51 results for 1950, Masters

  • The improvement of light land under irrigation on the Canterbury Plains

    Moore, John Leslie Neville (1957)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

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  • The election of 1935 in New Zealand.

    Rollo, Carol Gertrude (1950)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Of all the elections in New Zealand's political history, only two qualify for the adjective momentous. In 1890 and in 1935, Governments came to power whose vigour and liberalism were not only to alter the lives of their. contemporaries, but also to make changes that had continual repercussions in this country and echoes in other nations' handling of social problems.

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  • The ultra-violet absorption spectra of certain ketimines and their related ketones

    Kaplan, Isaac R. (1952)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    1. A review has been made of the preparation and properties of ketimines. At present no similar review exists in the chemical literature. 2. A discussion of the process of absorption, with particular reference to the carbonyl group has been offered. This discussion includes certain effects taking place, hyperconjugation being the most relevant to the thesis. 3. A series of diaryl ketones and ketimines have been prepared and studied by ultra violet spectroscopy; four of these compounds ( p-ethyl-, p-iso-propyl-, and p-tert.butyl-benzophenoneimine hydrochlorides, and p-tert.-butyl-benzophenone) have not been prepared before. The preparation and ultra violet absorption study of fenchone and fenchone-imine, have been described. 4. The Hilger Uvispek Spectrophotometer has been described and its limitations, with respect to accuracy, discussed.

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  • The alkaline hydrolysis of some ethyl bromo-1-naphthoates

    Ogilvie, G. S. (1957)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    3 Bromo-1-naphthoic acid, 4-bromo-1-naphthoic acid, 5-bromo-1-naphthoic acid, and their ethyl esters have been prepared. The kinetics of alkaline hydrolysis is ethanol-water (85:15 W/W) of these esters, together with the unsubstituted ester, have been studied, using stainless steel reaction vessels, over the temperature range 25-65°C. Arrhenius frequency factors and energies of activation have been determined. The frequency factors have been shown to be constant within a small experimental error. Relative free energies, heats, and entropies of activation for these hydrolyses have been evaluated and their significance discussed. Hammett substituent constants for the bromo-substituent in the 3, 4, and 5 positions of naphthalene have been calculated and discussed.

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  • An investigation of the effects of multiple spark ignition on performance of a high speed petrol spark ignition engine

    Walters, D. L. (1954)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    At the present time ignition by high tension electric spark is almost universal on high speed reciprocating internal combustion engines other than the compression ignition type. The growing demands for greater efficiency, higher specific power output and increasing speed range with the associated high compression pressures has made greater demands on the ignition system. The modern magneto and coil, having progressed from the early hot wire and hot tube ignition, have been developed to a high stage of efficiency, although other systems have been suggested. Improvements in performance have been noted with dual ignition and this system is standard on aircraft engines, although in this case improved performance is only a secondary consideration to safety. With dual ignition, one set of plugs is connected to the first magneto and the other set to the second magneto, the sparks occurring simultaneously at the two plugs. As a result explosion is propagated from two points in the cylinder. The sparking plugs are usually placed as apart as possible and it was Swaine who suggested that better results might be obtained with sparking plugs placed very close together. As far as the author is aware, no experimental work has been carried out along these lines.

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  • New England whalers in New Zealand waters, 1800-1850

    Canham, P. G. (1959)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    New Zealanders are constantly reminded of their whaling heritage. The numerous gates and arches formed by wholes' jaw-bones, the trypot prominently displayed in Timaru's Caroline Bay, the lingering fame of Dicky Barret in New Plymouth, the legends of the Bay of Islands, and the relics held by every museum, are some of the many remnants which emphasise the role of whaling in New Zealand’s history. Present-day events play their part, too; the continued success of the Tory Channel station, and the visits by Russian and Japanese fleets from the Antarctic, maintain the tradition of New Zealand as a centre of whaling. Possibly it is because of these present day examples that the tradition has become more legendary than factual in nature, for the Tory Channel party, with their fast chasers, and the Russian fleet, with its radar, sonar and helicopters, seem almost divorced from the old methods. Consequently, there has been a tendency to glamourise the men who rowed out after whales, risking death with every stroke, and, if successful, towing the carcass tedious miles back to the trying-works. While bravery and fortitude are always commendable, only the passage of a century could make heroes out of the old-time whalers. In a similar way, legend has distorted the size and significance of the old whaling industry. To take just one example, the editor of the Marsden papers goes out of his way to add to add this comment: "An old settler informed me in the 1880’s", writes Mr. S. Percy Smith, "that he had seen over sixty whale ships at one time anchored in the Kawakawa River opposite Opua".

