115 results for 1940

  • Economic policy in New Zealand 1936-1939

    Oxnan, D. W. (1941)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The aim of this survey is twofold. First, it attempts to describe and analyse the more important aspects of the Labour Government’s economic policy, and second, it attempts to demonstrate how the achievement of this policy is conditioned by the characteristics of the New Zealand economy. The economic policy of the Labour Government is important for several reasons. First, both the “recovery measures” of the previous Government during the depression, and Labour’s policy after the depression tend to show that New Zealand, in common with other countries, is experiencing a definite trend towards an extension of State control of economic life. Secondly, since the 1890’s the Dominion has indulged in economic and social experiments which have attracted the attention of economists not only in New Zealand but also abroad. The economic and social policy of the Labour Government thus appears to be an acceleration of this long term trend. In addition it is generally recognised that conditions in New Zealand are more favourable to economic experimentation than those existing in most other countries. In examining this policy it is of fundamental importance to realise that the Ottawa Agreements of 1932, mark the end of an era when New Zealand could confidently rely on a large and expanding overseas market for her exports. Moreover the rise of economic rationalism, the progress of agrarian protectionism, the developments in the alternative sources of supply and the declining rate of growth of population in the consuming countries, all have forcibly demonstrated the inherent weakness of the New Zealand economy. Consequently the post depression years have witnessed a conscious expansion of New Zealand’s secondary industries. Although the social and economic policy of the Labour Government is in many respects similar to that of the Liberal Administration of Balance and Seddon in the early ‘nineties’ of last century, it has certainly been carried out under far less favourable circumstances. It is mainly for these reasons that this subject provides a fruitful field for economic research. To cover the whole of the policy in detail and would be beyond the limits of a brief survey of this nature. It would be possible to write a detailed survey on any one aspect of the policy. Nevertheless, it is felt that a broad treatment of policy is not entirely unfruitful. On the contrary a wide survey has much to commend it, for a detailed analysis of one aspect only tends to lose sight of the nature of the policy as a whole. Thus the first two chapters are devoted to an analysis of the Labour Government’s Programme and the economic factors limiting the achievement of this programme. The remaining chapters are concerned with the development of policy. Separate chapters deal in turn with Monetary Policy, Marketing, Transport, Rationalisation of Industry, Import and Exchange Control, and Labour and Social Legislation. In a concluding chapter, the threads are drawn together and an evaluation of the policy attempted. It should be noted that the period under review extends from 1936 to 1939 inclusive. It does not deal with the policy after the outbreak of war in September 1939, because this has created new problems and has thus modified to a certain extent the direction of Government policy. At the outset, originality is disclaimed. Much has already been written on particular aspects of policy, but little if any, on the policy as a whole. The material has been collected from all available relevant literature, consisting of numerous pamphlets, periodicals, articles and officials publications. A detailed account of references is given in the bibliography. Finally it is not proposed to reveal anything which is not already known to competent economists. This survey merely aims to make a comprehensive and critical analysis of the economic policy followed by the Labour Government in the years 1936-39.

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  • Early Otago newspapers

    Clapperton, Barbara (1949)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    INTRODUCTION. It has been said with much truth that the newspaper of today is one of the world’s most influential text books. It is thus easy to appreciate the still greater importance of the newspaper of seventy-five or more years ago. Our present world with its great advances in science, with the invention and development of the radio, the facsimile newspaper, television, radio-type and newsreels offers many challenges to the ordinary newspaper. Seventy-five years ago such opponents were not known, and the newspaper took first place as the only medium by which local news and overseas news were transmitted to the public. The relation of the daily paper to the community was very aptly summed up by Julius Vogel who wrote in the first leading article in the Otago Daily Times, 15 November, 1861, and reprinted in the Diamond Jubilee Issue, 1921 ---“The benefits arising from a daily newspaper are not to be exaggerated. Independent of the opportunity it affords to the community of making its wants felt and its wishes known to the outside world, and so asserting its dignity and advancing its importance, the moral, social, and commercial influences of a daily journal are strongly marked. It brings the members of a community into a closer unity; knits bonds of fellowship between them, not easily severed; facilitates business, advances the value of property, and in short mixes itself up so intimately with the daily events of life that, once having experienced its benefits, its absence is nothing short of a public calamity”. That the value of a newspaper in any community was recognised is borne out by the number established throughout Otago during its earliest years, not least important of which was the Otago News published in the same year as the arrival of “John Wickliffe” and the Philip Laing”. In outlying districts as population grew and as industry flourished, there came also the press, helped greatly by the impetus of goldseeking. It is with the development of these early newspapers, with their ambitions and struggles - and in many cases their failures - that I am here concerned, for they are the record of courage and endeavour inherent in the making up of those early colonists.

