1,603 results for 1970

  • Accounting for thinking with reference to the deaf

    Long, D. S. (1975)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Faced with an apparent conflict between two approaches to the teaching of deaf children : (i) that we should teach deaf children a language so that they can think, and (ii) that we should teach deaf children to think so that they can then acquire a language - I have examined the assumptions about thinking assumed by these two schools of thought. Reductionists hold that thinking is nothing but such things as inner speech (they identify thinking with its expression). Duplicationists argue that this is an inadequate explication of the concept of thinking (that it is only half the story) and they argue that thinking is something else as well as its expression. If successful Duplicationism becomes an objection to Reductionism. Unfortunately it results in an infinite regress. A third alternative account of thinking (Ryle's Adverbial account) regards thinking as an adverbial characterization: thinking is the way or circumstances in which we perform certain diverse and neutral (vis-a-vis thinking) activities. By such an account the elements of thinking which Duplicationists accuse Reductionist of ignoring become conditional dispositions. I argue that they should be regarded as categorical dispositional ascriptions. Additionally Ryle assumes a "process" account of thinking when in point of fact an "episodic" account is required. The thesis concludes by arguing that we need an ontology sufficiently large to take in all the aspects of thinking and that in turn this will generate not one precept but a matrix of precepts for the education of the deaf.

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  • Performance measurement and optimization of an implementation of stage2 in B6700 algol

    Naguleswaran, M. (1977)

    Discussion / Working Papers
    University of Canterbury Library

    Program optimization is the process of changing the organization of a software systems so as to optimize resource utilization. When the program to be optimized is an application program rather than a systems program, the factors to be optimized are very much simplified and usually involves, in priority order i) CPU time ii) I/0 processor time iii) storage requirement This project involved making performance measurements on a particular software, namely STAGE2 macroprocessor and on the strength of the information thus gained, change the organization of the software so as to produce an optimal version.

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  • Palaeolimnological studies on Lake Maratoto, North Island, New Zealand

    Green, John D. (1979)


    University of Waikato

    The Middle Waikato (or Hamilton) Basin is a promising area for studies of the postglacial history of Northern New Zealand. The major geomorphological features of the basin were developed in the last 40,000 years, mainly by aggradation of the ancestral Waikato River (Mccraw 1967, Hume et al 1975) and in the process a number of peat bogs and small lakes were formed which now provide suitable locations for palaeoclimatic and palaeoecological investigations. Four pollen diagrams from peats in the area have been published (Harris 1963, McGlone et al 1978) which show similar features to diagrams from elsewhere in the North Island (McGlone and Topping 1979) but there have been no comparable studies of sediments from the lakes.

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  • The spectra of transition-metal ions in solids

    Johnstone, I.W. (1975)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The results of an investigation of the Raman and infrared spectra of cobaltous ions in cadmium-chloride, cadmium-bromide, and manganese-chloride, and of cobalt-chloride are presented. The cobalt ions substitute for the cation in these crystals and experience a trigonal crystal-field which splits the lowest ⁴T₁g (⁴F) cubic-field term into six Kramers doublets with energies in the range 0-1200 cm⁻¹. The Raman spectra, measured as a function of temperature and of cobalt concentration show all five single ion electronic transitions together with several lines due to cobalt ion pairs. The infrared spectra comprise both magnetic-dipole allowed electronic transitions and electric-dipole allowed vibronic lines and bands. They confirm the identity of the electronic transitions seen by Raman scattering and also yield information concerning the lattice modes of the host and the possible interactions within cobalt ion pairs. The strong field matrices of the trigonal crystal-field and Zeeman interactions are calculated for the d³ (d⁷) configuration and quantitatively explain the experimental data. The crystal-field analysis provides single ion wavefunctions for further calculations which successfully explain the spectra of antiferromagnetic CoCl₂ and exchange coupled colbalt pairs in CdCl₂ (Co²⁺) and CdBr₂ (Co²⁺). A preliminary investigation of the infrared absorption of an oxygen-induced impurity site in CdCl₂-type crystals is also presented.

