18 results for 1960, VUW ResearchArchive, Masters

  • A History of Niue

    McDowell, David (1961)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    "In the beginning, this island now called Niue was nothing but coral rock (he punga)... There came a god, an aitu, from the south, a god sailed to and fro on the face of the waters. He looked down here and saw far below on the ocean the white punga rock. He let down his hook and hauled the punga up to the surface, and lo! there stood and island!" - John Lupo. The genesis of Niue remains conjectural. The Polynesian calls in a supernatural agency, an aitu from the south, to explain the emergence of the multiplication of corals and algae from the waters of the mid-Pacific to form an island two-hundred feet high, but the story of the god and his line and hook is a local adaptation of a very ancient and widespread fable, as are in varying degrees other Polynesian versions of the birth of the island, Cook advanced two further possibilities in 1777 when he speculated: "Has this Island been raised by an earthquake? Or has the sea receded from it?"

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  • Construction of a thermal demagnetization oven, and investigations on the Matahina ignimbrite

    Hoare, Raymond Allan (1964)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    A non-magnetic oven, and its ancillary equipment have been constructed and used to study magnetic properties of the Matahina ignimbrite, for which the following results have been established: 1. The directions of magnetization do not alter on heating in the oven. 2. The ignimbrite may be divided into sheets on the basis of magnetic properties. 3. Geological faulting has been revealed by divergent magnetization directions. 4. The T.R.M. acquired in the present earth's field is much greater than the N.R.M. This is possibly due to changes in minerals in the rock, either in the field since the rock was deposited, or on heating in the laboratory.

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  • Radiochemical Studies of Hydrogen Exchange in Organic Compounds

    Johnson, Colin Truscott (1962)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    A property of a new or unknown organic compound which must be determined once the empirical formula and molecular weight are known, is the number of active or replaceable hydrogen atoms which the compound contains. These include hydrogen atoms present in amine, hydroxyl, carboxyl and other groups, where the hydrogen is not bound to a carbon atom but to an oxygen, nitrogen or sulphur atom or is in a position where it can ionize. The most general method by which this may be done quantitatively, is the one originally due to Zerewitinoff Zerewitinoff - Berichte 40 2023 (1907) 41 2233 (1908) 42 4802 (1909) 43 3590 (1910) 47 1659 (1914) 47 2417 (1914) and since developed on a micro scale by Roth A. Soltys Mikrochemie 20 107 (1936), Flaschentrager A. Roth Mikrochemie 11 140 (1932), whose method incorporates work by Tschugaeff - Flaschentrager z. Physiol Chem. 146 219 (1923) and the other two authors, and Soltys L. Tschugaeff Berichte 35 3912 (1902), and incorporates many of the latest improvements. This involves the quantatatively evolution of methane from reaction of the Grignard reagent MeMgI on groups such as -SH, -OH, -NH2, -COOH etc., i.e. those groups containing active or replaceable hydrogen atoms. Analysis by this method requires extreme care in technique and exact attention to experimental details. High results are obtained if the solvent or any part of the apparatus contains moisture and the whole determination must be carried out in an atmosphere of nitrogen to avoid reaction of the Grignard reagent with any oxygen present. Low results are obtained if the test solution does not dissolve completely in the chosen solvent and it is essential to carry out a blank prior to each analysis. The proceedure is labourious and painstaking and gives an accuracy of not greater than 5% using 3-5 mgm of organic compound. It also has the disadvantage that the Grignard Reagent will also react with other groups, such as carbonyl, aldehyde, nitrile etc., which may be present. This method cannot be applied to highly water soluble compounds which do not dissolve in ethers or other organic solvents and as the molecular size or complexity of the sample increases, the accuracy of the gasometric reactions becomes less, due to side reactions and incomplete reaction.

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  • Sequent Economies in Kuku: A Study of a Rural Locality in New Zealand

    Wehipeihana, John Rodford (1964)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Today, the majority of travellers journeying in the North Island of New Zealand, from Wellington to points north, e.g. Palmerston North or Wanganui, travel the length of the Horowhenua coastal plain, which sole routeway is bordered by the Tararua foothills to the east and by the Tasman Sea to the west. At a point some 52 miles north of the capital city and approximately 4 miles south of Levin, the motorist passes over a white bridge near which stands a dairy factory, and at a distance, a Maori meeting house. At the end of the mile-long stretch of State highway, an elevated by-pass affords a view of fenced paddocks, closely-cultivated fields, a railway line and a river. (See frontispiece.) As such scenes are common on many lowland pockets of the North Island of New Zealand, they mean little to the average traveller who crosses the Ohau River and pursues his northward course.