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  • The paradoxes of strict implication

    Bennett, J.F. (1952)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The problem in logic with which the present work is concerned has its roots in the Principia Mathematica of Whitehead and Russell. The authors of that work define 'p implies q' as 'It is not the case that p is true and q is false’, whence arises the conclusion that a true proposition is implied by any proposition and a false proposition implies any proposition. These paradoxical results have met with protest, and C. L. Lewis of Harvard has attempted to supply a definition of 'p implies q' which is adequate to 'implies' as generally understood.

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  • The alkaline hydrolysis of ethyl 1-naphthoate, ethyl 3-methyl-1-naphthoate and ethyl 4-methyl-1-naphthoate in ethanol-water

    Packer, J. E. (1956)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    3-Methyl-1-naphthoic acid, a compound not previously known, has been prepared. The kinetics of the alkaline hydrolysis of ethyl 1-naphthoate, ethyl 3-methyl-1-naphthoate, and ethyl 4-methyl-1-naphthoate in ethanol-water (85:15 by weight), have been studied at four temperatures, using a titration method; Arrhenius frequency factors and energies of activation have been determined. These values for ethyl 1-naphthoate were found to differ from those of a previous investigator, and the differences have been discussed. Relative free energies, heats, and entropies of activation for the alkaline hydrolysis of ethyl 3-methyl-, 4-methyl-, 2-nitro-, 3-nitro-, 4-nitro-, 5-nitro-, 6-nitro-, 8-nitro-, and 4:5-dinitro-1-naphthoates have been evaluated and their significance has been discussed. Hammett substituent constants for the methyl group in the 3- and 4- positions and for the nitro group in the 3-, 4-, 5- and 6- positions have been calculated.

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  • A microcalorimetric study of the intermediate complexes CdBr+. CuBr+ in aqueous solution

    Tennant, W. C. (1955)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Panckhurst has attempted to explain the observed stability trends for a series of halide complexes in solution with a given metal and also for various complexes with a given halide. He concludes that the stabilities relative to one another are dependent upon the relative magnitudes of the standard heats of formation and standard entropy changes but that the data available is inadequate and often subject to factors which make comparison difficult. In recent years, increasing interest has been shown in the physical chemistry of complex-ion formation. In particular, numerous measurements have been made of the stability constants of complex ions and hence their free energies of formation. If their heats of formation are also known the corresponding entropy changes can, of course, be evaluated. Usually however, either these heats of formation have not yet been determined, or else the only values available are those calculated from stability – constant measurements at more than one temperature. The reliability of such values often seems questionable, primarily because the range of temperatures over which the measurements were made has almost always been too small. It is undoubtedly better to measure the heats of formation calorimetrically, preferably under more or less the same conditions of concentration and ionic strength as those used in the measurement of the stability constants. We here report a microcalorimetric determination of the heats of formation of the complex ions CdBr+ and CuBr+ in aqueous solution. The apparatus and procedure employed are similar to those used previously in this college in work on the lead halide complexes. In the case of the CdBr+ complex we have extended the method to calculate a value of the equilibrium constant which we shall compare with other values from the available literature. We shall attempt in conclusion to throw some further light on the nature of complex species in solution and also to further explain the observed stability trends of these complexes.

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  • The alkaline hydrolysis of the ethyl and methyl esters of 1-naphthoic acid and 2-naphthoic acid

    Wilson, A. F. (1954)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Samples of the ethyl and methyl esters of 1-naphthoic acid and 2-naphthoic acid have been prepared and the kinetics of hydrolysis of these esters have been studied in alkaline solutions over the temperature range 30°C- 60°C. Aqueous methanol was employed as solvent for the methyl esters, and aqueous ethanol for the ethyl esters. Relative reactivities at the 1- and 2- positions as measured by this work are in line with theoretical prediction, and the relative rates of the methyl and ethyl esters have been discussed. Comments have been made on an earlier investigation by Bergmann and Hirshberg of the methyl compounds, the results of which appear to be anomalous. A value for the Hammet σ constant for the fused benzene ring has been derived and has been compared with values calculated by other investigators.