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  • Upper atmospheric studies using radio meteors

    Wilkinson, Philip James (1973)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The atmospheric motions in the 80-110 km height region, and methods of measuring them are discussed. Wind measurements using radio meteor trails are then considered in greater detail and an account is given of the equipment at the field station of the Physics Department of Canterbury at Rolleston near Christchurch, as well as details of the data reduction methods used. An analysis of the errors associated with the collection of data indicates that approximately half the variance in an average of wind velocities observed in a thirty minute period is due to atmospheric variability. Results from the first year's observations suggest that the solar diurnal and semidiurnal tides are of roughly the same magnitude, this magnitude being in agreement with the latitudinal variations observed at other stations.

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  • The group theory of the harmonic oscillator with applications in physics.

    Haskell, T. G. (1972)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The possibility of the group SU₃ being used in the description of the (d+s)N and (d+s)npm many-electron complexes is examined by symmetrization of the Coulomb Hamiltonian. By dividing the Coulomb interaction into symmetry conserving and symmetry violating terms it is found that while the SU₃ scheme tends to give a better description in the (d+s)N case it shows no improvement over the configurational scheme in the (d+s)npm complex. The scheme is, however, very useful for the calculation of matrix elements of operators normally found in atomic spectroscopy and a complete set of symmetrized , scalar, Hermitian spin-independent two particle operators acting within (d+s)npm configurations is constructed. The radial wavefunctions of the harmonic oscillator are found to form a basis for the representations of the group 0(2,1) in the group scheme Sp(6,R) ⊃ S0(3) x 0(2,1). The operators Tkp = r2k are shown to transform simply under the action of the group generators. The matrix elements of Tkq and a selection rule similar to that of Pasternack and Sternheimer are derived. Finally the rich group structure of the harmonic oscillator is investigated and a dynamical group proposed which contains, as subgroups, the groups Sp(6,R), SU(3), H₄ and the direct product 0(2,1) x S0(3). Some remarks are made about contractions of groups, semidirect and direct products, and the generalization of the method to n-dimensions.

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  • Workers' perceptions of industry, and their commitment to their union

    Coup, Owen (1974)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    In the field of industrial sociology, little research has been done which views industry and the organisations associated with it, from the worker's perspective. There is agreement among those associated with the field in this country, that very little is known about the attitudes, perceptions and expectations that the New Zealand industrial worker has of industry, employer and job. It is important that research be done on the worker's views, since this would establish a better basis for our industrial relations policy. The present research was designed as an exploratory study, to examine workers' perceptions of their industry, their relationship with their employer, and their union. Essentially, there were two specific points considered. The first was an examination of the adequacy of Marxian theory as an explanation for the relationship that exists between employer and worker in the New Zealand industrial setting. The second was a preliminary analysis of the validity of a model, which attempts to predict the commitment of workers to their union, on the basis of certain preconditions which are outlined as a series of five stages. The research consisted of interviews with workers sampled from two unions in the Christchurch area. The analysis of the data did not use any sophisticated statistical techniques, since these were not appropriate for a preliminary study, or the size of the sample involved. The conclusions reached on the first point were, that although these workers do display certain characteristics that would be expected on the basis of a Marxian perspective, they also have other characteristics (notably an awareness of the interdependence of worker and employer), which Marxian theory cannot explain adequately. With regard to the model, the trends that it predicts definitely occur in this data, but the model does not account for all factors affecting the commitment of union members. It needs refinement and further, more rigorous, testing, before any final conclusion can be reached regarding its validity. As is appropriate for an exploratory study, a considerable number of suggestions for further research have been generated.

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  • Solid state spectroscopy : rare earth - hybride centres in the alkaline earth fluorides

    Jacobs, I.T. (1971)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Both the optical and infrared spectra of cerium and praseodymium tri-positive ions in the alkaline earth fluorines have been studied. Various charge compensation mechanisms have been employed including negative hydride, deuteride and tritide ions. For the hydride centres the degenerate local mode lines are resolved into more than one component. These splittings are attributed to electron-phonon interaction effects between the low lying rare earth 4f electronic states and the hydride ion local mode phonons. The 4f-5d electronic transitions of the cerium hydride type centres show large isotope shifts up to 50 cm⁻¹. Only the non-degenerate hydride ion vibration appears in the 4f-5d optical spectra and the vibrational interval is increased from absorption to fluorescence by as much as 15%. Both the isotope and vibronic shifts for the tetragonal cerium sites are attributed to electron-phonon interaction effects. Simple models involving point charges and point dipoles account in a semi-quantitative way for several features of the spectra but fail to account for either the sign or magnitude of the isotope and vibronic shifts.

