4 results for 1940, Masters, 1945

  • A brief study of problems of acculturation arising from troop-native contact in the area around Fua'amotu aerodrome, Friendly Islands

    Newell, William H. (1945)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The modern development of the sciences of psychology includes in only the individualistic viewpoint that the secret of the changes in man that can be found by reference to physical and psychical changes within his body, but also the broader doctrine that the actions of men can be explained by reference to his relationship with other men and women. In other words, social psychology is as integral a part of psychology as is any other branch. The quarrel between various schools of psychology in the past has been once in which certain aspects of the whole science of psychology have been over emphasised at the expense of some other branch. But that is not to suppose that the outside world of social men is a static cause, the effect of which is the same on all men. The rise in recent times of the study of comparative psychology should be sufficient to disprove this. This thesis is an attempt to show in what way such fortuitous accidents as the invasion of a small island in the middle of the Pacific by an alien force is sufficient to upset many of the psychological and customary notions of the inhabitants that live there. The technical name for the process in which two peoples with different cultures and ideas about the nature of society affect each other, is termed acculturation. If the process is continued over a long period of time then it is possible that the attitudes of both cultures may be changed to an entirely new one. If the process is a short one, as it is in this case, then no fundamental changes of any importance may take place, but even then the contact between both cultures has the effect of showing in what respect that the study of social psychology can acquire the data on which to base its eventual conclusions. But it is essential where opportunities offer themselves for study that they should be taken full advantage of by trained observers. In estimating a change which is coming over a society, it would seem that the ideal method would be that of the subtracting the society as it was in one year form what it was in another year, and then stating that the certain change have come about as a result of certain factors. But in actual fact, not only is this method impossible, not only because is the cases of Tonga no book has been written which describes exactly the life of the Tongan commoner in Tongatapu, but also because the factors causing change may be a result of certain factors already present within the society and impossible isolation. And so in applying this “subtracting method” the following factors would have to be taken into account: (a) The gradual breakdown of Tongan customs, irrespective of the troop invasion, due to the impact of white customs and material goods from outside, such as motor-cars, picture theatres and so on. (b) The impossibility of getting any reliable evidence of what Tonga was like before the troops arrived. Traders, for example, tended to think of the “unspoilt” Tongan, who worked hard and industriously all day in his plantation. (c) The difficulty of estimating the changes which are occurring in the society itself not as a result of an outside impact, but due to a leavening of the society itself. An example of this type of revolutionary happening is the overthrow of the Tuitonga by moengangongo and the coalition of both the temporal and spiritual power in the one royal line. A similar revolutionary happening on modern times is the voluntary limitation of the dictatorship of the king, Tupou, by a constitution.

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  • The foundation of the diocese of Wellington

    Holland, D. McI (1945)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Scope of the work, 1829 to 1859; conditions of life; territorial boundaries and nomenclature; conflicting elements in the population; adherence to the prescribed limits; social, religious and political state of England; material available assessment and conclusion . To-day as a noble plan goes forward for the building of a worthy cathedral to the glory of God in Wellington, capital of the self-governing dominion of New Zealand, with its proud title of the “Empire City”, it is well to take a backward glance at the past. For the cathedral is to be no temporary erection of wood but is to rise in all its majesty with its foundations securely dug, a permanent witness to the vision of the pioneers of old who by their faith and toil planted the seed that has brought forth such good fruit. Just over a hundred years ago Wellington was no more than a dream of the future, its site the abode of the Maori, scarcely known to a handful of white adventurers, where the rites of tapu and makutu reigned unchallenged. It is not the purpose of this work to trace the development that has taken place in the course of' a century; space does not permit. But, for the conclusion of the study, the year 1859 has been chosen in no arbitrary fashion. This date marks the finish of the old and ushers in the new it is the turning: point in the history of the diocese of Wellington; it is "the end of the beginning". In 1858 the Venerable O. J. Abraham, Archdeacon of Waitemata, was consecrated first bishop of Wellington. The first general synod of the Church of England in New Zealand met in March of the following year, and in October the Wellington diocesan synod, its bishop in the chair, held its first session. The basic machinery by which the church is governed to this day was firmly established and its subsequent development has been along normal lines; for the fundamental beliefs have remained unchanged since that three years ministry close on twenty centuries ago. Synod has succeeded to synod, bishop to bishop, new parochial districts, parishes and archdeaconries have been formed at the demand of population and progress, the boundaries of the diocese altered, the constitution amended in its details, the old faces replaced by new. Time has marched on but the foundations, on which the whole superstructure has risen surely and certainly, stay the same, immovable, as they were laid in 1859.

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  • The thermodynamic dissociation constant of benzoic acid in water and the solubility of benzoic acid in methanol-water mixtures

    Jones, A. V. (1945)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The ionization of an acid in water may be represented by the following equilibrium; HA + H₂O ⇌ H₃O⁺ + A’ and by applying the law of mass action the activity of the water being assumed constant it can be shown that [equation here] where Kₐ is the thermodynamic equilibrium constant of the process and α is the activity if the entity denoted by the subscript. Since Kₐ expresses the tendency of the acid to ionize or dissociate, it is called the thermodynamic dissociation constant of the acid and is constant by definition. Historically, the law of mass action was first applied to dissociation processes by Ostwald who, however, used concentrations instead of activities, writing: [equation here] By introducing an expression α to represent the degree of dissociation of the unionized molecules of the substance whose concentration is expressed by c, the following expression was obtained. [equation here] Since the law of mass action is not strictly obeyed in the above firm, the “constant” k varies with concentrations.

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  • Some aspects of child welfare in New Zealand : with special reference to factory legislation and industrial conditions, 1840-1890

    McMillan, Mary Christine (1945)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The children of New Zealand are probably the most fortunate in the world, for from ante-natal clinic to Vocational Guidance Centre the state watches over their welfare. This thesis is an attempt to find in the past the germs of this humanitarian spirit. Its scope was originally intended to extend to 1945, to trace the genesis of the work of the recent apprenticeship commission in the attention paid to children in the two fields of industry and education. It was soon evident, however, that this was too ambitious a project, and instead a short period has been covered – a period all important in determining the course which the colony was to follow. As the scope in time has been reduced, that of the subject matter has been extended. I have found it impossible to deal with the attitude towards children in industry without giving an account of the development of that industry, while the attitude towards education is only part of the spirit which has been shown also in other fields.

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