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  • The withdrawal of the British troops from New Zealand, 1864-1870 : a study in Imperial relations

    Hensley, Gerald C. (1957)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The Course of New Zealand history until 1870 was dominated by two themes in counterpoint: one was the Imperial Government’s responsibilities under the treaty of Waitangi, and the protectorate which it felt had then been assumed over the Maoris; the other was the demand which grew up in the Colony for responsible government. The two were incompatible – Imperial control and Colonial self-government could never be reconciled – and their antithesis, rooted in the very foundations of the Colony, was too strong not to cause some strain. The crisis which occurred in 1868 over the withdrawal of the Imperial forces from New Zealand was an accidental event only in its immediate details. In reality it was the culmination of a long process; the last, and certainly the most serious, of the tensions which sprang from that antithesis of forces. It was the culmination because, by marking the end of Imperial responsibilities within the Colony, it resolved a clash which had underlain New Zealand’s erratic constitutional development for thirty years. The proclamation of Imperial authority over New Zealand was immediately and inevitably challenged by the beginnings of agitation for self-government. Henceforth the changing balance between the two was to give the Colony’s politics its distinctive nature, until the gradual transition was completed by the withdrawal crisis and the consequent assumption by the Colony in 1870 of full responsibility for its own affairs. The first of these conflicting themes, in point of time, was the problem of Imperial control. New Zealand had been annexed, not to forestall the French or inflate the Empire, but to protect the Maoris. In the face of inevitable European colonisation, a Crown Colony seemed the only way to safeguard native rights, since it would be controlled by and be solely responsible to Great Britain. Having accepted certain obligations at Waitangi, the Imperial Government felt it essential to have a free hand to fulfil them. In return, it undertook responsibility for the Colony’s defence and, when a native war broke out (as in 1845), for the military operations necessary to restore peace. It was understood that while the Home Government directed the Colony’s affairs and controlled the treatment of the natives, it would bear all the accompanying expense. The only flaw in this system was that, adopted in the interests of the Maoris, it assumed that white settlers would be comparatively few or comparatively uninterested – neither of which was long to remain true. Auckland was the sole place where such a balance of natives and settlers prevailed for any time, and significantly Auckland, as late as 1868, would have liked to return to the Crown Colony system. For full Imperial control meant full Imperial liability, and the North’s regret for this comfortable arrangement lingered on to become an important strand in the withdrawal crisis.

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  • A history of the Canterbury Maoris (Ngaitahu) with special reference to the land question

    Evison, Harry Charles (1952)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    Format: 110, xiv leaves ; 27 cm.

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  • Some new Gregarines

    Fitzgerald, Norman W (1952)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    VOLUME 1: Introduction – Techniques – Enterocystis zwetkowi n.sp. : Description; Development; Reproduction; Effect of parasite on the host; Discussion on the genus Enterocystis – Gregarina botulina n.sp. : Description; Development; Reproduction; Movement; Effect of parasite on the host; Staining reactions and microchemistry – Stenophora pinorum n.sp. : Description; Development; Reproduction – A Gregarine of uncertain systematic position – Ophryocystis marplesi n.sp. : Techniques; Historical and generic account; Attached phase; Lumen-dwelling phase – Summary – Acknowledgement – Literature Cited VOLUME 2: Plates

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  • The alkaline hydrolysis of ethyl 5-nitro-1-naphthoate, ethyl 6-nitro-1-naphthoate and ethyl 4:5-dinitro-1-naphthoate in ethanol-water

    Murdoch, J. D. (1956)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Ethyl 5-nitro-1-naphthoate, ethyl 6-nitro-1-naphthoate, and ethyl 4:5-dinitro-1-naphthoate have been prepared and the kinetics of the alkaline hydrolysis of each of these esters, in 85% ethanol (85:15 ethanol-water, by weight), have been studied over a range of temperatures. In following the kinetics of hydrolysis, a titration method has been used. Energies and entropies of activation for these hydrolysis reactions have been evaluated. Hammett substituent constants for a nitro group in the 4, 5 and 6 positions of 1-substituted naphthalene compounds, and the multiple substituent constant for two nitro groups, (in the 4 and 5 positions), have been calculated from the rate constants of the respective hydrolysis reactions. They have also been calculated from the pKa values of nitro-naphthylammonium ions which have previously been determined by another investigator. The general significance of values of activation energy and entropy, for the alkaline hydrolysis of nitro substituted ethyl 1-naphthoates, has been discussed together with a consideration of Hammett substituent constant for the nitro group in the naphthalene ring.