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  • Upper atmospheric studies : some observations of the south tropical OI airglow phenomenon

    Malcolm, Roger K. (1972)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    An account is presented of a series of observations of the dynamic behaviour of a region of the south tropical airglow·arcs made from Rarotonga (Lat. 21.2° south, long. 159.8° west) with the aid of a large aperture (90 cms), high resolution (½° beamwidth) scanning photometer. The night airglow is found to be strongly disturbed on many nights, characteristically by elliptical areas of lower than normal intensity drifting in an easterly direction. It was possible to associate their passage with the occurrence of 'spread-F' as observed by the Rarotongan ionosonde. An attempt is made to account for the airglow processes; suggestions are made concerning the possible origin of the disturbances; and their presence is examined in the light of the trans-equatorial propagation of V.H.F. signals from Hawaii, as recorded at Rarotonga.

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  • Solid state spectroscopy : the electron paramagnetic resonance spectra of gadolinium anderbium ions in hydrogenated alkaline earth fluoride crystals

    Edgar, A. (1974)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The Electron Paramagnetic Resonance technique has been used to study alkaline earth fluoride crystals doped with both hydride and gadolinium (or erbium) ions, and the spin Hamiltonian parameters have been determined for the various kinds of charge-compensated rare earth ion site which occur. In particular, two sites of tetragonal symmetry with the structures RE³⁺-FI⁻, RE³⁺-HI⁻ have been examined, and small shifts in the EPR spectra of the latter site have been measured when a deuteride or tritiide ion replaces the hydride ion. A crystal lattice model of point charges and point dipoles at distorted lattice sites predicts a value of the crystal field parameter B₀² for the tetraqonal sites which is only one half of that estimated from the observed spectra, but the model successfully accounts for the larger value of B₀² for the RE³⁺-HI⁻ site compared with the RE³⁺-FI⁻ site on the basis of the larger polarisability of the H⁻ ion. Isotope shifts are interpreted by the electron phonon interaction between the 4f electrons of the rare earth ion and the localised mode of vibration of the light anion. The magnitudes of the shifts, calculated on a point charge/point dipole model, are in good agreement with experiment. The reorientation of the tetragonal Gd³⁺-HI⁻ sites has been examined by EPR line broadening and dielectric loss techniques. No distinct dielectric loss peak corresponding to this site was observed, and it is proposed that it cannot be distinguished from that for Gd³⁺-FI⁻ sites. An interstitialcy model for the reorientation has been investigated and is found to be consistent with this explanation and with the observation of a metastable Gd³⁺-HS⁻-FI⁻ site in u.v. irradiated calcium fluoride.

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  • Some studies of the theory and application of continuous groups in atomic spectroscopy