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  • Isotope Exchange Kinetics in Clay-Water System

    Furkert, Roderick John (1962)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Knowledge of reactions at solid/liquid and solid/gas interfaces is of great importance in the study of all adsorption phenomena. Techniques that enable a study of molecules (liquid or gaseous) adsorbed onto a surface may be divided into two categories: (a) those that upset the equilibrium between molecules in the gaseous (or liquid) phase above the solid surface and molecules actually adsorbed onto it, and (b) those that do not. Those techniques that do not disturb this equilibrium will give results that would be expected to have greater reliability than those obtained from techniques that upset this equilibrium (for example by heating or by affecting one component of the equilibrium by titration, precipitation etc.) In an endeavour to study the properties of water adsorbed onto various substances such as clay, wool and textile fibres without affecting the equilibrium the technique of isotopic exchange has been developed. Essentially the procedure is to take a closed adsorber system in equilibrium with a gas (or liquid), part of which is in the sensitive region of a geiger counter, and to add a very small amount of radioactively labelled gas (or liquid) to the system. The adsorber is placed in the bottom of a geiger counter out of the sensitive volume and a known fraction of gas (or liquid) is in the sensitive volume. As the system is at equilibrium there is continuous exchange between the adsorbed molecules on the sample and the molecules in the gaseous (or liquid) state. Thus, when a very small amount, by weight, of the radioactively labelled gas (or liquid) is added to the system, exchange will take place with the non-radioactive molecules adsorbed on the surface of the material under study. Thus radioactivity will be removed from the sensitive volume of the geiger counter and adsorbed onto the surface of the material, and so the specific activity (count rate), as measured with the geiger counter, will drop. The advantage of this technique is that the equilibrium between the adsorbed molecules and the free gas (or liquid) is not disturbed. The actual amount of radioactive material added is so minute that there is no effective change in the concentration of the free gas (or liquid).

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  • The Coordination Chemistry of Some Sulphur-Nitrogen Ligands

    Galyer, Allen Lee (1969)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Some nickel(II) and copper(II) complexes of 2-(benzylthio)ethylamine have been isolated and characterised with respect to infrared and electronic spectra. With nickel(II) only the bis salts were obtained and they were all paramagnetic. An investigation of the nickel(II) and copper(II) complexes of three tetradentate ligands, each containing two sulphur and two nitrogen donor atoms, has been made. One of these, 1,9-diamino 3,7-dithianonane has been compared to the nitrogen analogue, 1,9-diamino 3,7-diazanonane. Attempts to bridge and cyclise complexes using reactions of acetone with coordinated amino groups and halides with coordinated thiol groups are also reported. Finally a novel S-detritylation reaction is discussed.

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  • The Effects of Trace Metal Cations on the High Temperature Reactions of an Halloysite Mineral

    Maciver, Susan Margaret (1965)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    This thesis describes a kinetic study of the high temperature solid state reactions of a well characterized halloysite mineral and five of its cation-saturated forms, the cations used being sodium, calcium, manganese, copper and iron (Ill). The reaction sequence may be represented by the idealised equations: The formation of mullite from metakaolinite has been studied in the temperature range 1020° - 1200°C, by X-ray analysis. Comparison of the experimental data with several theoretical models suggests that up to 90% conversion the reaction takes place by exponential nucleation followed by crystal growth. There is, however, some evidence for diffusion occurring as a rate controlling process, especially at high degrees of conversion to mullite. The rate constants and experimental thermodynamic functions have been evaluated for all halloysite samples. The free energies of activation (111-128 k cal.mole-1) and the rate constants are independent of the starting materials, but the enthalpies of activation (51-118 k cal.mole-1) and the entropies of activation (0 to -50 cal.deg.-1 mole-1) are not.

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  • Systematic studies on the Holothuroidea of the New Zealand region

    Pawson, David Leo (1961)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    A systematic account of the holothurians of the New Zealand region is given, together with diagnoses of orders, families, sub-families, genera and species. The report is based on a total of 970 specimens, which comprise 18 genera, including Mensamariella n.g., and 25 species, including Protankyra rigida, Chiridota alleni, Chiridota mortenseni, Neothyonidium armatum, and Trachythyone squamata, spp.nov. Genera and species known in the fauna, but not encountered during the course of the present study, are diagnosed, and their systematic positions and distribution patterns are briefly considered. The distribution of known holothurians within the New Zealand region is discussed, as also are the external relationships and ultimate derivation of the group. The taxonomic state of the Class as a whole is indicated, and comments are made on the reliability of systematic characters within each group, together with some suggestions for modification and possible improvement of the present-day situation.

