11 results for 1940, Masters, 1946

  • The synthesis of αβγ-trimethylglutaconic acid

    Blakley, R. L. (1946)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The condensation of ethyl β-chloro-α-methylcrotonate with the sodio-derivate of ethyl methyl malonate was attempted as part of a projected synthesis of αβγ-trimethylglutaconic acid, and to test a new general method for the synthesis of β-methyl-αγ-dialkylglutaconic acids.

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  • The degree of dissociation of silver benzoate from conductivity measurements

    Doyle, J. J. (1946)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Much of the work on salts has been concerned with the process of solution:- i.e. Solid Salt → ions in solution. Quantitatively this operation is best described in terms of changes in certain thermodynamic functions. This method is especially sound as it is independent of any specific model or mechanisms.

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  • The oxidation of α-methyl-d-glucoside with nitrogen dioxide

    Sewell, O. K. (1946)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The initial step in the present investigation was the preparation of the α-methyl-d-glucuronoside (ii) by the oxidation of α-methyl-d-glucoside (i) with an equilibrium mixture of nitrogen dioxide and nitrogen tetroxide in chloroform and carbon tetrachloride. [formula here]. The uronic acids in general will be discussed below, especially d-glucuronic acid (iii) which can not be purchased and hence must be synthesised or isolated from natural products.

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  • The polarographic estimation of calcium and the reduction of the cobaltinitrite ion

    Macartney, T. G. (1946)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The nomenclature of polarography is made clear by the diagram which shows a typical current-voltage curve or polarogram, as the automatically recorded photographic record is called. The growth and falling of the mercury drop gives rise to a condenser current (1) which causes the polarograms to [Diagram] exhibit a jagged appearance, often very marked. In all polarographic work it is the mean current which is measured. When a potential difference is applied across a solution, only a very slight residual current flows till the P.D. reaches a sufficiently high value to decompose one component. As the P.D. increases from the decomposition voltage, the current increases rapidly, till it reaches a constant value; the polarographic diffusion current. The polarograph records variations in current as the P.D. changes, for just one electrode. This is made possible by using a large unpolarisable electrode (usually anode) and a dropping mercury electrode (usually cathode). The latter is subject to concentration polarisation only, for the current flowing depends upon the rate at which the electro-oxidisable or electroreducible substance can diffuse to the mercury drop. To prevent this substance from undergoing a nett attraction or repulsion by electrostatic forces, a large amount of an indifferent electrolyte (supporting electrolyte) is added to make a homogeneous electrostatic field round the drop. This eliminates the migration current, leaving the current to be carried by the diffusion of ions alone. Generally the dropping mercury electrode is the cathode and the reducible substance is an ion, either cation or anion. The diffusion current is reached when the rate of discharge of ions equals the rate at which the ions diffuse to the surface of the mercury drop. This is the concentration polarisation of the cathode for the amount of current flowing is controlled by the rate at which ions reach the drop. [Diagram] A simple circuit of the polarograph is shown. The resistances R₂ and R₃ are of equal value, so that when the pointer P. is on the centre of R₄ no current flows through the cell. Moving P to the right puts an increasing negative potential on the dropping electrode. In the present work the instrument used was a Cambridge Instrument Coy model, the property of the Soil Survey Division of the D.S.I.R. The only advantage over manually operated polarographs lies in the automatic photographic recording device giving continuous polarograms. Only one capillary was used throughout the course of the work and frequent readings showed that it maintained a constant drop-time. The characteristics of this capillary are given in Part II. To remove oxygen from solution, pure hydrogen from a cylinder was passed for a time depending on the volume of solution. For 50 mls. of solution the hydrogen was bubbled through tor twenty minutes.

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  • The catalytic effects of acetic acid-water mixtures on the mutarotation of α-d-glucose, and a comparison with the racemisation of 1-trans-αγ-dimethylglutaconic acid in acetic acid-water mixtures

    Chapman, L. P. J. (1946)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    When crystalline α-d-glucose prepared by crystallisation from cold concentrated acetic acid is dissolved in water its specific rotation is 113.4°, but slowly changes to 52.5°; β-d-glucose has an initial specific rotation of 17.5° which also changes to 52.5°. This phenomenon of mutarotation is shown by a number of reducing sugars such as lactose and fructose. Lippmann and Simon first realised that a sugar having a cyclic (pyranose or furanose) structure should exist in two modifications differing in configuration about carbon atom one; Armstrong showed the structural relationship of α- and β-glucose to α- and β-methyl glucoside respectively; while Hudson and Lowry showed that mutarotation was due to the establishment of an equilibrium between the two forms in solution.