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  • The dissociation constant of the ion-pair CeSO₄⁺

    Shirlaw, B. J. (1959)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The purpose of the present work is to investigate the association of cerous and sulphate ions in aqueous solution. Electromotive force measurements for the cell [formula here] at various ionic strengths have been used together with a prior knowledge of the dissociation constant of the bisulphate ion, to find the dissociation constant of the ion-pair CeSO₄⁺. By making measurements at varying temperatures derived thermodynamic functions of the ion-pair have been obtained.

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  • Soap flotation of calcite with particular reference to the upgrading of Caversham Sandstone

    MacKenzie, James M.W. (1959)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    The Caversham sandstone forms a large deposit, several hundred feet thick extending over an area of the East coast of the Dunedin district. It is also found outcropping in the Lookout Point area. The high carbonate content of the deposit (40 - 65%) has caused attention to be focussed on the sandstone as a possible source of calcium carbonate. Some time prior to 1865 calcination was attempted in a sandstone quarry near the Kaikorai Valley while in 1865 specimens containing up to 68% carbonate were reported(20). The favourable location of the deposit in relation to the Milburn Lime and Cement Company's cement works at Burnside make it of economic interest to this Company as a potential raw material for cement manufacture. Before the sandstone could be used for this purpose considerable upgrading of the carbonate content would be necessary and modifications to its natural mineral content would be desirable. The two possible methods of doing this are: ( 1) to lightly grind the sandstone and size it to determine whether any of the constituents concentrate in particular size fractions (2) to float the carbonates with an anionic collector and modify the silicate, and perhaps the iron distribution, with a cationic collector. Froth flotation is widely used to produce cement raw materials of the correct chemical composition (2) and in all cases fatty acids or their derivatives are used as anionic collectors. This thesis attempts to explain the action of the more important fatty acids as collectors for calcite and to show how these reagents act as collectors for the carbonate minerals of the Caversham sandstone.

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  • The ports of Otago & Bluff : a geographic comparison and contrast

    Farrant, Alfred E (1952)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    Geography seeks to describe places or areas as entities in themselves as well as in their relations to other places or areas. The complex interaction of Physical and Cultural features combining in varied ways to form dynamic functioning units can be more clearly understood and some clue can be gained as to the causes of differences by arriving at an areal differentiation. The essential geographic character of any place is made more distinctive when it is compared or contrasted with that of any other place. This study in economic geography seeks to describe and in part, account for the character of two ports in the South Island of New Zealand. It is believed that such a comparative account which compares and contrasts the differential character of the ports, thereby gives a fuller understanding of the separate character of each port and its tributary areas, than if the ports are studied separately. Important factors are emphasised when there are contrasts between places, while similarities between them frequently serve to show that they do not necessarily lead to, or are derived from, similar circumstances. Furthermore places do not in fact exist in isolation. They have reciprocal relations with other places and areas. This is undoubtably true of ports wherever they are situated, but especially where adjacent ports such as the Ports of Otago and Bluff serve a common area. There are no insurmountable physical barriers between the ports, and the effects of history, invention, politics, customs and economics are invoked to illustrate how complexes of all or some of these factors have interacted with the physical features of the landscape to give these ports their distinctive present day characters. The economy of New Zealand is directed towards the overseas marketing of a pastoral surplus. This study seeks to show how dependent upon the maintenance of a regular flow of trade are the rural and urban areas of the portion of New Zealand served by these ports. The motto of the Otago Harbour Board, “By Ships We Live”, succinctly describes this situation.

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  • Some correlates of superior academic ability.