    Cunningham, M.J. (1971)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    This thesis is concerned with the representation theory of continuous groups both compact and non-compact and its application to atomic spectroscopy. In Chapter I some atomic wavefunctions for equivalent electrons in the group scheme SU2 x (U2l+1 R2l+1 R3) are constructed in terms of electron fermion creation and annihilation operators. The concept of semiconjugacy is defined and shown to reduce the number of states that must be explicitly calculated. The states of the d shell are calculated and tabulated. In Chapter II it is shown how to extract n-body cfp's associated with arbitrary auxiliary quantum numbers from the n-body generalisation of Redmond's formula. The method is applied to give explicit formulae for the squares of one body cfp's of the atomic d-shell. Group theory is applied in Chapter III to extend the quasiparticle formalism developed by Armstrong and Judd to expose the complete group structure of the eigenfunctions of the equivalent electron l shell. A simple method for relating quasiparticle states to determinantal states and for calculating quasiparticle matrix elements is developed. The need for fractional parentage coefficients in calculating these matrix elements is eliminated. In Chapter IV the technique and formalism is extended to describe general mixed configurations. The hydrogen atom is factorised according to the scheme 0(4,2) 0(2,1) x 0(3) in Chapter V and the radial group 0(2,1) studied. It is shown that rkD n/(n+q) , where Da is a dilatation operator, is proportional to a tensor operator in this scheme, allowing a group theoretical study of the radial matrix element rk, including an explanation of the Pasternack and Sternheimer selection rule. The technique is extended in Chapter VI to solve a differential equation directly related to the generalised Kepler equation of Infeld and Hull in an 0(2,1) x 0(3) group scheme. This equation contains as special cases the Schrodinger, Klein-Gordan, and Dirac (two forms) hydrogen atoms. A generalised Pasternack and Sternheimer selection rule exists and some matrix elements can be evaluated group theoretically.

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  • Erwin Strittmatter in reference to the agarian novel of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries

    Gebbie, Ian William (1978)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    This study deals with two aspects of German literature: the agrarian novel from the early nineteenth century to National Socialism, and a comparison of capitalist and socialist ideology, using the works of the DDR author Erwin Strittmatter. In the first part of the thesis, chosen works are analysed with the aim of establishing a pattern of bourgeois idealism and of tracing its development in reference to the changing historical background. The political implications of the nationalist transformation and radicalisation of the conservative agrarian ideology, which grew up as a middle-class reaction to the emergence of modern industrial Germany, are illustrated by the combination of the heroic and the idyllic in fascist literature. The second part deals with the socialist agrarian novel, which is discussed, in the light of Marxist theory, as a departure from the conservative model, and in relation to different political ideals and objectives. Three agrarian novels of Erwin Strittmatter Ochsenkutscher, Tinko and Ole Bienkopp - are examined in detail as the basis for contrast with capitalist doctrine and for observations on the role of literature in the DDR. The concluding chapter illustrates how, in the established East German state of the 1960's, the disregard for the demands of authority, which is a feature of Strittmatter's Ole Bienkopp, indicates a return to the traditional pattern of bourgeois idealism within the confines of socialist morality.

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  • Atmospheric physics : electron density variations in the mesosphere

    Wratt, D.S. (1974)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The theory of the differential absorption and differential phase experiments is examined, and it is found that the differences in predicted electron densities due to different hypothetical reflection processes are in general no larger than experimental uncertainties. Results of differential absorption and differential phase measurements are compared. It is found that electron densities in the mesosphere above Christchurch can be affected by energetic particle precipitation. Evidence is also found for increases in electron concentration associated with a stratospheric warming, but apart from this there is no clear evidence for stratosphere-ionosphere coupling above Christchurch. Model studies show that much of the variation over time scales of four days or more above Christchurch could be accounted for by vertical transport of nitric oxide. However, other results make it likely that other processes, such as variations in loss rate, are also important.

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  • A data abstraction model

    Ridwan, M. M.; Loy, Z. (1978)

    Reports
    University of Canterbury Library

    An abstract model, called the data abstraction model, is proposed, and the basic DATAM constructs and representations are presented. The use of DATAM in the modelling and representation of the enterprise view of data is described. The expressiveness of the data abstraction model is illustrated with examples and the capabilities of a DATAM model in subview formation and in evolution are considered. DATAM provides a basis for the analysis of data models and analyses of the relational and network models are discussed.

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  • A tool for measuring the effectiveness of university computing services

    Chen, M (1978)

    Discussion / Working Papers
    University of Canterbury Library

    The primary aim of this project is to develop a general tool for use in such a comparative investigation. In this process, a pilot study carried out at the University of Canterbury tested hypotheses about user characteristics, the nature of man-computer interaction, and the overall formulation of the tool.