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  • The New Zealand Student Christian Movement, 1896-1936

    Sutton, P. E. (1946)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The historian who attempts a research into student life in New Zealand is somewhat hampered by the lonely nature of his quest. He follows a course through virgin territory where few of his sources lie ready at hand. This is particularly true in a study of Christian society within the University, and the present writer is fully aware of such limitations in undertaking a history of the first forty years in the New Zealand Student Christian Movement. One could not ignore the forbidding tangle of untouched sources. At the same time some fresh wild roses are peeping out from behind their thorny defences. There is the fragrancy of student life, the rich colour of youthful aspirations, and the steady rhythms of change as each generation burgeous forth and gives place to new growth every three or four years. By its very nature the Student Christian Movement provides a microcosm of the wider student community. With our attention concentrated on a comparatively restricted field, we may draw conclusions which transcend the immediate limits of the subject, and reach out into large questions of Church and State. Such a work would be futile and deceptive unless it were founded in the sure base of original sources. Therefore, the write has sought to mould his thesis from contemporary date in each period, with especial references to letters, minutes of proceedings, memoirs, and reports of student activities. Correspondents in Australia, Canada, the United States of America, South Africa, and China have provided some revealing comparative information. Newspapers and periodicals have furnished valuable corroborative evidence. Sometimes books, and more frequently, study pamphlets, have supplied useful secondary information. But it was chiefly through personal interviews with past leaders that the spirit of successive generations has been recaptures, however inadequately. This method of research may involve more extensive investigations than is required for historical studies which bloom in a solid rich with acknowledge authorities; yet its potential value as original work is enhanced by the spontaneity of the evidence, and the complementary testimonies of persons who took part in the action. Almost certainly there has been some loss of mature judgement; this is inevitable when protagonists are allowed to tell their own story. But the added realism which is afforded by direct reference serves as an effective counterweight to this tendency, and one is thereby enabled to judged more accurately from the personal viewpoint. A thesis of this nature could not presume to deal adequately with anything beyond general outlines. While its scope is this limited to the selection of significant events and trends in the Movement’s life, it has been found possible to include incidents in some detail when there are characteristic of the Movement as a whole. The writer has sought to draw illustrations from the various centres, without attempting to enter upon a rigid series of comparisons between Colleges at given periods. At times one centre is used as the norm; more frequently it has been found advisable to blend the experiences of the constituent parts, and to refer only to specific centres when anomalies occur, or salient points emerge. While this study is written against a background of University life, its dominant theme is the growing unity of Christians within the ecumenical movement. It may also be regarded as a study in federal organisation, since the New Zealand Student Christian Movement, a component member of the World’s Student Christian Federation, exhibits in the development of its own constitution all the essential attributes of a federation. Attention should be given to the relationship between the Movement and the Christian Church, in particular to its influence on foreign missions. Religious history holds many snares but none perhaps so enticing as the lure to partisanship. The present writer has endeavoured to preserve impartiality by refraining for the most part from general conclusions until the final chapter. While reserving the right of a historian to praise or condemn, he trusts that the main body of the narrative will serve as its own interpreter. It may be an infallible criterion of religious movements that they shall be known by their fruits; but in this study it is also imperative to bear in mind the indirect leavening influence of the Student Christian Movement upon the community at large. The writer is deeply conscious of incapacity to deal justly with this aspect of his subject, and he hopes that the bare indications which he has given will assist the reader in forming his own objective conclusions.

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  • Specific effects of neutral salts on the rate of ionic reactions in solution

    Glasgow, P. M. (1946)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    It has long been known that the rate of a chemical reaction involving ions in solution is a function of the total electrolyte concentration, even in systems where there is no displacement of equilibra. This primary salt effect operates whether the ions are present as reactants or purely as catalysts. Quantitative information about this effect cannot be obtained from every reaction, as the theoretical treatment, as well as the experimental method imposes certain limiting conditions. A suitable reaction must occur at a measurable rate with no complicating side reactions and back reactions, and without change in ionic strength. Moreover there must be a quick and accurate method of analysing the reacting mixture at intervals of time in order to determine the rate constant.

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  • Trityl derivatives of d-fructose

    Monigatti, J. D W. (1946)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The potential value of trityl chloride (triphenylmethyl chloride) as an organic reagent was recognised by Helferich and coworkers who succeeded in preparing crystalline trityl ethers of simple primary and secondary alcohols by carrying out the reaction in dry pyridine at room temperature.

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  • Derivatives of d-glucose diethylmercaptal and an attempted synthesis of 5-methyglucose

    Brooker, E. G. (1946)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Kilimi (1866) first showed that an aldehyde group was present in glucose, by forming the cyanhydrin, which on hydrolysis and reduction gave n-heptoic acid. Glucose was later represented by the straight chain, “Fischer Projection Formula” and this was in general use until 1926, when Haworth proposed the pyranose ring structure for sugars. [Diagram] A ring formula was given to the isomeric methyglucosides, by Fischer. (These derivatives were obtained by the reaction of glucose with 0.5% methyl alcoholic hydrogen chloride at 80%.) Fischer did not extend the ring formula to glucose itself and he wrongly assumed that the ring was a (1,4) or butylene oxide ring. By a consideration of the phenomenon of mutarotation, later workers were able to show that sugars themselves had ring structures. A study of the oxidation products of tetramethylglucose showed that normal glucose had a (1:5) ring. This pyranose ring was represented by a hexagonal formula and X-ray evidence in support of it has been obtained.

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  • The solubility of silver chloride in a mixed solvent (20% methanol) from 15°C to 45°C

    Hurst, F. (1946)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    With the development of theories of interionic attraction and of solvent interaction solubility data have been used for the estimation of ionic diameters and the degree of solvation ions. The parallelism between dielectric constant of a medium and its solvent power of ionic crystals have been recognised for a long time, and the quantitative expression which links these properties may be derived from Born’s equation

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  • Investigations on karakin and Hiptagenic acid

    McChesney, John William (1946)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    iv, 150 leaves ; 30 cm. Bibliography: leaves [145]-150.

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