    Francis, Ronald David (1959)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    In very general terms the problem is to distinguish some factors associated with intellectual ability. The correlates sought were not thought to exist in any particular region but were sought merely as correlates 'per se'. This might be alternatively expressed by saying that this research was not started with any particular theory in mind. To qualify this last statement although no explicitly formulated theory was delineated it was presumed that both the background and the present qualities of a person join to form the likelihood of a person succeeding at any given task. A third factor, in addition to these two, enters into the problem. The third factor is the situation itself. In this case it was the university situation which for present purposes is fixed. Not only is the situation fixed at present but also is objectively the same for all students, whether sub-or-super-average. No doubt the subjective aspects are of direct relevance in many situations but in the interests of simplicity they lie outside the main scope of this study. We confine ourselves then to those aspects other than the situation. Firstly there can be a section of personal history or back-ground in which main results are tabulated under a series of standard headings. These items can then be subjected to some simple non-parametric statistical technique. By this method one can make a reasonably objective account of the significant items. Regrettably this approach is little used yet it seems to yield the most prolific results for the effort involved. For us this is the main area of interest. Secondly there is the concern with present qualities. In both practice and utility the most fruitful way of approaching this aspect of the problem seems to be through testing. Perhaps the crudest and consequently most acceptable dichotomy we could formulate would be that of cognitive vs personality aspects. Bearing in mind William James' famous dictum on fusion we might fruitfully try to assess the potency of each of these respective categories. By use of the outline above we may find certain factors to be related to academic ability but at the stage of this research they are better expressed as correlates only and little attempt will be made to arrive at the causative factors which mediate these correlates, should any be found to exist.

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  • The Seaports of the South Island of New Zealand : A Comparative Study in Port Geography.

    Ward, Graham (1954)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The study of urban geography has received increasing attention in recent years both in this country and overseas. Its content and method have been recently surveyed, and a considerable amount of research on these lines has been done here in New Zealand. Within this field the geography of ports forms a distinct branch for study since ports themselves are a specialised part of some urban areas. Indeed, over the past few years there has developed an extensive geographical literature dealing with ports. This field, which could be termed 'port geography' has attracted some interest in New Zealand as a subject for research; but in the past, studies of ports have been limited to examinations of individual ports, groups of ports, or one aspect of ports. This present study, however , has been made upon broader lines. It is an attempt to describe, analyse, and compare the most important aspects of the contemporary character of the South Island seaports. It is suggested that the character of a port is derived principally from the nature of its location, site, form or pattern, facilities, trade, hinterland and fishing. Since these are the most important features, they are analysed and described in turn in this thesis. This systematic approach was found necessary in order that significant comparisons and contrasts - which is the essence of geography - might be drawn between the ports. The problem can be expressed in the question: "In what ways do the characters of the South Island seaports differ one from another?" "A port is a place equipped to facilitate the necessary relations between ships as the agencies of sea transport and the land," and provides "terminal facilities and services for ships, and transfer facilities and services for ships, and transfer facilities and services for waterbourne goods and/or passengers." In these general terms there are many places in the South Island of New Zealand which could be considered as ports. However, only those South Island seaports which make returns to the New Zealand Census and Statistics Department have been included in this study; namely , the ports of Waitapu, Motueka, Nelson, Picton, Wairu, Lyttelton, Timaru, Oamaru, Otago, Bluff, Greymouth and Westport. This thesis is based both on fieldwork carried out by the writer during 1953 and the early months of 1954, and on an examination of statistical and other material drawn from a wide variety of sources in Wellington and in South Island centres. All the ports included in the survey were visited in the course of the fieldwork. Section by section land utilisation surveys were made of the port vicinities of the thirteen largest ports from aerial photographs in Head Office, Lands & Survey Department, Wellington, and from actual field investigations. A large number of people were interviewed at the ports and in the towns of their tributary regions. The statistics used in this study have been related as closely as possible to the calendar year 1952 and have been presented in the form of maps, cartograms, and graphs, rather than in a series of tables. The analysis of these diagrams provides the comparative data on which three of the eight chapters are based. Since the majority of the maps have been compiled from numerous sources they have been annotated separately in AppendiX A. All photographs, except those whi ch have been otherwise acknowledged, were taken by the author. All maps and diagrams were also compiled and drawn by the author. A list of the works consulted in the preparation of this thesis are contained in the bibliography.

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  • The treatment of stammering : an interpretation according to a reinforcement theory of learning.

    Goodman, Ailsa Evelyn (1955)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

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