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  • The poetic novels of Thomas Hardy and George Meredith

    Pyke, Allen Francis (1973)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Criticism of the novels of Thomas Hardy (1840-1928) and George Meredith (1828-1909) has often concerned itself with the philosophy of, and biographical elements behind, the works. Because of this, Hardy's novels have often been considered largely as examples or inconsistently rendered theses on fatalism set in a rural framework, whilst those of Meredith as pretentious, obscure drawing-room comedies of love. Yet few critics refrain from acknowledging a qualified, largely undefined, greatness in these novels. Very little close textual analysis of these novels has yet been undertaken, and in this thesis four novels by each of these writers is to be subjected to a close textual analysis. The aim of this examination is to demonstrate that the use of language in these works is closer to that of poetry than that of conventional novels. Not only is meaning conveyed by a poetic use of language but the novels are structured poetically and a poetic vision informs them, so that the ultimate aim of this thesis is to prove that the novels of Thomas Hardy and George Meredith are essentially poetic. Whilst the "poetic" twentieth century novel seems to earn immediate critical acceptance, a general reluctance to acknowledge earlier examples of this form of novel seems to be common. Concentrating on one particular novel by each of these authors I hope to illustrate first its poetic qualities, then show how these are apparent in their other works, and finally I shall very briefly indicate the importance of their contribution to the development of “the poetic novel.”

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  • The veil removed : reality, ideality and dream in the later works of Robin Hyde

    Sharplin, Janscie Elizabeth (1971)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

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  • Short term economic load allocation : a report

    Turner, Michael Duncan (1971)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The method of equal incremental cost of received power is well established as a means or determining the most economic distribution of active power, while satisfying the power system load demand, subject to generation and water constraints. This report considers the concepts and implications of the method, in applying it to part, or all, of the New Zealand Power System. A digital computer program, developed as part of this report, is described which implements the method on a model of the South Island subsystem of the New Zealand Power System and provided the necessary computational experience to evaluate some of the important aspects of economic scheduling with this method.

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  • On invariant means and applications to ergodic theory and harmonic analysis

    Renaud, Peter Francis (1971)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    This thesis is concerned with the existence and properties of invariant means on certain Banach spaces and their applications to ergodic theory and harmonic analysis. The principal results obtained are as follows. Let G denote either a a-compact, unimodular amenable group or a countable, cancellative semigroup realized homomorphically by measure preserving transformations on a measure space (x, S, μ ) via the maps x → xg. Then there exists an increasing sequence {Sn} in G such that for all f ∊ Lp (X), 1 ⩽ p < ∞ the limit [equation here] exists in the mean of order p and almost everywhere. If G is an amenable topological semigroup then it has been shown by H.A. Dye that the ergodic mixing theorem is valid for G. It is proved that the amenability condition can be entirely removed and a mixing theorem is obtained, valid for arbitrary topological semigroups. The idea of an invariant mean can be dualized to invariant means on the von Neumann algebra of a group. The existence and in general non-uniqueness of such means is proved. The group von Neumann algebra is also used to show that a classical theorem of Bochner may be rephrased so as to become valid for arbitrary amenable groups rather than Abelian groups.

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  • Nonrecursive digital image restoration

    McDonnell, M. J. (1975)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The problem of digitally restoring blurred images is considered. The subject of image restoration is reviewed in detail and a comprehensive notation for image restoration is developed. Degraded images are divided into classes G and S - those which are and are not respectively truncated by their recording frames. It is shown that conventional restoration techniques only work well for images of class S. Restoration techniques for dealing with class G images are presented, as well as improved techniques for dealing with class S images. These new techniques are shown to be both efficient and practical through the use of computer simulations, and through the restoration of optically degraded images. The problem of designing an optimum nonrecursive digital filter array of a given number of elements is solved in both one and two dimensions. It is demonstrated that this new design method is superior to previous techniques. A sampling theory appropriate for deconvolution problems is presented. New sampling functions are introduced, in both one and two dimensions, which overcome the "picket fence" effect associated with the sine sampling function. The concept of a "line-segment-limited" function is defined. It is shown that a pseudo noise level is introduced by the approximation that the point spread function is line-segment-limited. It is this pseudo noise level, and not aliasing errors, that restricts the choice of a sampling rate less than the Nyquist rate. New criteria are presented which allow the choice of a sampling rate considerably less than the Nyquist rate.

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