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  • Calendar 1940

    Victoria University College (Wellington, N.Z.) (1940)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

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  • Calendar 1942

    Victoria University College (Wellington, N.Z.) (1942)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

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  • Calendar 1941

    Victoria University College (Wellington, N.Z.) (1941)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

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  • Calendar 1947

    Victoria University College (Wellington, N.Z.) (1947)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

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  • Calendar 1946

    Victoria University College (Wellington, N.Z.) (1946)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

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  • Calendar 1943

    Victoria University College (Wellington, N.Z.) (1943)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

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  • Calendar 1949

    Victoria University College (Wellington, N.Z.) (1949)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

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  • Calendar 1944

    Victoria University College (Wellington, N.Z.) (1944)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

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  • Calendar 1945

    Victoria University College (Wellington, N.Z.) (1945)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

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  • Calendar 1948

    Victoria University College (Wellington, N.Z.) (1948)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

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  • The history of the apple industry in Nelson, with special reference to the work of the Cawthron Institute.

    Robinson, Elizabeth Joy (1942)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

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  • The synthesis of 2:3:4-trimethyl sacchardiamide

    Vivian, G. W. (1947)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    As constituents of polyuronides, uronic acids have a frequent and wide occurrence in nature. Much of the carbohydrate material in plants, which includes all pectic materials and plant gums, many plant mucilages, hemicelluloses and gel-forming substances and some microbial polysaccharides, belong to the group. Uronic acid residues have been shown to exist in the animal body where they may be linked wither to complex polysaccharides or to proteins. The uronic acids are reducing sugar acids formed by the oxidation of the terminal carbinol group (C atom 6) of the sugar, a process which apparently occurs readily in both plants and animals. Although a large number of uronic acids are theoretically possible, only three have been found to occur naturally, these being d-galacturonic, d-glucuronic and d-mannuronic acids.

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  • An apparatus for the purification of radon

    Sutton, H. C. (1947)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    As is well known, radium has been used for many years as a source of gamma radiation for therapeutic use. The method consists in placing needles of radium in suitable positions on and around the cancerous growth; dosage being controlled by the radium content of each needle, and its time of application. Such operations are extremely dangerous, in that the needles are small and easily lost; yet the radium decays very slowly so that the intensity of radiation emitted by the needles remains almost constant. The high cost of such needles also limits their use. An alternative method of gamma ray therapy utilises needles of radon, the radioactive gas which is the first decay product of radium. Radon has a half life period of 3.825 days, compared with that of radium, of 1580 years. Consequently its activity is appreciable only over its first few days, having fallen to one per cent of its initial value in 25 days. The danger factor is thereby largely eliminated, since lost radon needles would be quite safe, even if still inside that patient, after a month or so. Moreover, the dosage can be arranged so that the needles are left permanently in the patient, the dose integrating to the required amount in infinite time. In some cases, where the tumour is rather inaccessible, this method is very convenient. A further advantage of radon lies in the fact that it is a gas, and can therefore be compressed to small sources of any required shape or size. Thus the radium from which it is prepared is rendered many times more useful, all types of needle being available from a common source. This extends its use to many cases not otherwise capable of treatment, as it will be appreciated that the cost of a complete stock of all types of radium needles is prohibitive. The more so, so many of them would remain out of use for years.

