A reconnaissance survey of Lake Ellesmere and its border lands

    Cooper, Betty Mary (1944)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The purpose of this paper is to give a descriptive account of Lake Ellesmere and the land immediately adjacent to it. Ever since the settlement of Canterbury the utilization of this land marginal to Lake Ellesmere has presented a special problem which has been largely one of recurring inundations due to rise of the lake level. The frequent flooding of much of it temporarily puts large areas out of economic use. Therefore the primary purpose of this paper is to define on a map the limits of the area adversely affected by the rise of the lake level. Having done this, an attempt is made to describe in general terms the nature, management and use of this land and to examine the various schemes by which man has attempted to control the rise and fall of the lake. Incidental, but at the same time essential to this discussion of the lowland bordering the lake is a study of the nature and origin of the lake itself and the shingle barrier enclosing it. With one departure the boundary of the region under discussion is that drawn up by the Ellesmere Lands Drainage Board. This Drainage Board boundary includes all that land directly flooded by the lake as it rises, and all the land liable to be indirectly flooded because of the reduce fall in the rivers and creeks. The area included in the region under review but not in the Ellesmere Lands Drainage Board’s area is the shingle bank separating the lake from the sea. This has been included because it is responsible for the formation of Lake Ellesmere. Through the Drainage Board boundary is a purely arbitrary one, a glance at the soil survey map will show that it coincides very closely with the boundary between the saline or partly saline soils and the non saline soils. For the discussion of the nature and origin of the spit, extensive use has been made of Professor R. Speight’s paper on the “Lake Ellesmere Spit” which appears in the “Transactions of the New Zealand Institute”, Vol 61, 1930, 99. 147-69. For information about the Maoris and the early European settlement in the region a series of articles written by Mr. W. Taylor and appearing in the “Ellesmere Guardian” of 1943-44 proved most helpful. For the account of the utilization of the land of the region it was necessary to make field observations and interview the farmers themselves. In an endeavour to control the rise and fall of the lake level the Ellesmere Lands Drainage Board, which has been inexistence for thirty-eight years, has collected a great deal of useful information. This information has been of great help and thanks are due to the Board for permission to use it. The writer is also indebted to Professor E. Percival and Mr L. W. McCaskill for information on the fauna and flora of the region; to the Public Works Department for a copy of their contour map; to Mr C. S. Harris of the soil survey division of the Department of Scientific and Industrial Research for access to a soil survey map of the region; to Mr V. C. Browne for aerial photographs; to Mr. F. Millar, Mr F. Coop, Mr Stalker and Mr W. O. Rennie for much valuable information about the present and past land utilisation in the region.

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  • History of the Anglican church in Nelson from the coming of the white man to the establishment of the West Coast goldfields

    Rigg, E. M. (1944)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    This work has been planned to sketch the history or the Anglican Church from the days of the whalers, before any organised settlement by Whites, up to the opening of the goldfields on the West Coast, and the establishment of towns there. So far, no history of the Diocese has been published but if Bishop Sadlier had not died in 1934, he would have undertaken the task. The period described covers the three phases of settlement in the Nelson Province - first, the expansion in the district round Nelson, secondly, in the Wairau and Awatere Valleys, and thirdly, on the West Coast. In the course of this thesis, I aim to show the part played by the Church in the foundation of the Nelson settlement, and the subsequent growth of the Church itself. Then follows the similar treatment of the churches as they were opened up in other areas of the Province. More particularly I have attempted to outline the achievements of the Church - its influence on education, Maori welfare, and on social life in general, as well as its constitutional achievements in the formation of the Diocese . For this purpose I have divided the thesis into two parts, the first dealing with the individual churches and their relations with their own particular environments. The second part is a survey of the Church as a whole in relation to the life of the settlement. I have considered it necessary to deal, as far as it is possible, with those topics separately from the history of the churches, and from the point of view of the Diocese as a whole. This question of arrangement I have found to be another difficult problem. The separation of the various aspects such as education, and constitutional development, might tend to impair unity, but it seemed to me the only method to obtain a clear view of the Church as a whole. Much of the detailed information in connection with the conflicts between the Bishops and the Church may seem to be unnecessary, but I feel it serves to emphasize the importance of the prominent characteristics of the early Nelson settlers - their strong Low Church and non-conformist sympathies and their sturdy independence. The present reference to a long series of meetings may be justified by the evidence they afford of the interest or Anglicans in their church affairs and of the nature of part of their social life. It also provides an interesting contrast to the Church at Home, which at the time had many undemocratic features. There, the tendency to become more Anglo-Catholic in doctrine, with a rigid hierarchy, a firm control over education, social life and morals, and even considerable influence over local government, provided a marked contrast to what was to happen in Nelson. Another marked feature was the similarity of functions of the Church then, as compared with to-day. Now, there is a number of organisations such as Mothers' meetings, Flower Guilds, elite Societies, to name only a few, which did not exist in the old days, because women were too busy in their homes. There, also, were no charitable institutions beyond those for the Maoris, but to-day, several orphanage schools contribute to the charitable and educational activities of the Province.

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  • Backwardness in a secondary school : study of a group of form III pupils whose examination marks call for comment.

    Ward, Mavis (1944)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

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