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  • The Alkaline solvolysis of allyl bromide in alcohol-water solvents

    Donald, Valda Hilary (1963)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    The rate of the alkaline solvolysis of allyl bromide has been measured in various ethanol-water and methanol-water mixtures. This has been found to increase with increase in solvent polarity. An attempt was made to explain this behaviour in terms of partial ionisation of the substrate. It has been suggested that in nucleophilic substitution the individual specific rate constants for attack by alkoxide or hydroxide ions are a better indication of solvent effects than the apparent overall rate constant.

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  • Selected facets of the fishing industry (early 1963)

    McCann, Ewen Bruce Macpherson (1963)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Consumer demand, retail distribution and the export trade are important aspects of the New Zealand Commercial Fishery which are outside the specific boundaries of this enquiry. It is a study in government intervention, price negotiation and supply. In analysing these three facets of the industry it was impossible to ignore the other three so they have been treated incidentally where a discussion of them was necessary to understand the central theme. There is scope for additional research into each of the above topics, perhaps more especially into administrative decision making when non economic objectives are involved and also into the optimum scale of plant given the cost conditions that apply to the industry. However, it is hoped that this essay goes part of the way towards meeting the need for fundamental economic research into an industry which periodically attracts the attention of the public, policy makers and Government. Parliament has set up three committees in the past twenty-six years to examine the industry.

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  • Dairying in the Wairarapa: A Socio-Economic Survey Interpreted in Terms of Historical Small Farm Settlement

    Hambly, Raymond Ernest (1966)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    The term "Wairarapa" is often used today to define all the area east of the North Island axis ranges, from Woodville southwards to Palliser Bay, but this is not the historical context in which the name is used in this essay. Being in large measure an historical interpretation of dairying in terms of small farm settlement, the present work refers to the Wairarapa as that area in which small farm settlements had been established prior to 1873 and which was known at the time as the Wairarapa. On this basis the Wairarapa is defined as that area east of the Tararua and Rimutaka Ranges from Mauriceville south. Since most dairying within this delimited zone has traditionally been located on the "Wairarapa Lowland", the unity of the survey area is established by all except the northernmost portion of the "Mauriceville Settlement", being within the catchment of the Ruamahunga River. The Mauriceville Settlement has been included because, although one of the "Forty Mile Bush" Settlements, its historical associations have traditionally been with the Wairarapa Lowland rather than with the other "Bush Settlements" further to the north.

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  • Hyperfine Interactions in Organic Fragments

    Bailey, John Patrick Macarthur (1965)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    This thesis, the first thesis in theoretical chemistry submitted for the degree of Master of Science at Victoria University of Wellington, has been designed to illustrate two alternative approaches to theoretical studies. The first five chapters illustrate the modern use of operator methods; the last two are concerned mainly with molecular orbital calculations for large organic molecules, using a giant high speed electronic computer. I am deeply indebted to Mr Keith Morris, of the Applied Mathematics Division, Department of Scientific and Industrial Research, for his generous and highly competent help in writing computing programs, and operating computers, at all odd hours of the day and night, for the calculations in this thesis. I would also like to thank Dr R.M. Golding, for useful discussions, and the Director, Applied Mathematics Division, Department of Scientific and Industrial Research, for making computing facilities available.

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  • Bush Frontier: North Taranaki, 1841-1860: A Study in Economic Development

    Quin, Brian Gerard (1966)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    If it needs a justification, this account is an attempt to fill in what I consider to be a gap in the story of New Zealand's economic development. A considerable amount of research has been done on the economic development of the pastoral and gold-mining districts of New Zealand; but the story of settlement in the bush areas, particularly in the period before 1860, has been relatively neglected. The Otago and Canterbury centenaries of 1948 and 1950 provoked a spate of writing on the early development of those provinces which still continues. On the other hand the Taranaki centenary of 1941, possibly because it occurred during war-time, went by almost unmarked by any commemorative publishing. Further, although events of the first two decades of European settlement in Taranaki have been often described in New Zealand history books, any treatment of economic development has usually been scanty and usually directed towards explaining the origins of the war between the Maoris and the European settlers that broke out in 1860. The main emphasis in the ensuing description has been given to the economy of the European community. This is simply because the quantity and quality of the material available allows the European economy to be described in more detailed fashion than the Maori economy.