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  • Studies on a New Zealand Serpulid Pomatoceros coeruleus, Schmarda

    Knox, G. A. (1949)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    1. It is shown that the animal studied belongs to the genus Pomatoceros. Its specific status is uncertain. 2. The species is widely distributed throughout New Zealand and has also been reported from South Africa. 3. The anatomy and some of the more interesting aspects of history are described in detail, comparison being made with other Serpulids. 4. The longitudinal muscles are well developed and the circular muscles much reduced, an adaption to the tubicolous habit. 5. One pair only of nephridia is present in the thorax, opening internally by large ciliated coelomostomes into the peristomial coelom and externally by a common pore at the anterior dorsal end of the body. Excretory products are probably extracted from the blood in the form of guanine. 6. The nervous system consists of a brain, formed from two pairs of united ganglia, situated in the prostomium and united to two sub-oesophageal ganglia in the peristomial segment by dorsal and ventral connectives on each side. The two ventral nerve cords are widely separated and the giant nerve fibres are particularly well developed. 7. The blood system consists of a gut sinus, connected to a ventral vessel by paired ring vessels in each segment. From the ring vessels branches supplying the various organs of each segment arise. The capillaries of these vessels end blindly. Movement of the blood is effected by rhythmic peristaltic contractions of the walls of the vessels. Details of the circulation are described. When the animal retracts within the tube the blood circulation stops. This reversible stoppage of the blood is brought about by the accumulation of carbonic acid. The course of the respiratory currents within the tube is described. 8. The ciliary feeding mechanism of the crown is described, the food consisting of finely divided plankton and detritus. 9. The form of the tube is extremely variable. It is shown to be composed of a glycol-protein of a mucoid nature in which crystals of calcium carbonate in the form of aragonite are deposited. It is formed as a discontinuous secretion from gland cells of the collar region of the peristomial segment. The evidence so far collected points to the sea-water as the source of calcium. 10. The development from the egg to a fully formed trochosphere has been followed. The egg us small with little yolk and development is rapid. 11. A large percentage of the worms is infected by a gregarine parasite and large numbers of a commensal ciliate, Trichodina sp. are present. 12. Experimentally Po,atoceros is found to tolerate a wide variation of temperature and salinity, and is shown to tolerate exposure and coverage by sand to a large extent. 13. The habitat of Pomatoceros coeruleus is described in detail and detailed analysis of the community at Taylor’s Mistake, Banks Peninsula, to which it belongs has been made. The relationship of a number of different species of plants and animals to tidal level and exposure to air is discussed, comparison being made with other surveys. Critical levels for the different species have been detected. Pomatoceros coeruleus is shown to be a dominant organism in the chamaesipho-Mytilus planulatus Association of the littoral rocky shore. The general zonation of the plants and animals on the shore is discussed in relation to tidal level and exposure to wave action. A comparison is made with other surveys carried out in Australia, South Africa, North America and Great Britain. A fundamental basic zonation of typical indicator animal species, common to the temperate regions of the world is recognized. This basic schme is, a Littorina zone, occupying the highest level on the shore followed by a Barnacle zone below with a Laminaria or Kelp zone occupying the sub-littoral fringe.

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  • The "contemporary" aspect of history

    Armour, Kenneth Ian (1948)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Laviase once said to his students: “We who live intellectually in the past should not forget that the majority of men live in the present and are concerned about the future”. It was as one of the majority, rather than of the minority, that I turned to the subject of this text. I had often wondered about the marked hiatus in history between the end of historical narratives and the present time. Indeed, it seemed that history faded away towards the near end of time and that this phenomenon might, from chronological juxtaposition, be associated with another vague aspect of history, the utilitarian present. To read history was, assuredly, to gain the habit of historical thinking, to acquire a sense of the indivisibility of life, to see one’s self and one’s society from the evolutionary point of view, to learn to discriminate between transitory and perpetual values, to become appraised of the need to exercise curiosity towards institutions and compassion towards men, to embrace the aesthetic pleasure of language in high service and, above all, to incline to deem it wise to court every opinion but to hesitate before espousing any one. But these seeming merits, and others that sprang to mind beside them, appeared as attitudes of the intellect that haunted me in the study but became furtive, coy things in the world of practical affairs. So, curious about the river of history where it went underground and thinking that, maybe, it gushed forth somewhere as a spring of living waters, I seized upon the connotations customary to “contemporary history” as covering, more or less, both ends of an interesting field of enquiry. Surprisingly, I found that discursive literature on contemporary history was not to be found. Only two brief articles touched upon the subject and, for the balance, I had to scan all the tests within my reach for a few fleeting references to the problems connected with narration of the last part of the past. Further, to acquire this negative information, I had to scan each book with some care as, in the matter of this neglected subject, indexes were never helpful. And, in addition, I was unable to find amongst my acquaintances anyone who had considered the contemporary aspect of history or who had much inclination so to do. As a consequence of these things this work has emerged as a discourse on “contemporary” history in subordination to history and concerned as much with the genus as the species. Secondary, with little comparative criticism possible on the primary facet of the subject, and with an elaboration of history necessary such as led on to consideration of the narration of its latest period, footnotes are scanty and personal conceptions plentiful. Thirdly, I have had to be content to trace the subterranean flow of the river of history and to set my period near the spring of living waters.