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  • Tritium Incorporation From Tritium Water as an Index of Metabolism

    Mann, Liam Robert Butland (1964)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    In part A of this thesis, the aim has been to answer the questions "why do seeds not germinate at low temperatures?" More fully, the question could be framed "What metabolic aberration(s) prevents seeds from germination under conditions which are suitable for germination except that the temperature is too low?" Chemists are all familiar with the rule of thumb that reaction rates halve for every 10 °drop in temperature. Seed germination is an extreme exception to that rule. Seeds will germinate in a few days at 20° but at 0° or 5° most species fail to germinate even after many weeks.

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  • Experimental and Theoretical Investigations of a Ferrous / Ascorbate Complex

    Dickson, Margaret Lockhart (1966)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    The importance of trace metal ions in biological processes has been known for some time, but the role of chelating molecules in the human body is a comparatively new and interesting field of research Schubert, j., 1966, Scientific American, 214, no. 5, 40. Among the important complexes occuring in the body are haemoglobin, containing iron, and vitamin B-12, containing cobalt, both essential to human health. Other well-known naturally occuring complexes include cytochrome oxidase, containing both iron and copper, and chlorophyll, containing magnesium. The transition metal ions of the First Transition Series are well-known for their ability to form complexes with suitable ligands, and in particular with chelate ligands which can seize the metal ion like a claw (chele means claw in Greek). Many of these complexes have been characterized experimentally, and their properties interpreted by theoretical calculations. However, the complexes arising from biological systems are much more difficult to study, partly because of their greater size and special properties.

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  • The General Election of 1943

    Daniels, John Richard Sinclair (1961)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    This thesis deals with the two most striking aspects of New Zealand's wartime politics; the effect of the war, and particularly the public pressure for political unity that it generated, on party politics and the growth between 1940 and 1943 of various new political movements. The election is obviously the focal point in developments on these subjects. By renewing the Labour Government's mandate it enabled the already dead question of political unity to be decently buried, and by eliminating the small parties it ensured an immediate return to the two-party system. Therefore the main interest in the 1943 election is not in its place in the development of electoral trends in the nineteen-thirties and forties, but in the culmination of political developments that were a direct result of the war.

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  • Crown Liability in Tort in New Zealand

    Neazor, Daniel Paul (1967)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Direct review by the Courts (e. g . by prerogative writs) of Executive acts and decisions generally provides the individual citizen with a means of overcoming for the future the adverse effects of such decisions and actions, but it does not provide any means of compensating him for detriments to his interests already caused . Such detriments will generally be those which have accrued in full by the time the decision is reviewed but may in some cases be of a continuing nature, e. g . where, because of refusal of a licence, a business opportunity is lost. Tort actions against the State on the other hand, will allow the Courts not only to examine the actions of State servants, and determine whether they conform with the Courts' view of the proper behaviour of officials but also, and principally, to compensate the individual citizen whose interests have been affected by State action. Such actions may thus furnish an indirect means of control of the Executive as well as a means of compensation for injury.

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  • The Politics of Development: A Study of the Structure of Politics from 1870 to 1890

    Armstrong, Warwick Robert (1960)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    This thesis is the result not of any specific idea gained from a general study of the period under review; rather it is based upon the research and work done on an earlier project, a provincial history of Taranaki, which, concentrating mainly on the eighteen-seventies, culminated in the abolition struggle and the years immediately following. However, the detailed study of the provincial economy, its politics in both the provincial and central government spheres, and the political attitudes of the local press, accompanied by a general coverage of the politics of the central government throughout the decade, led to the conclusion that in one province at least, the politics of the period were economically based - around the focal point of Sir Julius Vogel's 1870 public works and immigration policy. From this gradually evolved the concept that economic development and material progress were the issues of greatest importance in the politics of the seventies; they were the prime cause of provincialist jealousies and parochialism, while, in the sphere of central government, Vogelism became the issue on which newly-formed groupings aligned themselves. To see if this concept had validity, the first thing which had to be done was to extend research to get a wider understanding of colonial and provincial economic and political developments, as well as cover the main provincial newspapers for editorial and public opinion throughout the country.

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