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  • The synthesis of αβγ-trimethylglutaconic acid

    Blakley, R. L. (1946)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The condensation of ethyl β-chloro-α-methylcrotonate with the sodio-derivate of ethyl methyl malonate was attempted as part of a projected synthesis of αβγ-trimethylglutaconic acid, and to test a new general method for the synthesis of β-methyl-αγ-dialkylglutaconic acids.

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  • Relations of government and private enterprise in New Zealand, 1860-1875 : a documentary study.

    Oathout, Evelyn Lewis (1949)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    New Zealand's leadership in “state socialism” is commonly thought of as originating in the 1890's, the period of the Liberal-Labour coalition, though writers on the subject have generally made a passing bow to the 1870’s when Sir Julius Vogel led the young colony out of economic stagnation by means of his program for opening the land with public works and government assisted immigration. In this paper I have undertaken to recount the story of that earlier development, together with its antecedents, as it appeared in those official publications of the successive Parliaments from 1860 to 1875 found in the Appendix to the Journals of the House of Representatives of New Zealand. I have limited my subject by omitting the tremendous question of land policy, although recognizing fully its influence on the state and economy of New Zealand. Too many factors enter into that problem for it to be viewed meaningfully from the economic angle alone. I have sought to record, often in the words of the participants, the relationship between. government and private enterprise however it appeared in the documents. The early years contributed little, since the colony was young, responsible government even younger. Official energies were largely concentrated on land acquisition and attendant difficulties with the Maoris. Permissory acts for corporations and emergency regulations ware typical manifestations of that relationship before 1870. The first extended contact recorded was that between successive administrations and the Bank of New Zealand, in which the former assumed the same position as a private firm of equal economic importance might have assumed toward its banking agent. Government participation in private enterprise fields began with the program of public works of the 1870’s, which testified to a change in administrative concepts; the central government was no longer the arbiter of the economy, but its leader. It built railroads and imported labor, it encouraged diversification and increase of industry, both primary and secondary, it strove to break the power of English monopolies over the colony. Those who have written about New Zealand's history have tended to consider this development an aberration from British economic thought of the nineteenth century, requiring explanation or defense. Two economists who were in a position to influence the colonists, however, distinguished between government in a developed, “overpopulated” country such as England, and administration of the empty spaces of a new land, providing theoretical justification for an active policy in the latter circumstances. Government construction of public works was no innovation in the Australasian colonies. On the continent, the separate colonies had faced the question of private or state railroads already and generally had settled on the latter. New Zealand's own provinces, not private enterprise, had built the colony's original telegraph lines and railroads as their finances permitted. This history of the shift from provincial enterprise to that of the colony as a whole follows.

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  • The catalytic effect of acids in anhydrous acetic acid on the rate of racemization of 1-trans-αγ-dimethylglutaconic acid

    Allison, R. M. (1940)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Glutaconic acid and its derivatives have for many years been studied by Thorpe and co-workers (J.C.S., 1905, 89, 1669; Thorpe and Thole, J. C. S., 1911, 99, 2187; Goss, Ingold and Thorpe, J. C. S., 1923, 129, 1199; etc.) Compounds of this type, containing a mobile hydrogen atom, exhibit three carbon tautomerism, accompanied by geometrical isomerisom. With the unsubstituted acid, migration of the hydrogen atom may or may not lead to interconversion of the cis and trans forms, and when no interconversion occurs the initial and final forms I and II are indistinguishable.

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